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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 947-958, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668704

RESUMO

Human-specific duplications at chromosome 16p11.2 mediate recurrent pathogenic 600 kbp BP4-BP5 copy-number variations, which are among the most common genetic causes of autism. These copy-number polymorphic duplications are under positive selection and include three to eight copies of BOLA2, a gene involved in the maturation of cytosolic iron-sulfur proteins. To investigate the potential advantage provided by the rapid expansion of BOLA2, we assessed hematological traits and anemia prevalence in 379,385 controls and individuals who have lost or gained copies of BOLA2: 89 chromosome 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion carriers and 56 reciprocal duplication carriers in the UK Biobank. We found that the 16p11.2 deletion is associated with anemia (18/89 carriers, 20%, p = 4e-7, OR = 5), particularly iron-deficiency anemia. We observed similar enrichments in two clinical 16p11.2 deletion cohorts, which included 6/63 (10%) and 7/20 (35%) unrelated individuals with anemia, microcytosis, low serum iron, or low blood hemoglobin. Upon stratification by BOLA2 copy number, our data showed an association between low BOLA2 dosage and the above phenotypes (8/15 individuals with three copies, 53%, p = 1e-4). In parallel, we analyzed hematological traits in mice carrying the 16p11.2 orthologous deletion or duplication, as well as Bola2+/- and Bola2-/- animals. The Bola2-deficient mice and the mice carrying the deletion showed early evidence of iron deficiency, including a mild decrease in hemoglobin, lower plasma iron, microcytosis, and an increased red blood cell zinc-protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio. Our results indicate that BOLA2 participates in iron homeostasis in vivo, and its expansion has a potential adaptive role in protecting against iron deficiency.

2.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674007

RESUMO

The genotype-first approach has been successfully applied and has elucidated several subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it requires very large cohorts because of the extensive genetic heterogeneity. We investigate the alternate possibility of whether phenotype-specific genes can be identified from a small group of patients with specific phenotype(s). To identify novel genes associated with ASD and abnormal head circumference using a phenotype-to-genotype approach, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 67 families with ASD and abnormal head circumference. Clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants account for 23.9% of patients with microcephaly or macrocephaly, and 81.25% of those variants or genes are head-size associated. Significantly, recurrent pathogenic mutations were identified in two macrocephaly genes (PTEN, CHD8) in this small cohort. De novo mutations in several candidate genes (UBN2, BIRC6, SYNE1, and KCNMA1) were detected, as well as one new candidate gene (TNPO3,) implicated in ASD and related neurodevelopmental disorders. We identify genotype-phenotype correlations for head-size-associated ASD genes and novel candidate genes for further investigation. Our results also suggest a phenotype-to-genotype strategy would accelerate the elucidation of genotype-phenotype relationships for ASD by using phenotype-restricted cohorts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659027

RESUMO

Short tandem repeats (STRs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) are important sources of natural and disease-causing variation, yet they have been problematic to resolve in reference genomes and genotype with short-read technology. We created a framework to model the evolution and instability of STRs and VNTRs in apes. We phased and assembled 3 ape genomes (chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan) using long-read and 10x Genomics linked-read sequence data for 21,442 human tandem repeats discovered in 6 haplotype-resolved assemblies of Yoruban, Chinese, and Puerto Rican origin. We define a set of 1,584 STRs/VNTRs expanded specifically in humans, including large tandem repeats affecting coding and noncoding portions of genes (e.g., MUC3A, CACNA1C). We show that short interspersed nuclear element-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retrotransposition is the main mechanism for distributing GC-rich human-specific tandem repeat expansions throughout the genome but with a bias against genes. In contrast, we observe that VNTRs not originating from retrotransposons have a propensity to cluster near genes, especially in the subtelomere. Using tissue-specific expression from human and chimpanzee brains, we identify genes where transcript isoform usage differs significantly, likely caused by cryptic splicing variation within VNTRs. Using single-cell expression from cerebral organoids, we observe a strong effect for genes associated with transcription profiles analogous to intermediate progenitor cells. Finally, we compare the sequence composition of some of the largest human-specific repeat expansions and identify 52 STRs/VNTRs with at least 40 uninterrupted pure tracts as candidates for genetically unstable regions associated with disease.

