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1.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The debate whether "asymptomatic hyperuricemia" should be treated is still ongoing. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze whether hyperuricema in the elderly is associated with joint pain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study (males 2195, females 2975, mean age 76(6)) answered standardized questions about joint pain. In addition they recorded intermittent hand joint pain by marking a diagram of the hand. In males, no association was found between hyperuricemia and pain. Females however, showed a positive association between hyperuricemia and joint pain at many sites. After adjustment for age, BMI and hand osteoarthritis however, only intermittent hand joint pain (OR 1.30(1.07-1.58), p = 0.008) and intermittent pain in ≥10 hand joints (OR 1.75(1.32-2.31), p<0.001) remained significant. The best model for describing the relationship between serum uric acid levels (SUA) and intermittent hand joint pain in ≥10 joints was non-linear with a cut-off at 372 µmol/L. The attributable surplus number of symptomatic females with SUA ≥372 µmol/L was approximately 2.0% of the study population for those reporting pain in ≥10 hand joints. Next after having severe hand osteoarthritis, SUA ≥372 was an independent predictive factor of intermittent pain in ≥10 hand joints. Intermittent hand joint pain was also an independent risk factor for worse general health description. CONCLUSION: Results from this population based study indicate that hyperuricemia in elderly females may be a rather frequent cause of intermittent hand joint pain, often in many joints. The most likely explanation relates to low-grade urate crystal induced inflammation. Our data do not allow for assessment of the severity of symptoms or whether they merit specific treatment, but intermittent hand joint pain was an independent predictor of worse general health. These findings may be an important contribution to the debate on whether hyperuricemia should be treated.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES, COPDGene, Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE, MESA, and SPIROMICS studies. We performed a GWAS of ILA in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF. Measurements and Main Results Genome-wide genotyping data were available in 1,699 ILA cases and 10,274 controls. The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILA (p=2.6x10-27) and subpleural ILA (p=1.6x10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, p=3.8x10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, p=4.8x10-8) with ILA, and HTRE1 (rs7744971, p=4.2x10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILA. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Of 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, 5 (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (p<0.05/12) with ILA. Conclusions In a GWAS of ILA in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common and suggest distinct genetically-driven biologic pathways between ILA and IPF.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3118-3131, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate associations between serum electrolyte concentrations and changes in cardiac electrophysiology in the general population. METHODS: Summary results collected from 153,014 individuals (54.4% women; mean age 55.1 ± 12.1 years) from 33 studies (of 5 ancestries) were meta-analyzed. Linear regression analyses examining associations between electrolyte concentrations (mmol/l of calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium), and electrocardiographic intervals (RR, QT, QRS, JT, and PR intervals) were performed. The study adjusted for potential confounders and also stratified by ancestry, sex, and use of antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS: Lower calcium was associated with longer QT intervals (-11.5 ms; 99.75% confidence interval [CI]: -13.7 to -9.3) and JT duration, with sex-specific effects. In contrast, higher magnesium was associated with longer QT intervals (7.2 ms; 99.75% CI: 1.3 to 13.1) and JT. Lower potassium was associated with longer QT intervals (-2.8 ms; 99.75% CI: -3.5 to -2.0), JT, QRS, and PR durations, but all potassium associations were driven by use of antihypertensive drugs. No physiologically relevant associations were observed for sodium or RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified physiologically relevant associations between electrolytes and electrocardiographic intervals in a large-scale analysis combining cohorts from different settings. The results provide insights for further cardiac electrophysiology research and could potentially influence clinical practice, especially the association between calcium and QT duration, by which calcium levels at the bottom 2% of the population distribution led to clinically relevant QT prolongation by >5 ms.

