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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601627

RESUMO

In this work, we quantify the electrogenerated chemiluminescence arising from the reaction of electrogenerated tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(iii) with hydroxyl ions, in terms of emission intensity and reaction rate. Different electrode materials (glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond) and different supporting electrolytes (perchlorate, phosphate, and carbonate) were investigated with pH variation. Relative quantification of the electrogenerated chemiluminescence was achieved using the Ru(bpy)32+/tri-n-propylamine system, taken as a reference, with relative emission as low as 600 and 230 times that observed at the same coreactant concentration and the same pH, respectively. The kinetics was investigated by foot of the wave analysis of cyclic voltammetry to measure the turnover frequency of the reaction.

2.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126364, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443231

RESUMO

This study is among the first to systematically study the electrochemical reduction of nitrate on boron-doped diamond (BDD) films with different surface terminations and boron-doping levels. The highest nitrate reduction efficiency was 48% and the highest selectivity in the production of nitrogen gas was 44.5%, which were achieved using a BDD electrode with a hydrogen-terminated surface and a B/C ratio of 1.0%. C-H bonds served as the anchor points for attracting NO3- anions close to the electrode surface, and thus accelerating the formation of NO3-(ads). Compared to oxygen termination, hydrogen-terminated BDD exhibited higher electrochemical reactivity for reducing nitrate, resulting from the formation of shallow acceptor states and small interfacial band bending. The hydrophobicity of the hydrogen-terminated BDD inhibited water electrolysis and the subsequent adsorption of atomic hydrogen, leading to increased selectivity in the production of nitrogen gas. A BDD electrode with a boron-doping level of 1.0% increased the density of acceptor states, thereby enhancing the conductivity and promoting the formation of C-H bonds after the cathodic reduction pretreatment leading to the direct reduction of nitrate.


Assuntos
Boro/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Diamante/química , Doping nos Esportes , Eletrodos , Eletrólise/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Nitratos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Água
3.
Nanoscale ; 12(14): 7792-7796, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219240

RESUMO

The coercivity of magnetic nanoparticles is enhanced by the exchange coupling effect at the interface of ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic self-assembled monolayers. Antiferromagnetic Co3O4 nanocubes were regularly stacked on an ordered monolayer of ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 nanocubes by layer-by-layer manipulation using evaporation-driven self-assembly. The ordered arrangements of the ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanocubes are effective for the enhancement of the ferromagnetic character.

4.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027090

RESUMO

The study of CO2 electrochemical reduction to useful compounds using bare or modified BDD electrode attracts numerous attentions. Meanwhile, the efficiency of products obtained from CO2 electrochemical reduction is known to be determined by the electrode material and the electrolyte. Formic acid as main product and CO as a minor product, have also been known on the CO2 reduction using BDD electrode. Recently, we reported the successful improvement of CO production from the reduction of CO2 by decorating the surface of BDD electrode with palladium particles. Following this, herein, we present further investigation on electrolyte dependence, including cation and anion dependence and also concentration effect in order to understand deeply the CO2 reduction on surface of palladium modified BDD electrode. The results suggest the use of NaCl and KCl as a catholyte for optimum performance, in addition to the improvement of CO2 reduction product in higher electrolyte concentration.

5.
ACS Sens ; 5(2): 431-439, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077684

RESUMO

The development of a simple detection method with high sensitivity is essential for the diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases. Previously, we constructed a sensitive biosensor for the detection of pathological human influenza viruses using a boron-doped diamond electrode terminated with a sialyloligosaccharide receptor-mimic peptide that could bind to hemagglutinins involved in viral infection. Circulation of influenza induced by the avian virus in humans has become a major public health concern, and methods for the detection of avian viruses are urgently needed. Here, peptide density and dendrimer generation terminated on the electrode altered the efficiency of viral binding to the electrode surface, thus significantly enhancing charge-transfer resistance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The peptide-terminated electrodes exhibited an excellent detection limit of less than one plaque-forming unit of seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Furthermore, the improved electrode was detectable for avian viruses isolated from H5N3, H7N1, and H9N2, showing the potential for the detection of all subtypes of influenza A virus, including new subtypes. The peptide-based electrochemical architecture provided a promising approach to biosensors for ultrasensitive detection of pathogenic microorganisms.

