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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745334

RESUMO

This report describes an outbreak of Elizabethkingia miricola in northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and three other species of frogs and toads held in captivity in Germany. The authors examine several treatment options and underline the difficulties in treating larger numbers of individuals with antimicrobials applied through bathing. Whole genome sequencing of three bacterial isolates emphasizes their relatedness to other frog isolates and leads us to conclude that E. miricola is an emerging and difficult to treat pathogen with a broad host range across anuran species. Moreover, ambiguities in identification of flavobacteria associated with disease in frogs reported in the literature make it seem possible that E. miricola has been overlooked as an anuran pathogen in the past.

2.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751552

RESUMO

The mechanisms of linezolid resistance among 13 E. faecalis and 6 E. faecium isolates, recovered from six Spanish hospitals during 2017-2018, were investigated. The presence of acquired linezolid resistance genes and mutations in 23S rDNA and in genes encoding for ribosomal proteins was analyzed by PCR and amplicon sequencing. Moreover, the susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the respective molecular background was elucidated by PCR-amplicon sequencing and whole genome sequencing. The transferability of the linezolid resistance genes was evaluated by filter-mating experiments. The optrA gene was detected in all 13 E. faecalis isolates; and one optrA-positive isolate also carried the recently described cfr(D) gene. Moreover, one E. faecalis isolate displayed the nucleotide mutation G2576T in the 23S rDNA. This mutation was also present in all six E. faecium isolates. All linezolid-resistant enterococci showed a multiresistance phenotype and harbored several antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as many virulence determinants. The fexA gene was located upstream of the optrA gene in 12 of the E. faecalis isolates. Moreover, an erm(A)-like gene was located downstream of optrA in two isolates recovered from the same hospital. The optrA gene was transferable in all but one E. faecalis isolates, in all cases along with the fexA gene. The cfr(D) gene was not transferable. The presence of optrA and mutations in the 23S rDNA are the main mechanisms of linezolid resistance among E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. We report the first description of the cfr(D) gene in E. faecalis. The presence of the optrA and cfr(D) genes in Spanish hospitals is a public health concern.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11123, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636426

RESUMO

The presence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC ß-lactamase (pAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/pAmpC-EC) in livestock is a public health risk given the likelihood of their transmission to humans via the food chain. We conducted whole genome sequencing on 100 ESBL/pAmpC-EC isolated from the broiler production to explore their resistance and virulence gene repertoire, characterise their plasmids and identify transmission events derived from their phylogeny. Sequenced isolates carried resistance genes to four antimicrobial classes in addition to cephalosporins. Virulence gene analysis assigned the majority of ESBL/pAmpC-EC to defined pathotypes. In the complex genetic background of ESBL/pAmpC-EC, clusters of closely related isolates from various production stages were identified and indicated clonal transmission. Phylogenetic comparison with publicly available genomes suggested that previously uncommon ESBL/pAmpC-EC lineages could emerge in poultry, while others might contribute to the maintenance and dissemination of ESBL/pAmpC genes in broilers. The majority of isolates from diverse E. coli lineages shared four dominant plasmids (IncK2, IncI1, IncX3 and IncFIB/FII) with identical ESBL/pAmpC gene insertion sites. These plasmids have been previously reported in diverse hosts, including humans. Our findings underline the importance of specific plasmid groups in the dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes within the broiler industry and across different reservoirs.