4.
Science ; 366(6463)2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624180

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) are subject to stronger selective pressure than single-nucleotide variants, but their roles in archaic introgression and adaptation have not been systematically investigated. We show that stratified CNVs are significantly associated with signatures of positive selection in Melanesians and provide evidence for adaptive introgression of large CNVs at chromosomes 16p11.2 and 8p21.3 from Denisovans and Neanderthals, respectively. Using long-read sequence data, we reconstruct the structure and complex evolutionary history of these polymorphisms and show that both encode positively selected genes absent from most human populations. Our results collectively suggest that large CNVs originating in archaic hominins and introgressed into modern humans have played an important role in local population adaptation and represent an insufficiently studied source of large-scale genetic variation.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants disruptive to CHD8 (which codes for the protein CHD8 [chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 8]) are among the most common mutations revealed by exome sequencing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent work has indicated that CHD8 plays a role in the regulation of other ASD-risk genes. However, it is unclear whether a possible shared genetic ontology extends to the phenotype. METHODS: This study (N = 143; 42.7% female participants) investigated clinical and behavioral features of individuals ascertained for the presence of a known disruptive ASD-risk mutation that is 1) CHD8 (CHD8 group) (n = 15), 2) a gene targeted by CHD8 (target group) (n = 22), or 3) a gene without confirmed evidence of being targeted by CHD8 (other gene group) (n = 106). RESULTS: Results indicated shared features between the CHD8 and target groups that included less severe adaptive deficits in communication skills, similar functional language, more social motivation challenges in those with ASD, larger head circumference, higher weight, and lower seizure prevalence relative to the other gene group. CONCLUSIONS: These similarities suggest broader genetic ontology accounts for aspects of phenotypic heterogeneity. Improved understanding of the relationships between related disruptive gene events may lead us to improved understanding of shared mechanisms and lead to more focused treatments for individuals with known genetic mutations.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4233, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530812

RESUMO

We present a high-quality de novo genome assembly (rheMacS) of the Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) using long-read sequencing and multiplatform scaffolding approaches. Compared to the current Indian rhesus macaque reference genome (rheMac8), rheMacS increases sequence contiguity 75-fold, closing 21,940 of the remaining assembly gaps (60.8 Mbp). We improve gene annotation by generating more than two million full-length transcripts from ten different tissues by long-read RNA sequencing. We sequence resolve 53,916 structural variants (96% novel) and identify 17,000 ape-specific structural variants (ASSVs) based on comparison to ape genomes. Many ASSVs map within ChIP-seq predicted enhancer regions where apes and macaque show diverged enhancer activity and gene expression. We further characterize a subset that may contribute to ape- or great-ape-specific phenotypic traits, including taillessness, brain volume expansion, improved manual dexterity, and large body size. The rheMacS genome assembly serves as an ideal reference for future biomedical and evolutionary studies.