6.
Lab Chip ; 20(4): 852-861, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984406

RESUMO

We report the development of a micro total analysis system (µTAS) based on electrochemical measurements and dielectrophoretic sorting for screening of NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases. In this system, the activity of enzymes immobilized on microbeads, together with their encoding DNA, can be measured with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode in each compartment (∼30 nL) of the microfluidic system. The 30 nL droplets containing microbead-displayed genes of enzymes with higher activity can then be recovered by dielectrophoretic sorting. Previously, we developed the NAD(P)H-measuring device containing the BDD electrode for high-throughput measurement of the activity of NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases. In this study, we fabricated an encapsulating device and a droplet-sorting device for nanoliter-size droplets, for the first time, and then combined these three devices to construct a µTAS for directed evolution of NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductases. We confirmed that this system works by proof-of-principle experiments and successfully applied this system for screening of randomized libraries of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2310-2316, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927922

RESUMO

Unexpected phenomena displayed by low-boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are disclosed in the present work. Generally, the presence of sp2 nondiamond carbon impurities in BDD electrodes causes undesirable electrochemical properties, such as a reduced potential window and increased background current, etc. However, we found that the potential window and redox reaction in normally doped (1%) BDD and low-doped (0.1%) BDD exhibited opposite tendencies depending on the extent of sp2 carbon. Moreover, we found that contrary to the usual expectations, low-doped BDD containing sp2 carbon hinders electron transfer, whereas in line with expectations, normally doped BDD containing sp2 exhibits enhanced electron transfer. Surface analyses by X-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) and electrochemical methods are utilized to explain these unusual phenomena. This work indicates that the electrochemical properties of low-doped BDD containing sp2 might be due partially to the high level of surface oxygen, the large work function, the low carrier density, and the existence of different types of sp2 carbon.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1518-1525, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922404

RESUMO

An electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) system by in situ coreactant production, where Ru(bpy)32+ emission is generated at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode, is presented. The system takes advantage of the unique properties of BDD to promote oxidation of carbonate (CO32-) into peroxydicarbonate (C2O62-), which further reacts with water to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which acts as a coreactant for Ru(bpy)32+ ECL. Investigation of the mechanism reveals that ECL emission is triggered by the reduction of H2O2 to hydroxyl radicals (OH•), which later react with the reduced Ru(bpy)3+ molecules to form excited states, followed by light emission. The ECL signal was found to increase with the concentration of CO32-; therefore, with the concentration of electrogenerated H2O2, although at the same time, higher concentrations of H2O2 can quench the ECL emission, resulting in a decrease in intensity. The carbonate concentration, pH, and oxidation parameters, such as potential and time, were optimized to find the best emission conditions.

9.
Analyst ; 145(2): 544-549, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764923

RESUMO

Stable and continuous biosensing of electroactive species in vivo has been achieved by using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes owing to their outstanding electrochemical properties. However, the present problem in biosensing using BDD electrodes is how to specifically measure/detect the target molecules, including electrochemically inactive species. A possible solution is to fabricate an electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensor using a BDD electrode. In a preliminary investigation, we found that DNA aptamers strongly adsorb on the BDD surface and the aptamer-adsorbed BDD apparently worked as an E-AB sensor. The present study reports the performance of the aptamer-adsorbed BDD electrode as an E-AB sensor. Doxorubicin (DOX), a widely used chemotherapeutic, was chosen as a target molecule. The sensor could be prepared by just dipping BDD in an aptamer solution for only 30 min, and the electrochemical signals were dependent on the DOX concentration. The adsorption of DNA was strong enough for continuous measurements and even a sonication treatment. Such behaviors were not observed when using gold and glassy carbon electrodes. In a kinetic measurement, distortion by a sluggish response was observed for both association and dissociation phases, indicating that the interaction between DOX and the aptamer involves several kinetic processes. By fitting to a Langmuir isotherm, a limit of detection of 49 nM and a maximum detectable concentration of 2.3 µM were obtained. Although the sensitivity was lower than those of the well-established E-AB sensors of gold, the values are within a drug's therapeutic range. Overall, the present work demonstrates that a DNA aptamer and a BDD electrode is an effective combination for an E-AB sensor with stable sensitivity, and a wide variety of DNA aptamers can be applied without any special treatment.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(36): 14384-14393, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422661