4.
Heliyon ; 6(6): e04070, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613099

RESUMO

Surface disinfectants are regularly used in prophylactic and infection control measures. Concern has been raised whether residues of sub-inhibitory disinfectant concentrations may constitute a selective pressure and could contribute to the development of strains which are tolerant and/or resistant to biocides including antibiotics. The current study investigated whether Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC® 29213™ and ATCC® 6538™ would change their growth characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles after prolonged treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). NaOCl is a fast-acting disinfectant with a broad-spectrum activity, inexpensive and widely used in healthcare and the food production industry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for NaOCl was determined by broth macrodilution according to the guidelines for disinfectant efficacy testing provided by the German Veterinary Medical Society. Serial passages after 24 h and 72 h, respectively, in defined sub-inhibitory concentrations of NaOCl resulted in a number of phenotypic variants. Two of these variants, derived from S. aureus ATCC® 29213™, showed elevated MICs of oxacillin and were considered as in vitro-generated borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA). Transmission electron microscopy revealed a significantly thickened cell wall in these isolates, a phenomenon that has also been described for Listeria monocytogenes after low-level exposure to NaOCl. Whole genome sequencing revealed an early stop codon in the gene coding for the GdpP protein and thereby abolishing the function of this gene. GdpP represents a phosphodiesterase that regulates gene expression, and loss of function of the GdpP protein has been described in association with borderline oxacillin resistance. Our findings suggest that a mutation in the GdpP protein gene and morphological changes of the cell wall were induced by repeated exposure to sub-lethal NaOCl concentrations, and most likely accounted for a BORSA phenotype in two variants derived from S. aureus ATCC® 29213™.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.

6.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456543

RESUMO

This study aimed at determining the mechanisms of linezolid resistance and the molecular characteristics of clinical Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 15) isolates obtained from four Spanish hospitals. The detection of linezolid resistance mechanisms (mutations and acquisition of resistance genes) was performed by PCR/sequencing. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile was determined, and the isolates were typed by different molecular techniques. Moreover, the genetic environment of the cfr gene was determined by whole-genome sequencing. The cfr gene was detected in one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that also displayed the amino acid change Val118Ala in the ribosomal protein L4. The second S. aureus isolate was methicillin susceptible and showed different alterations in the ribosomal protein L4. All remaining linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14) and Staphylococcus hominis isolates (n = 1) showed the mutation G2576T (n = 14) or C2534T (n = 1) in the 23S rRNA. Moreover, different amino acid changes were detected in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 in S. epidermidis isolates. All S. epidermidis isolates belonged to the multilocus sequence type ST2. Linezolid-resistant staphylococci (LRS) showed a multiresistance phenotype, including methicillin resistance that was detected in all isolates but one, and was mediated by the mecA gene. The cfr gene in the MRSA isolate was located together with the fexA gene on a conjugative 38,864 bp plasmid. Linezolid- and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis ST2 showing mutations in the 23S rRNA and in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 are spread among Spanish hospitals, whereas LRS carrying acquired linezolid resistance genes are rarely detected.

7.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108631, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273010

RESUMO

This work aimed at characterizing four Staphylococcus aureus and 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), recovered from the air and liquid manure tank of two swine farms with intensive- and semi-extensive-production types, for their antimicrobial resistance pheno-/genotypes and their virulence gene content. Molecular typing was performed by spa typing, MLST, agr typing, and SCCmec typing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments were performed to assess the transferability of the linezolid resistance gene cfr, and its genetic environment was determined by Whole-Genome-Sequencing. The four S. aureus (intensive-production farm, IP-farm) were typed as t011-agrI-CC398-ST398, were scn-negative and two of them were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) with the mecA gene (SCCmec-V). Multidrug resistance was seen in 87 % of the CoNS. Statistically significant differences among the antimicrobial resistance rates of CoNS from the two farms were observed for cefoxitin, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eight methicillin-resistant CoNS, which were recovered from the IP-farm, carried the mecA gene. One S. simulans isolate was PVL-positive and three S. cohnii eta-positive. One S. equorum and one S. arlettae showed linezolid resistance and carried the cfr gene (IP-farm), which was non-transferable by conjugation into S. aureus. The cfr genetic context in both isolates was identical, with the lsa(B) gene located upstream of cfr. The environment of swine farms might contribute to the dissemination of CoNS that show multidrug resistance and harbor important virulence factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Coagulase , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108600, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122605