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(4): 294-305, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although habituation is one of the most ancient and fundamental forms of learning, its regulators and its relevance for human disease are poorly understood. METHODS: We manipulated the orthologs of 286 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) with or without comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically in Drosophila neurons, and we tested these models in light-off jump habituation. We dissected neuronal substrates underlying the identified habituation deficits and integrated genotype-phenotype annotations, gene ontologies, and interaction networks to determine the clinical features and molecular processes that are associated with habituation deficits. RESULTS: We identified >100 genes required for habituation learning. For 93 of these genes, a role in habituation learning was previously unknown. These genes characterize ID disorders with macrocephaly and/or overgrowth and comorbid ASD. Moreover, individuals with ASD from the Simons Simplex Collection carrying damaging de novo mutations in these genes exhibit increased aberrant behaviors associated with inappropriate, stereotypic speech. At the molecular level, ID genes required for normal habituation are enriched in synaptic function and converge on Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) signaling. Both increased Ras/MAPK signaling in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons and decreased Ras/MAPK signaling in cholinergic neurons specifically inhibit the adaptive habituation response. CONCLUSIONS: Our work supports the relevance of habituation learning to ASD, identifies an unprecedented number of novel habituation players, supports an emerging role for inhibitory neurons in habituation, and reveals an opposing, circuit-level-based mechanism for Ras/MAPK signaling. These findings establish habituation as a possible, widely applicable functional readout and target for pharmacologic intervention in ID/ASD.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 380(15): 1421-1432, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease, or congenital aganglionosis, is a developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system and is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates and infants. The disease has more than 80% heritability, including significant associations with rare and common sequence variants in genes related to the enteric nervous system, as well as with monogenic and chromosomal syndromes. METHODS: We genotyped and exome-sequenced samples from 190 patients with Hirschsprung's disease to quantify the genetic burden in patients with this condition. DNA sequence variants, large copy-number variants, and karyotype variants in probands were considered to be pathogenic when they were significantly associated with Hirschsprung's disease or another neurodevelopmental disorder. Novel genes were confirmed by functional studies in the mouse and human embryonic gut and in zebrafish embryos. RESULTS: The presence of five or more variants in four noncoding elements defined a widespread risk of Hirschsprung's disease (48.4% of patients and 17.1% of controls; odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.19 to 6.46). Rare coding variants in 24 genes that play roles in enteric neural-crest cell fate, 7 of which were novel, were also common (34.7% of patients and 5.0% of controls) and conferred a much greater risk than noncoding variants (odds ratio, 10.02; 95% CI, 6.45 to 15.58). Large copy-number variants, which were present in fewer patients (11.4%, as compared with 0.2% of controls), conferred the highest risk (odds ratio, 63.07; 95% CI, 36.75 to 108.25). At least one identifiable genetic risk factor was found in 72.1% of the patients, and at least 48.4% of patients had a structural or regulatory deficiency in the gene encoding receptor tyrosine kinase (RET). For individual patients, the estimated risk of Hirschsprung's disease ranged from 5.33 cases per 100,000 live births (approximately 1 per 18,800) to 8.38 per 1000 live births (approximately 1 per 120). CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients in our study, Hirschsprung's disease arose from common noncoding variants, rare coding variants, and copy-number variants affecting genes involved in enteric neural-crest cell fate that exacerbate the widespread genetic susceptibility associated with RET. For individual patients, the genotype-specific odds ratios varied by a factor of approximately 67, which provides a basis for risk stratification and genetic counseling. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Penetrância , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaau6947, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854422

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that closely related species can accumulate substantial genetic and phenotypic differences despite ongoing gene flow, thus challenging traditional ideas regarding the genetics of speciation. Baboons (genus Papio) are Old World monkeys consisting of six readily distinguishable species. Baboon species hybridize in the wild, and prior data imply a complex history of differentiation and introgression. We produced a reference genome assembly for the olive baboon (Papio anubis) and whole-genome sequence data for all six extant species. We document multiple episodes of admixture and introgression during the radiation of Papio baboons, thus demonstrating their value as a model of complex evolutionary divergence, hybridization, and reticulation. These results help inform our understanding of similar cases, including modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and other ancient hominins.

11.
PLoS Genet ; 15(3): e1008075, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917130

RESUMO

Human chromosome 15q25 is involved in several disease-associated structural rearrangements, including microdeletions and chromosomal markers with inverted duplications. Using comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization, strand-sequencing, single-molecule, real-time sequencing and Bionano optical mapping analyses, we investigated the organization of the 15q25 region in human and nonhuman primates. We found that two independent inversions occurred in this region after the fission event that gave rise to phylogenetic chromosomes XIV and XV in humans and great apes. One of these inversions is still polymorphic in the human population today and may confer differential susceptibility to 15q25 microdeletions and inverted duplications. The inversion breakpoints map within segmental duplications containing core duplicons of the GOLGA gene family and correspond to the site of an ancestral centromere, which became inactivated about 25 million years ago. The inactivation of this centromere likely released segmental duplications from recombination repression typical of centromeric regions. We hypothesize that this increased the frequency of ectopic recombination creating a hotspot of hominid inversions where dispersed GOLGA core elements now predispose this region to recurrent genomic rearrangements associated with disease.