RESUMO

An important technique to realize novel electron- and/or proton-based functionalities is to use a proton-electron coupling mechanism. When either a proton or electron is excited, the other one is modulated, producing synergistic functions. However, although compounds with proton-coupled electron transfer have been synthesized, crystalline molecular compounds that exhibit proton-transfer-coupled spin-transition (PCST) behavior have not been reported. Here, we report the first example of a PCST Fe(II) complex, wherein the proton lies on the N of hydrazone and pyridine moieties in the ligand at high-spin and low-spin Fe(II), respectively. When the Fe(II) complex is irradiated with light, intramolecular proton transfer occurs from pyridine to hydrazone in conjunction with the photoinduced spin transition via the PCST mechanism. Because the light-induced excited high-spin state is trapped at low temperatures in the Fe(II) complex-a phenomenon known as the light-induced excited-spin-state trapping effect-the light-induced proton-transfer state, wherein the proton lies on the N of hydrazone, is also trapped as a metastable state. The proton transfer was accomplished within 50 ps at 190 K. The bistable nature of the proton position, where the position can be switched by light irradiation, is useful for modulating proton-based functionalities in molecular devices.

11.
Nanoscale ; 11(30): 14097-14098, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329203
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(25): 13788-13794, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210178

RESUMO

Since a boron-doped diamond (BDD) exhibits excellent electrode properties such as wide potential window, low back-ground current, and high physical and chemical durability, it has been studied as an electrode material for various electrochemical applications. The electrochemical behavior of BDD depends on the surface termination, which can be easily converted by chemical reactions. Fluorine termination has attracted interest because it exhibits unique surface properties such as high hydrophobicity and a low coefficient of friction, and the electrochemical properties also drastically change. However, so far, it has not been elucidated why fluorinated BDD exhibits specific electrochemical properties. In this article, fluorine-terminated BDD was fabricated by a fluorine-containing plasma treatment, and the electrochemical properties were systematically investigated. Together with experiments, we have calculated the interfacial structures and electronic states of hydrogenated, oxygenated, and fluorinated BDD electrodes. As a result, fluorinated BDD showed lower electrochemical reactivity than hydrogenated and oxygenated BDD. Especially, electron transfer between anionic compound and fluorinated BDD was significantly suppressed. Considered together with theoretical calculations, this reactivity could be attributed to the larger interfacial band bending in fluorinated BDD and electrostatic interactions between BDD and redox species.

13.
Analyst ; 144(15): 4499-4504, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172150

RESUMO

The electrochemical oxidation of hydroxide ions using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in weak basic solutions was examined. Using simple linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), a well-shaped peak originating from the oxidation of hydroxide ions involving a CE mechanism was observed at ∼1.30 V versus a Ag/AgCl reference electrode in 20 mM H3PO4 solutions with hydroxide ion concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mM. Compared to a NaOH solution with the same hydroxide ion concentration, the peak current in the phosphate solution was found to be higher due to the buffering capability of the phosphate solution, which maintains the hydroxide ion concentration, making it possible to provide more hydroxide ions to the surface of the electrode. The peak was found to depend not only on the hydroxide ion concentration, but also on the phosphate concentration, confirming that the origin of the peak was due to oxidation of the hydroxide ions enhanced by the buffering capability of the weak basic solution. These results further promote the use of BDD electrodes for measuring hydroxide ion concentration, and offer the possibility of directly measuring the buffer capacity of a solution.

14.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 153(6): 273-277, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178532

RESUMO

Continuous and real-time measurement of local concentrations of systemically administered drugs in vivo must be crucial for pharmacological studies. Nevertheless, conventional methods require considerable samples quantity and have poor sampling rates. Additionally, they cannot determine how drug kinetics correlates with target function over time. Here, we describe a system with two different sensors. One is a needle-type microsensor composed of boron-doped diamond with a tip of ~40 µm in diameter, and the other is a glass microelectrode. We first tested bumetanide. This diuretic can induce deafness. In the guinea-pig cochlea injected intravenously with bumetanide, the changes of the drug concentration and the extracellular potential underlying hearing were simultaneously measured in real time. We further examined an antiepileptic drug lamotrigine in the rat brain, and tracked its kinetics and at the same time the local field potentials representing neuronal activity. The action of the anticancer reagent doxorubicin was also monitored in the cochlea. This microsensing system may be applied to analyze pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various drugs at local sites in vivo, and contribute to promoting the pharmacological researches.