RESUMO

Based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), correct classifications as susceptible, intermediate or resistant are challenging for some antimicrobial agent-bacterial species combinations. In this study, we investigated 19 equine Staphylococcus aureus isolates for their susceptibility to the combination sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) by using broth microdilution (BMD), agar disk diffusion (DD) and automated test systems. To elucidate the presence of the corresponding genetic resistance properties among the isolates, whole genome sequence analysis was performed and the genomes were screened for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance genes and mutations in the deduced FolP amino acid (aa) sequences, known to confer sulfonamide resistance. To check for hetero-resistance, zone diameters in DD were screened after 18 and 42 h of incubation. All 19 isolates harboured one of the TMP resistance genes dfrG or dfrS1. Three isolates had an aa exchange in their FolP aa sequence (F17L), which has previously been described to result in sulfonamide resistance. These isolates were classified as SXT-resistant by all methods. The remaining 16 isolates were classified as SXT-susceptible or -intermediate (BMD and/or DD) or SXT-resistant (mainly automated test systems). None of the isolates had relevant aa variations in their FolP aa sequences. All 19 isolates showed slight growth within their SXT inhibition zone by DD, pointing towards hetero-resistance. Overall, automated test systems classified isolates lacking genetic resistance determinants more frequently as SXT-resistant than DD and BMD. Therefore, further studies are needed to define a reliable method for SXT susceptibility testing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cavalos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(7)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054701

RESUMO

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strain 13-13613, isolated from a case of canine pyoderma. The draft genome contains 2,533,486 bp in 570 contigs.

10.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919152

RESUMO

Clostridium limosum can be found in soil and the intestinal tract of animals. In 2014, C. limosum was isolated from a suspected blackleg outbreak in cattle in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. We present a complete genome sequence of a C. limosum strain represented by a circular chromosome and three plasmids.

11.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 22: 28-31, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, C10004 and C10009, were recovered from air samples of a Spanish swine farm and comprehensively characterized. METHODS: Detection of linezolid resistance mechanisms (mutations and acquisition of resistance genes) was performed by PCR/sequencing. Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and analysis of the genetic environment of the linezolid resistance genes. The characterization of isolate C10009 was performed by Whole-Genome-Sequencing and of isolate C10004 by PCR and amplicon sequencing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments to assess the transferability of the optrA and poxtA genes implicated in linezolid resistance were performed. RESULTS: The linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates C10004 and C10009, assigned to ST128 and ST437, respectively, harbored the optrA and poxtA genes. Neither mutations in the 23S rRNA nor in the genes for the ribosomal proteins L3, L4 and L22 were detected. C10004 and C10009 carried fourteen and thirteen antimicrobial resistance genes, respectively. The sequence alignment indicated that the genetic environment of the poxtA gene was identical in both isolates, with a downstream-located fexB gene. The poxtA gene was transferred by conjugation together with the fexB gene, and also with tet(M) and tet(L) in the case of isolate C10004. The optrA gene could not be transferred. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of the poxtA gene in Spain. The presence of poxtA- and optrA-carrying E. faecium isolates in air samples represents a public health concern, indicating an involvement of swine farms in the spread of linezolid-resistant bacteria.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849886

RESUMO

Strategies to reduce economic losses associated with post-weaning diarrhea in pig farming include high-level dietary zinc oxide supplementation. However, excessive usage of zinc oxide in the pig production sector was found to be associated with accumulation of multidrug resistant bacteria in these animals, presenting an environmental burden through contaminated manure. Here we report on zinc tolerance among a random selection of intestinal Escherichia coli comprising of different antibiotic resistance phenotypes and sampling sites isolated during a controlled feeding trial from 16 weaned piglets: In total, 179 isolates from "pigs fed with high zinc concentrations" (high zinc group, [HZG]: n = 99) and a corresponding "control group" ([CG]: n = 80) were investigated with regard to zinc tolerance, antimicrobial- and biocide susceptibilities by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In addition, in silico whole genome screening (WGSc) for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as well as biocide- and heavy metal tolerance genes was performed using an in-house BLAST-based pipeline. Overall, porcine E. coli isolates showed three different ZnCl2 MICs: 128 µg/ml (HZG, 2%; CG, 6%), 256 µg/ml (HZG, 64%; CG, 91%) and 512 µg/ml ZnCl2 (HZG, 34%, CG, 3%), a unimodal distribution most likely reflecting natural differences in zinc tolerance associated with different genetic lineages. However, a selective impact of the zinc-rich supplemented diet seems to be reasonable, since the linear mixed regression model revealed a statistically significant association between "higher" ZnCl2 MICs and isolates representing the HZG as well as "lower ZnCl2 MICs" with isolates of the CG (p = 0.005). None of the zinc chloride MICs was associated with a particular antibiotic-, heavy metal- or biocide- tolerance/resistance phenotype. Isolates expressing the 512 µg/ml MIC were either positive for ARGs conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, or harbored no ARGs at all. Moreover, WGSc revealed a ubiquitous presence of zinc homeostasis and - detoxification genes, including zitB, zntA, and pit. In conclusion, we provide evidence that zinc-rich supplementation of pig feed selects for more zinc tolerant E. coli, including isolates harboring ARGs and biocide- and heavy metal tolerance genes - a putative selective advantage considering substances and antibiotics currently used in industrial pork production systems.