4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to well-established links with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cigarette smoking may affect skeletal muscle; however, associations with quadriceps atrophy, density, and function are unknown. This study explored the associations of current and former smoking with quadriceps muscle area and attenuation as well as muscle force (assessed as knee extension peak torque) and rate of torque development (RTD) - a measure of muscle power in older adults. METHODS: Data from 4469 older adults, aged 66-95 years at baseline in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility - Reykjavik Study with measurements of thigh computed tomography, isometric knee extension testing, self-reported smoking history and potential covariates were analyzed. RESULTS: Sex-differences were observed in these data, therefore our final analyses are stratified by sex. In men, both former smokers and current smokers had lower muscle area (with = -0.10, 95% CI -0.17, -0.03 and = -0.19, 95% CI -0.33, -0.05, respectively) and lower muscle attenuation (i.e., higher fat infiltration, = -0.08, 95% CI -0.16, -0.01 and = -0.17, 95% CI -0.34, -0.01, respectively) when compared to never-smokers. Smoking status was not associated with male peak torque or RTD. In women, current smoking was associated with lower muscle attenuation (= -0.24, 95% CI -0.34, -0.13) compared to never-smoking. Among female smokers (current and former), muscle attenuation and peak torque were lower with increasing pack-years. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that cigarette smoking is related to multiple muscle properties at older age and that these relationships may be different among men and women. IMPLICATIONS: This manuscript presents novel data, as it examined for the first time the relationship between smoking and computed tomography-derived quadriceps muscle size (cross-sectional area) and attenuation.This study suggests that current cigarette smoking is related to higher muscle fat infiltration, which may have significant health implications for the older population, due to its known association with poor physical function, falls, and hip fractures.

5.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107514

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for cerebral infarction. Objective: To determine whether unrecognized MI detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with cerebral infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional study of ICELAND MI, a cohort substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study conducted in Iceland. Enrollment occurred from January 2004 to January 2007 from a community-dwelling cohort of older Icelandic individuals. Participants aged 67 to 93 years who underwent both brain MRI and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI were included. Data analysis was performed from September 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: Unrecognized MI identified by cardiac MRI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unrecognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI without a history of clinically evident MI. Recognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI with a history of clinically evident MI. Cerebral infarctions on brain MRI were included regardless of associated symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between MI status (no MI, unrecognized MI, or recognized MI) and cerebral infarction after adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors. In addition, we evaluated the association between unrecognized MI and embolic infarcts of undetermined source. Results: Five enrolled participants had nondiagnostic brain MRI studies and were excluded. Among 925 participants, 480 (51.9%) were women; the mean (SD) age was 75.9 (5.3) years. There were 221 participants (23.9%) with cardiac MRI evidence of MI, of whom 68 had recognized MI and 153 unrecognized MI. There were 308 participants (33.3%) with brain MRI evidence of cerebral infarction; 93 (10.0%) had embolic infarcts of undetermined source. After adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors, the likelihood (odds ratio) of having cerebral infarction was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4; P = .01) for recognized MI and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.02-2.2; P = .04) for unrecognized MI. After adjustment for demographics and vascular risk factors, unrecognized MI was also associated with embolic infarcts of undetermined source (odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In a population-based sample, we found an association between unrecognized MI and cerebral infarction. These findings suggest that unrecognized MI may be a novel risk factor for cardiac embolism and cerebral infarction.

6.
J Sports Sci ; 37(15): 1746-1754, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929574

RESUMO

Dynamic sitting, such as fidgeting and desk work, might be associated with health, but remains difficult to identify out of accelerometry data. We examined, in a laboratory study, whether dynamic sitting can be identified out of triaxial activity counts. Among 18 participants (56% men, 27.3 ± 6.5 years), up to 236 counts per minute were recorded in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes during dynamic sitting using a hip-worn accelerometer. Subsequently, we examined in 621 participants (38% men, 80.0 ± 4.7 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study whether dynamic sitting was associated with cardio-metabolic health. Compared to participants who recorded the fewest dynamic sitting minutes (Q1), those with more dynamic sitting minutes had a lower BMI (Q2 = -1.39 (95%CI = -2.33;-0.46); Q3 = -1.87 (-2.82;-0.92); Q4 = -3.38 (-4.32;-2.45)), a smaller waist circumference (Q2 = -2.95 (-5.44;-0.46); Q3 = -3.47 (-6.01;-0.93); Q4 = -8.21 (-10.72;-5.71)), and a lower odds for the metabolic syndrome (Q2 = 0.74 [0.45;1.20] Q3 = 0.58 [0.36;0.95]; Q4 = 0.36 [0.22;0.59]). Our findings suggest that dynamic sitting might be identified using accelerometry and that this behaviour was associated with health. This might be important given the large amounts of time people spend sitting. Future studies with a focus on validation, causation and physiological pathways are needed to further examine the possible relevance of dynamic sitting.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
7.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2422-2436, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. METHODS: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). RESULTS: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. CONCLUSIONS: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.