Assuntos
Inversão Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Animais , Autoantígenos/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Evolução Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Rearranjo Gênico , Variação Genética , Proteínas da Matriz do Complexo de Golgi/genética , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Primatas/genética , Recombinação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Cell ; 176(4): 743-756.e17, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735633

RESUMO

Direct comparisons of human and non-human primate brains can reveal molecular pathways underlying remarkable specializations of the human brain. However, chimpanzee tissue is inaccessible during neocortical neurogenesis when differences in brain size first appear. To identify human-specific features of cortical development, we leveraged recent innovations that permit generating pluripotent stem cell-derived cerebral organoids from chimpanzee. Despite metabolic differences, organoid models preserve gene regulatory networks related to primary cell types and developmental processes. We further identified 261 differentially expressed genes in human compared to both chimpanzee organoids and macaque cortex, enriched for recent gene duplications, and including multiple regulators of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling. We observed increased activation of this pathway in human radial glia, dependent on two receptors upregulated specifically in human: INSR and ITGB8. Our findings establish a platform for systematic analysis of molecular changes contributing to human brain development and evolution.

13.
Cell ; 176(3): 663-675.e19, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661756

RESUMO

In order to provide a comprehensive resource for human structural variants (SVs), we generated long-read sequence data and analyzed SVs for fifteen human genomes. We sequence resolved 99,604 insertions, deletions, and inversions including 2,238 (1.6 Mbp) that are shared among all discovery genomes with an additional 13,053 (6.9 Mbp) present in the majority, indicating minor alleles or errors in the reference. Genotyping in 440 additional genomes confirms the most common SVs in unique euchromatin are now sequence resolved. We report a ninefold SV bias toward the last 5 Mbp of human chromosomes with nearly 55% of all VNTRs (variable number of tandem repeats) mapping to this portion of the genome. We identify SVs affecting coding and noncoding regulatory loci improving annotation and interpretation of functional variation. These data provide the framework to construct a canonical human reference and a resource for developing advanced representations capable of capturing allelic diversity.

14.
Elife ; 82019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628890

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to act as important cell biological regulators including cell fate decisions but are often ignored in human genetics. Combining differential lncRNA expression during neuronal lineage induction with copy number variation morbidity maps of a cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder/intellectual disability versus healthy controls revealed focal genomic mutations affecting several lncRNA candidate loci. Here we find that a t(5:12) chromosomal translocation in a family manifesting neurodevelopmental symptoms disrupts specifically lnc-NR2F1. We further show that lnc-NR2F1 is an evolutionarily conserved lncRNA functionally enhances induced neuronal cell maturation and directly occupies and regulates transcription of neuronal genes including autism-associated genes. Thus, integrating human genetics and functional testing in neuronal lineage induction is a promising approach for discovering candidate lncRNAs involved in neurodevelopmental diseases.

15.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 106-116, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559488

RESUMO

We combined de novo mutation (DNM) data from 10,927 individuals with developmental delay and autism to identify 253 candidate neurodevelopmental disease genes with an excess of missense and/or likely gene-disruptive (LGD) mutations. Of these genes, 124 reach exome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-7) for DNM. Intersecting these results with copy number variation (CNV) morbidity data shows an enrichment for genomic disorder regions (30/253, likelihood ratio (LR) +1.85, P = 0.0017). We identify genes with an excess of missense DNMs overlapping deletion syndromes (for example, KIF1A and the 2q37 deletion) as well as duplication syndromes, such as recurrent MAPK3 missense mutations within the chromosome 16p11.2 duplication, recurrent CHD4 missense DNMs in the 12p13 duplication region, and recurrent WDFY4 missense DNMs in the 10q11.23 duplication region. Network analyses of genes showing an excess of DNMs highlights functional networks, including cell-specific enrichments in the D1+ and D2+ spiny neurons of the striatum.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Complexo Mi-2 de Remodelação de Nucleossomo e Desacetilase/genética , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
16.
Nat Methods ; 16(1): 88-94, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559433