Assuntos
Boro , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diamante , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Microeletrodos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bumetanida/farmacologia , Cobaias , Lamotrigina/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(18): 7414-7420, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983344

RESUMO

The main product obtained by electrochemical reduction of CO2 depends on the electrode material, and in many cases the Faradaic efficiency for this is determined by the electrolyte. Only a few investigations in which attempts to produce different products from the same electrode material have been done so far. In this work, we focus on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with which plentiful amounts of formic acid and small amounts of carbon monoxide have been produced. By optimizing certain parameters and conditions used in the electrochemical process with BDD electrodes, such as the electrolyte, the boron concentration of the BDD electrode, and the applied potential, we were able to control the selectivity and efficiency with which carbon monoxide is produced. On one hand, with a BDD electrode with 1% boron used for the cathode and KClO4 for the catholyte, the selectivity for producing carbon monoxide was high. On the other hand, with a BDD electrode with 0.1% boron used for the cathode and KCl for the catholyte, the production of formic acid was the most evident. In situ attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) measurements during electrolysis showed that CO2•- intermediates were adsorbed on the BDD surface in the KClO4 aqueous solution. Here, switchable product selectivity was achieved when reducing CO2 using BDD electrodes.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(28): 15297-15301, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989157

RESUMO

In recent years, boron-doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized as an electrode for the electrochemical reduction of CO2, and several reports have been published on this. The wide potential window of BDD enables the hydrogen evolution reaction, which competes with CO2 reduction, to be suppressed. On the other hand, the high overpotential is still a problem. We attempted to overcome this problem by depositing metal on the BDD electrode. Pd metal was chosen to modify the surface of the BDD electrode (PdBDD). Employing this electrode at a lower potential of -1.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, we increased the production of CO (53.3% faradaic efficiency) from the reduction of CO2. We present various attempts made to improve the CO production.

17.
Anal Chem ; 91(8): 4980-4986, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838845

RESUMO

Carbon-based materials are regarded as an environmentally benign alternative to the conventional metal electrode used in electrochemistry from the viewpoint of sustainable chemistry. Among various carbon electrode materials, boron-doped diamond (BDD) exhibits superior electrochemical properties. However, it is still uncertain how surface chemical species of BDD influence the electrochemical performance, because of the difficulty in characterizing the surface species. Here, we have developed in situ spectroscopic measurement systems on BDD electrodes, i.e., in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and electrochemical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (EC-XPS). ATR-IR studies at a controlled electrode potential confirmed selective surface hydroxylation. EC-XPS studies confirmed deprotonation of C-OH groups at the BDD/electrolyte interface. These findings should be important not only for better understanding of BDD's fundamentals but also for a variety of applications.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(7): 897-900, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489578

RESUMO

We have developed a new method for fabricating all-diamond microelectrodes. The process comprises three steps: masking the tip of an electrode by electroplating with chromium, depositing undoped diamond, which acts as an insulator on the sides of the electrode, and removing the chromium mask to expose the tip of the electrode. The active area of the electrode can be easily controlled in combination only with a conventional electroplating technique.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 48(1): 157-204, 2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444227

RESUMO

Conductive diamond possesses unique features as compared to other solid electrodes, such as a wide electrochemical potential window, a low and stable background current, relatively rapid rates of electron-transfer for soluble redox systems without conventional pretreatment, long-term responses, stability, biocompatibility, and a rich surface chemistry. Conductive diamond microcrystalline and nanocrystalline films, structures and particles have been prepared using a variety of approaches. Given these highly desirable attributes, conductive diamond has found extensive use as an enabling electrode across a variety of fields encompassing chemical and biochemical sensing, environmental degradation, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, and energy storage and conversion. This review provides an overview of the fundamental properties and highlights recent progress and achievements in the growth of boron-doped (metal-like) and nitrogen and phosphorus-doped (semi-conducting) diamond and hydrogen-terminated undoped diamond electrodes. Applications in electroanalysis, environmental degradation, electrosynthesis electrocatalysis, and electrochemical energy storage are also discussed. Diamond electrochemical devices utilizing micro-scale, ultramicro-scale, and nano-scale electrodes as well as their counterpart arrays are viewed. The challenges and future research directions of conductive diamond are discussed and outlined. This review will be important and informative for chemists, biochemists, physicists, materials scientists, and engineers engaged in the use of these novel forms of carbon.

20.
Anal Chem ; 90(21): 12959-12963, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399650

RESUMO

We report on the use of boron doped diamond electrodes for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of the coreactant peroxydisulfate and the luminophore ruthenium(II)-tris(2,2'-bipyridine). Compared to common electrode materials (i.e., Pt, Au, glassy carbon), boron doped diamond has a large overpotential for the evolution of hydrogen in aqueous electrolyte solutions. This intrinsic feature enables reductive-oxidation ECL with peroxydisulfate to be obtained without interference from hydrogen evolution and with high reproducible signals and stable emission. We investigated the effects of the peroxydisulfate concentration and the pH on the ECL emission to find the optimal conditions for enhancing the signal.

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