9.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 406-418, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using validated equations based on serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys), or both (eGFRcr-cys). However, when compared with the measured GFR (mGFR), only eGFRcr-cys meets recommended performance standards. Our goal was to develop a more accurate eGFR method using a panel of metabolites without creatinine, cystatin C, or demographic variables. METHODS: An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for acetylthreonine, phenylacetylglutamine, pseudouridine, and tryptophan was developed, and a 20-day, multiinstrument analytical validation was conducted. The assay was tested in 2424 participants with mGFR data from 4 independent research studies. A new GFR equation (eGFRmet) was developed in a random subset (n = 1615) and evaluated in the remaining participants (n = 809). Performance was assessed as the frequency of large errors [estimates that differed from mGFR by at least 30% (1 - P30); goal <10%]. RESULTS: The assay had a mean imprecision (≤10% intraassay, ≤6.9% interassay), linearity over the quantitative range (r 2 > 0.98), and analyte recovery (98.5%-113%). There was no carryover, no interferences observed, and analyte stability was established. In addition, 1 - P30 in the validation set for eGFRmet (10.0%) was more accurate than eGFRcr (13.1%) and eGFRcys (12.0%) but not eGFRcr-cys (8.7%). Combining metabolites, creatinine, cystatin C, and demographics led to the most accurate equation (7.0%). Neither equation had substantial variation among population subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The new eGFRmet equation could serve as a confirmatory test for GFR estimation.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609725

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if increased mortality associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reflects a causal relationship by using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach with genetic variants in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. Individual participant data from three European cohorts were harmonized with standardization of 25(OH)D according to the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Most relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes CYP2R1 (rs12794714, rs10741657) and DHCR7/NADSYN1 (rs12785878, rs11234027), were combined in two allelic scores. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the ratio estimator and the delta method for calculating the hazards ratio (HR) and standard error of genetically determined 25(OH)D effect on all-cause mortality. We included 10,501 participants (50.1% females, 67.1±10.1 years) of whom 4003 died during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. The observed adjusted HR for all-cause mortality per decrease in 25(OH)D by 20 nmol/L was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.15⁻1.25). The HR per 20 nmol/L decrease in genetically determined 25(OH)D was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.80⁻2.24) and 1.35 (95% CI of 0.81 to 2.37) based on the two scores. In conclusion, the results of this MR study in a combined sample from three European cohort studies provide further support for a causal relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased all-cause mortality. However, as the current study, even with ~10,000 participants, was underpowered for the study of the effect of the allele score on mortality, larger studies on genetics and mortality are needed to improve the precision.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/genética , Carbono-Nitrogênio Ligases com Glutamina como Doadora de N-Amida/metabolismo , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/sangue
11.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 7, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids are implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The relationship between systemic lipids and AMD has not been well characterized. The objective was to investigate the relationship between serum lipids and AMD in older adults using a lipidomic approach. METHODS: In a case-control study, 240 adults, aged ≥66 years, a third each having geographic atrophy, neovascular AMD, or no signs of AMD, were selected from a population-based sample of participants in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. The exposure was serum lipids and risk factors for AMD. The outcome was late AMD, assessed through fundus images taken through dilated pupils using a 45-degree digital camera and grading for neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. RESULTS: Of 177 serum lipid species measured, there were no significant differences in serum lipids between controls and those with geographic atrophy or neovascular AMD, respectively. Adults with neovascular AMD had higher total serum lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (P = 0.004) and serum LPC 18:0 (P = 0.0002) compared to those with geographic atrophy. CONCLUSION: Late AMD was not characterized by alterations in systemic lipids compared with normal controls. These findings suggest that there may be differences in the LPC pathway between adults with neovascular AMD and geographic atrophy.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica/sangue , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Neovascularização Retiniana/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico , Atrofia Geográfica/patologia , Humanos , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Neovascularização Retiniana/diagnóstico , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Rheumatol Int ; 39(4): 669-677, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671597