13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540335

RESUMO

The detection of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a challenge to both, veterinary and human laboratories. Between 2015 and 2017, 19 equine S. aureus with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations for oxacillin were detected in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study was to characterize these isolates to identify factors possibly associated with the BORSA phenotype. All S. aureus were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). A quantifiable ß-lactamase activity assay was performed for a representative subset of 13 isolates. The WGS data analysis of the 19 BORSA isolates identified two different genomic lineages, sequence type (ST) 1 and ST1660. The core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) revealed a close relatedness of all isolates belonging to either ST1 or ST1660. The WGS analysis identified the resistance genes aadD, dfrG, tet(L), and/or blaZ and aacA-aphD. Phenotypic resistance to penicillins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in the respective isolates. For the penicillin-binding proteins 1-4, amino acid substitutions were predicted using WGS data. Since neither transglycosylase nor transpeptidase domains were affected, these alterations might not explain the BORSA phenotype. Moreover, ß-lactamase activity was found to be associated with an inducible blaZ gene. The lineage-specific differences regarding the expression profiles were noted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Cavalos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 235-240, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827394

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida is an important respiratory tract pathogen in intensive livestock farming, especially in pigs. Antimicrobial agents are frequently used to combat infections caused by this pathogen. In a study on antimicrobial resistance among respiratory tract pathogens of pigs from 30 German pig-producing farms, P. multocida isolates (n = 9) with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 16/304 mg/L (n = 2), 32/608 mg/L (n = 3) or ≥64/1216 mg/L (n = 4) for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1:19) and of ≥512 mg/L (n = 9) for trimethoprim (TMP) were detected in three of these farms. The genetic relatedness of the isolates was investigated via capsule-specific PCR and macrorestriction analyses with ApaI and SmaI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed indistinguishable restriction patterns per farm, with slight differences between the three farms. All isolates represented capsular type A. Four representative isolates, that were subjected to whole genome sequencing, shared the multi-locus sequence type (ST) 3. Their plasmids were transformed into E. coli TOP10 with subsequent selection on TMP-containing agar plates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and plasmid analysis of the transformants confirmed that they were resistant to sulfonamides and trimethoprim and carried only a single small plasmid. This plasmid was completely sequenced and revealed a size of 6050 bp. Sequence analyses identified the presence of a resistance gene cluster comprising the genes sul2-ΔstrA-dfrA14-ΔstrA-ΔstrB. Further analysis identified a dfrA14 gene cassette being integrated into the strA reading frame. Neither the gene dfrA14 nor this gene cluster have been detected before in P. multocida.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Fazendas , Alemanha , Gado/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Família Multigênica , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Plasmídeos/genética , Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Virulence ; 10(1): 194-206, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829556