RESUMO

We have developed a computational method based on polyploid phasing of long sequence reads to resolve collapsed regions of segmental duplications within genome assemblies. Segmental Duplication Assembler (SDA; https://github.com/mvollger/SDA ) constructs graphs in which paralogous sequence variants define the nodes and long-read sequences provide attraction and repulsion edges, enabling the partition and assembly of long reads corresponding to distinct paralogs. We apply it to single-molecule, real-time sequence data from three human genomes and recover 33-79 megabase pairs (Mb) of duplications in which approximately half of the loci are diverged (<99.8%) compared to the reference genome. We show that the corresponding sequence is highly accurate (>99.9%) and that the diverged sequence corresponds to copy-number-variable paralogs that are absent from the human reference genome. Our method can be applied to other complex genomes to resolve the last gene-rich gaps, improve duplicate gene annotation, and better understand copy-number-variant genetic diversity at the base-pair level.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
17.
Trends Neurosci ; 42(2): 115-127, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563709

RESUMO

Advances in sequencing technology have significantly expanded our understanding of the genetics of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Continued technological improvements and cost reductions have now shifted the focus to investigations into the functional noncoding portions of the genome. There is a patient trend toward an excess of de novo and potentially disruptive mutations among conserved noncoding sequences implicated in the regulation of genes. The signals become stronger when restricted to genes already implicated in NDDs, but de novo mutation in such elements is estimated to account for <5% of patients. Larger sample sizes, improved variant detection, functional testing, and better approaches to classify noncoding variation will be required to identify specific pathogenic variants underlying disease.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Humanos , RNA não Traduzido , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504930

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To maximize the discovery of potentially pathogenic variants to better understand the diagnostic utility of genome sequencing (GS) and to assess how the presence of multiple risk events might affect the phenotypic severity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: GS was applied to 180 simplex and multiplex ASD families (578 individuals, 213 patients) with exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization further applied to a subset for validation and cross-platform comparisons. RESULTS: We found that 40.8% of patients carried variants with evidence of disease risk, including a de novo frameshift variant in NR4A2 and two de novo missense variants in SYNCRIP, while 21.1% carried clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. Patients with more than one risk variant (9.9%) were more severely affected with respect to cognitive ability compared with patients with a single or no-risk variant. We observed no instance among the 27 multiplex families where a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was transmitted to all affected members in the family. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the diagnostic utility of GS, especially for multiple risk variants that contribute to the phenotypic severity, shows the genetic heterogeneity in multiplex families, and provides evidence for new genes for follow up.

19.
Mol Autism ; 9: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564305

RESUMO

Background: We previously performed targeted sequencing of autism risk genes in probands from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) (phase I). Here, we expand this analysis to a larger cohort of patients (ACGC phase II) to better understand the prevalence, inheritance, and genotype-phenotype correlations of likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations for autism candidate genes originally identified in cohorts of European descent. Methods: We sequenced 187 autism candidate genes in an additional 784 probands and 85 genes in 599 probands using single-molecule molecular inversion probes. We tested the inheritance of potentially pathogenic mutations, performed a meta-analysis of phase I and phase II data and combined our results with existing exome sequence data to investigate the phenotypes of carrier parents and patients with multiple hits in different autism risk genes. Results: We validated recurrent, LGD, de novo mutations (DNMs) in 13 genes. We identified a potential novel risk gene (ZNF292), one novel gene with recurrent LGD DNMs (RALGAPB), as well as genes associated with macrocephaly (GIGYF2 and WDFY3). We identified the transmission of private LGD mutations in genes predominantly associated with DNMs and showed that parental carriers tended to share milder autism-related phenotypes. Patients that carried DNMs in two or more candidate genes show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions: We identify new risk genes and transmission of deleterious mutations in genes primarily associated with DNMs. The fact that parental carriers show milder phenotypes and patients with multiple hits are more severe supports a multifactorial model of risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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