RESUMO

To investigate the association between osteoarthritis (OA) and microvascular pathology, we examined the relationship between retinal microvascular caliber and osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in an elderly population. The AGES-Reykjavik is a population-based, multidisciplinary longitudinal cohort study of aging. Retinal vessel caliber, hand osteoarthritis and total knee joint replacements due to OA were examined in 4757 individuals (mean age 76 ± 5 years; 57% female). Incident knee joint replacements during 5-year follow-up (n = 2961, mean age 75 ± 5 years; 58% female) were also assessed. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, showed an association between narrow arteriolar caliber and hand OA, as well as knee replacement. After adjustment for other covariates, including statin therapy, this association was significant for both hand OA in men and women [OR 1.10(1.03-1.17), p < 0.01] (per unit standard deviation decrease in CRAE) and TKR prevalence [OR 1.15 (1.01-1.32), p = 0.04], especially for men [OR 1.22 (1.00-1.51) p = 0.04] and also for incident TKRs in men [OR 1.50 (1.07-2.10), p = 0.04]. Narrow venular caliber was associated with hand OA in women [OR 1.10 (1.01-1.21), p = 0.03]. Retinal arterial narrowing in hand and knee OA is present in males as well as females. Venular narrowing in hand OA in women was an unexpected finding and is in contrast with the venular widening usually observed in cardiovascular diseases.

13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(2): 175-183, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673508

RESUMO

Rationale: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography scans that have been associated with an early or mild form of pulmonary fibrosis. Although ILA have been associated with radiologic progression, it is not known if specific imaging patterns are associated with progression or risk of mortality. Objectives: To determine the role of imaging patterns on the risk of death and ILA progression. Methods: ILA (and imaging pattern) were assessed in 5,320 participants from the AGES-Reykjavik Study, and ILA progression was assessed in 3,167 participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with ILA progression, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to mortality. Measurements and Main Results: Over 5 years, 327 (10%) had ILA on at least one computed tomography, and 1,435 (45%) did not have ILA on either computed tomography. Of those with ILA, 238 (73%) had imaging progression, whereas 89 (27%) had stable to improved imaging; increasing age and copies of MUC5B genotype were associated with imaging progression. The definite fibrosis pattern was associated with the highest risk of progression (odds ratio, 8.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-25; P = 0.0003). Specific imaging patterns were also associated with an increased risk of death. After adjustment, both a probable usual interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia pattern were associated with an increased risk of death when compared with those indeterminate for usual interstitial pneumonia (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.4; P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-6.8;P < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions: In those with ILA, imaging patterns can be used to help predict who is at the greatest risk of progression and early death.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445559

RESUMO

Aims: Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) can cause heart failure and death. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detects myocardial scar/fibrosis associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and NICM with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognosis of ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial fibrosis in a community-based sample of older adults. Methods and results: The ICELAND-MI cohort, a substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik (AGES-Reykjavik) study, provided a well-characterized population of 900 subjects after excluding subjects with pre-existing heart failure. Late gadolinium enhancement CMR divided subjects into four groups: MI (n = 211), major (n = 54) non-ischaemic fibrosis (well-established, classic patterns, associated with myocarditis, infiltrative cardiomyopathies, or pathological hypertrophy), minor (n = 238) non-ischaemic fibrosis (remaining localized patterns not meeting major criteria), and a no LGE (n = 397) reference group. The primary outcome was time to death or first heart failure hospitalization. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 192 composite events occurred (115 deaths and 77 hospitalizations for incident heart failure). After inverse probability weighting, major non-ischaemic fibrosis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, P < 0.001] remained independently associated with the primary endpoint, while MI (HR 1.4, P = 0.10) and minor non-ischaemic LGE (HR 1.2, P = 0.39) did not. Major non-ischaemic fibrosis was associated with a poorer outcome than MI (HR = 2.3, P = 0.001) in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion: Major non-ischaemic patterns of myocardial fibrosis portended worse prognosis than no fibrosis/scar in an older community-based cohort. Traditional risk factors largely accounted for the effect of MI and minor non-ischaemic LGE.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206047, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383820