RESUMO

Streptococcus canis is a zoonotic agent that causes serious invasive diseases in domestic animals and humans, but knowledge about its pathogenic potential and underlying virulence mechanisms is limited. Here, we report on the ability of certain S. canis isolates to form large bacterial aggregates when grown in liquid broth. Bacterial aggregation was attributed to the presence and the self-binding activity of SCM, the M protein of S. canis, as evaluated by bacterial sedimentation assays, immunofluorescence- and electron microscopic approaches. Using a variety of truncated recombinant SCM fragments, we demonstrated that homophilic SCM interactions occur via the N-terminal, but not the C-terminal part, of the mature M protein. Interestingly, when incubated in human plasma, SCM forms soluble protein complexes comprising its known ligands, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and plasminogen (Plg). Co-incubation studies with purified host proteins revealed that SCM-mediated complex formation is based on the interaction of SCM with itself and with IgG, but not with Plg or fibrinogen (Fbg), well-established constituents of M protein-mediated protein complexes in human-associated streptococci. Notably, these soluble, SCM-mediated plasma complexes harbored complement factor C1q, which can induce complement breakdown in the periphery and therefore represent another immune evasion mechanism of SCM.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Aderência Bacteriana , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Streptococcus/fisiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Ligação Proteica
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834392

RESUMO

The draft genome sequences of three Streptococcus suis isolates, IMT40343, IMT40201, and IMT40738, are presented here. These isolates were obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy and diseased weaners from different German piglet-producing farms and differed in their susceptibility to penicillin.

17.
Gut Pathog ; 10: 43, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337962

RESUMO

Background: In the current study, nine foodborne "Locus of Enterocyte Effacement" (LEE)-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were selected for whole genome sequencing and analysis for yet unknown genetic elements within the already known LEE integration sites selC, pheU and pheV. Foreign DNA ranging in size from 3.4 to 57 kbp was detected and further analyzed. Five STEC strains contained an insertion of foreign DNA adjacent to the selC tRNA gene and five and seven strains contained foreign DNA adjacent to the pheU and pheV tRNA genes, respectively. We characterized the foreign DNA insertion associated with selC (STEC O91:H21 strain 17584/1), pheU (STEC O8:H4 strain RF1a and O55:Hnt strain K30) and pheV (STEC O91:H21 strain 17584/1 and O113:H21 strain TS18/08) as examples. Results: In total, 293 open reading frames partially encoding putative virulence factors such as TonB-dependent receptors, DNA helicases, a hemolysin activator protein precursor, antigen 43, anti-restriction protein KlcA, ShiA, and phosphoethanolamine transferases were detected. A virulence type IV toxin-antitoxin system was detected in three strains. Additionally, the ato system was found in one strain. In strain 17584/1 we were able to define a new genomic island which we designated GIselC 17584/1. The island contained integrases and mobile elements in addition to genes for increased fitness and those playing a putative role in pathogenicity. Conclusion: The data presented highlight the important role of the three tRNAs selC, pheU, and pheV for the genomic flexibility of E. coli.

18.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 308(8): 1085-1095, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115547

RESUMO

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a cause of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). While O157:H7 is the dominant EHEC serotype, non-O157 EHEC have emerged as serious causes of disease. In Germany, the most important non-O157 O-serogroups causing one third of EHEC infections, including diarrhea as well as HUS, are O26, O103, O111 and O145. Interestingly, we identified EHEC O-serogroups O26 and O111 in one single sequence type complex, STC29, that also harbours atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). aEPEC differ from typical EHEC merely in the absence of stx-genes. These findings inspired us to unravel a putative microevolutionary scenario of these non-O157 EHEC by whole genome analyses. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the maximum common genome (MCG) of 20 aEPEC (11 human/ 9 bovine) and 79 EHEC (42 human/ 36 bovine/ 1 food source) of STC29 identified three distinct clusters: Cluster 1 harboured strains of O-serogroup O111, the central Cluster 2 harboured only O26 aEPEC strains, while the more heterogeneous Cluster 3 contained both EHEC and aEPEC strains of O-serogroup O26. Further combined analyses of accessory virulence associated genes (VAGs) and insertion sites for mobile genetic elements suggested a parallel evolution of the MCG and the acquisition of virulence genes. The resulting microevolutionary model suggests the development of two distinct EHEC lineages from one common aEPEC ancestor of ST29 by lysogenic conversion with stx-converting bacteriophages, independent of the host species the strains had been isolated from. In conclusion, our cumulative data indicate that EHEC of O-serogroups O26 and O111 of STC29 originate from a common aEPEC ancestor and are bona fide zoonotic agents. The role of aEPEC in the emergence of O26 and O111 EHEC should be considered for infection control measures to prevent possible lysogenic conversion with stx-converting bacteriophages as major vehicle driving the emergence of EHEC lineages with direct Public Health consequences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Evolução Molecular , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Animais , Bovinos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli O157/patogenicidade , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967026

