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J Environ Manage ; 314: 114959, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429687


The environmental impact assessment of materials is usually based on laboratory tests, mostly in combination with models describing the longterm fate of the substances of interest in the targeted environmental compartment. Thus, laboratory tests are the fundamental link to achieve appropriate assessment conclusions which makes it essential to generate consistent results. This just as applies to the leaching of cementitious materials. In Europe, the leaching behavior of monolithic building materials is tested in the Dynamic Surface Leaching Test following the specification CEN/TS 16637-2. An interlaboratory comparison on European level regarding this technical specification showed relatively high intra- and interlaboratory variations for the tested materials (monolithic copper slag and cement stabilized coal fly ash). Therefore the German Committee for Structural Concrete (DAfStb) framed a guideline to specify additional testing conditions for cementitious materials. To assess the possible improvement by this guidelines measures, a round robin test with 11 participants from Germany and the Netherlands was conducted. This work aims to provide insight into the factors to be considered in the testing of alkaline materials, including sample preparation, and highlights crucial procedures and their manifestation in the results. All evaluated parameters showed improved results compared to the earlier round robin test. The relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDR) of the elements calcium, barium, antimony, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium, which are the parameters evaluated in both round robin tests, were RSDr = 4%, 4%, 2%, 5%, 5%, and 5% respectively (4% in average) for this work, in comparison to the European round robin test with an average RSDr of 29% (17%, 17%, 20%, 40%, 36%, and 42%). The RSDR improved from 41% (30%, 36%, 29%, 57%, 40%, and 56%) to 14% (12%, 8%, 6%, 28%, 15%, and 12%). CO2 ingress during testing and the inaccuracy of eluate analytics for concentrations close to the determination limits were identified as the main sources of error.

Cinza de Carvão , Materiais de Construção , Cromo , Cobre , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(36): 14200-14209, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403777


Solid electrolytes with superionic conductivity are required as a main component for all-solid-state batteries. Here we present a novel solid electrolyte with three-dimensional conducting pathways based on "lithium-rich" phosphidosilicates with ionic conductivity of σ > 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature and activation energy of 30-32 kJ mol-1 expanding the recently introduced family of lithium phosphidotetrelates. Aiming toward higher lithium ion conductivities, systematic investigations of lithium phosphidosilicates gave access to the so far lithium-richest compound within this class of materials. The crystalline material (space group Fm3m), which shows reversible thermal phase transitions, can be readily obtained by ball mill synthesis from the elements followed by moderate thermal treatment of the mixture. Lithium diffusion pathways via both tetrahedral and octahedral voids are analyzed by temperature-dependent powder neutron diffraction measurements in combination with maximum entropy method and DFT calculations. Moreover, the lithium ion mobility structurally indicated by a disordered Li/Si occupancy in the tetrahedral voids plus partially filled octahedral voids is studied by temperature-dependent impedance and 7Li NMR spectroscopy.

Inorg Chem ; 56(11): 6688-6694, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537719


The lithium phosphidosilicates Li10Si2P6 and Li3Si3P7 are obtained by high-temperature reactions of the elements or including binary Li-P precursors. Li10Si2P6 (P21/n, Z = 2, a = 7.2051(4) Å, b = 6.5808(4) Å, c = 11.6405(7) Å, ß = 90.580(4)°) features edge-sharing SiP4 double tetrahedra forming [Si2P6]10- units with a crystal structure isotypic to Na10Si2P6 and Na10Ge2P6. Li3Si3P7 (P21/m, Z = 2, a = 6.3356(4) Å, b = 7.2198(4) Å, c = 10.6176(6) Å, ß = 102.941(6)°) crystallizes in a new structure type, wherein SiP4 tetrahedra are linked via common vertices and which are further connected by polyphosphide chains to form unique ∞2[Si3P7]3- double layers. The two-dimensional Si-P slabs that are separated by Li atoms can be regarded as three covalently linked atoms layers: a defect α-arsenic type layer of P atoms sandwiched between two defect wurzite-type Si3P4 layers. The single crystal and powder X-ray structure solutions are supported by solid-state 7Li, 29Si, and 31P magic-angle spinning NMR measurements.