RESUMO

The etiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor state of multiple myeloma (MM), is mostly unknown and no studies have been conducted on the effect of diet on MGUS or progression from MGUS to MM. We aimed to explore the association between common foods and MGUS and progression to MM. Data from the population-based AGES Study (N = 5,764) were utilized. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake during adolescence, midlife, and late life. Serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light-chain assay was performed to identify MGUS (n = 300) and LC-MGUS cases (n = 275). We cross linked our data with the Icelandic Cancer Registry to find cases of MM in the study group. We found that intake of fruit at least three times per week during adolescence was associated with lower risk of MGUS when compared to lower fruit consumption (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.95). We additionally found that intake of fruit at least three times per week during the late life period was associated with decreased risk of progressing from MGUS to MM (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.89) when compared to lower intake. Adolescent intake of fruit may reduce risk of MGUS, whereas fruit intake after MGUS onset may reduce risk of progressing to MM. Our findings suggest that diet might alter the risk of developing MGUS and progression to MM.

16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(11): 1101-1106, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304454

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can identify unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) in the general population. Unrecognized myocardial infarction by CMR portends poor prognosis in the short term but, to our knowledge, long-term outcomes are not known. Objective: To determine the long-term outcomes of UMI by CMR compared with clinically recognized myocardial infarction (RMI) and no myocardial infarction (MI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants of the population-based, prospectively enrolled ICELAND MI cohort study (aged 67-93 years) were characterized with CMR at baseline (from January 2004-January 2007) and followed up for up to 13.3 years. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses and a Cox regression were used to assess the association of UMI at baseline with death and future cardiovascular events. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death, nonfatal MI, and heart failure). Results: Of 935 participants, 452 (48.3%) were men; the mean (SD) age of participants with no MI, UMI, and RMI was 75.6 (5.3) years, 76.8 (5.2) years, and 76.8 (4.7) years, respectively. At 3 years, UMI and no MI mortality rates were similar (3%) and lower than RMI rates (9%). At 5 years, UMI mortality rates (13%) increased and were higher than no MI rates (8%) but still lower than RMI rates (19%). By 10 years, UMI and RMI mortality rates (49% and 51%, respectively) were not statistically different; both were significantly higher than no MI (30%) (P < .001). After adjusting for age, sex, and diabetes, UMI by CMR had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.04), MACE (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.93), MI (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.45-3.03), and heart failure (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09-2.14) compared with no MI and statistically nondifferent risk of death (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71-1.38) and MACE (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.91-1.66) vs RMI. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, all-cause mortality of UMI was higher than no MI, but within 10 years from baseline evaluation was equivalent with RMI. Unrecognized MI was also associated with an elevated risk of nonfatal MI and heart failure. Whether secondary prevention can alter the prognosis of UMI will require prospective testing.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199657

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that could benefit adults with comprised pulmonary health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility. METHODS: Associations of n-3 PUFA biomarkers (alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were evaluated with PFTs (forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and [FEV1/FVC]) in meta-analyses across seven cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (N=16,134 of European or African ancestry). PFT-associated n-3 PUFAs were carried forward to genome-wide interaction analyses in the four largest cohorts (N=11,962) and replicated in one cohort (N=1,687). Cohort-specific results were combined using joint 2 degree-of-freedom (2df) meta-analyses of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations and their interactions with n-3 PUFAs. RESULTS: DPA and DHA were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC (P<0.025), with evidence for effect modification by smoking and by sex. Genome-wide analyses identified a novel association of rs11693320-an intronic DPP10 SNP-with FVC when incorporating an interaction with DHA, and the finding was replicated (P2df=9.4×10-9 across discovery and replication cohorts). The rs11693320-A allele (frequency~80%) was associated with lower FVC (PSNP=2.1×10-9; ßSNP= -161.0mL), and the association was attenuated by higher DHA levels (PSNP×DHA interaction=2.1×10-7; ßSNP×DHA interaction=36.2mL). CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs on pulmonary function. By modeling genome-wide n-3 PUFA interactions, we identified a novel DPP10 SNP association with FVC that was not detectable in much larger studies ignoring this interaction.

18.
Br J Nutr ; 120(10): 1159-1170, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205856

RESUMO

The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)-pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D-pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (P race difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D-FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.

19.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(3)2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186845

RESUMO

Reductions in objectively measured physical function are associated with interstitial lung abnormalities http://ow.ly/azAW30kMhqv.

20.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

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