RESUMO

The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-3 is globally disseminated in both Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas species, with the latter potentially serving as a reservoir for this gene. Here, we investigated the prevalence of mcr-3 in rectal swabs from humans, in food-producing animals and their products, and in the aquatic environment, and we investigated the genetic relationships between the mcr-3-positive isolates. An enriched broth screening method was used to detect mcr-3 in samples, and species identification of isolates from positive samples was carried out by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and shotgun sequencing. All mcr-3-positive isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, conjugation, and whole-genome sequencing. Ten Aeromonas isolates, including 2 from human rectal swabs, 1 from pork, 3 from chicken meat, and 4 from the aquatic environment, were positive for mcr-3, but only 2 showed resistance to colistin. In addition to the mcr-3 variants identified previously (the novel variants were termed mcr-3.13 to mcr-3.18), all isolates harbored mcr-3-like genes downstream of the mcr-3 variants. The MCR-3.13 to MCR-3.18 proteins exhibited only 89.2% to 96.1% amino acid identity to the original MCR-3 protein. Whole-genome sequence analysis indicated diversity within the genetic environments of mcr-3-positive Aeromonas isolates and possible transmission between different sources in China and even worldwide. Close relationships between mcr-3-positive and mcr-3-negative Aeromonas isolates suggested that mcr-3 might be common in Aeromonas species, which are not inherent hosts of mcr-3 but may act as an important reservoir of this mobile colistin resistance gene.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , China , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Prevalência , Suínos/microbiologia , Água , Microbiologia da Água , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
20.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 308(7): 890-898, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937391

RESUMO

Bacteriophages play an important role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. A phage-mediated transfer of stx-genes to atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) which are prevalent in different hosts, would convert them to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). We decided to confirm this hypothesis experimentally to provide conclusive evidence that aEPEC isolated from different mammalian hosts are indeed progenitors of typical EHEC which gain the ability to produce Shiga-Toxin by lysogeny with stx-converting bacteriophages, utilizing the model phage Φ3538 Δstx2::cat. We applied a modified in vitro plaque-assay, using a high titer of a bacteriophage carrying a deletion in the stx2 gene (Φ3538 Δstx2::cat) to increase the detection of lysogenic conversion events. Three wild-type aEPEC strains were chosen as acceptor strains: the murine aEPEC-strain IMT14505 (sequence type (ST)28, serotype Ont:H6), isolated from a striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in the surrounding of a cattle shed, and the human aEPEC-strain 910#00 (ST28, Ont:H6). The close genomic relationship of both strains implies a high zoonotic potential. A third strain, the bovine aEPEC IMT19981, was of serotype O26:H11 and ST21 (STC29). All three aEPEC were successfully lysogenized with phage Φ3538 Δstx2::cat. Integration of the bacteriophage DNA into the aEPEC host genomes was confirmed by amplification of chloramphenicol transferase (cat) marker gene and by Southern-Blot hybridization. Analysis of the whole genome sequence of each of the three lysogens showed that the bacteriophage was integrated into the known tRNA integration site argW, which is highly variable among E. coli. In conclusion, the successful lysogenic conversion of aEPEC with a stx-phage in vitro underlines the important role of aEPEC as progenitors of EHEC. Given the high prevalence and the wide host range of aEPEC acceptors, their high risk of zoonotic transmission should be recognized in infection control measures.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/patogenicidade , Lisogenia/genética , Toxina Shiga/genética , Animais , Bacteriófagos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Camundongos
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