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1.
Acad Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There has been a recent concern about the overuse of psychotropic medications in children. This study was designed to assess the attitudes held by child and adolescent psychiatry trainees toward the prescription and management of medications in the pediatric population. METHODS: An online survey was sent to all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited child and adolescent psychiatry training programs across the USA with the goal of assessing trainee comfort and confidence with prescribing skills and concepts. RESULTS: About 63 trainees (7.2% of the targeted population) were included in the analyses. While most participants reported confidence in basic prescribing skills, areas of lower confidence included cross-tapering medications, managing side effects, knowledge of the evidence base, drug-drug interactions, and de-prescribing. Advanced year in training was associated with higher confidence overall but failed to reach significance with some complex concepts such as polypharmacy (p = 0.27) and de-prescribing (p = 0.10). In contrast, increased supervision had a significant impact on confidence regarding complex concepts (p = 0.04) but not basic skills (p = 0.51). Supervision was also associated with higher training satisfaction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Though the study was limited by a low response rate, these preliminary findings suggest potential areas for targeted psychopharmacology training. The findings also support how the important role supervision plays in the development of more complex skills. Further studies are needed to better understand these potential areas of curricula development and to explore the most effective training modalities.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(2): 217-224, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (NL) have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, there is minimal information on long-term outcomes of affected individuals. This study was initiated to evaluate the presence of and the risk factors associated with cardiac dysfunction in NL after birth in multiple age groups to improve counselling, to further understand pathogenesis and to provide potential preventative strategies. METHODS: Echocardiogram reports were evaluated in 239 individuals with cardiac NL: 143 from age 0-1 year, 176 from age >1-17 years and 64 from age >17 years. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of cardiac dysfunction at each age group with demographic, fetal and postnatal factors, using imputation to address missing data. RESULTS: Cardiac dysfunction was identified in 22.4% at age 0-1 year, 14.8% at age >1-17 years and 28.1% at age >17 years. Dysfunction in various age groups was significantly associated with male sex, black race, lower fetal heart rates, fetal extranodal cardiac disease and length of time paced. In 106 children with echocardiograms at ages 0-1 year and >1-17 years, 43.8% with dysfunction at age 0-1 year were also affected at age >1-17 years, while the others reverted to normal. Of children without dysfunction at age 0-1 year, 8.9% developed new dysfunction between ages >1 and 17 years. Among 34 with echocardiograms at ages >1-17 years and >17 years, 6.5% with normal function at age >1-17 years developed dysfunction in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors in fetal life can influence cardiac morbidity into adulthood.Although limited by a small number of cases, cardiac dysfunction in the first year often normalises by later childhood. New-onset dysfunction, although rare, can occur de novo after the first year.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(10): ofz408, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687417

RESUMO

Objective: Severe sepsis and septic shock (SS/SS) treatment bundles reduce mortality, and early infectious diseases (ID) consultation also improves patient outcomes. We retrospectively examined whether early ID consultation further improves outcomes in Emergency Department (ED) patients with SS/SS who complete the sepsis bundle. Method: We included 248 adult ED patients with SS/SS who completed the 3-hour bundle. Patients with ID consultation within 12 hours of ED triage (n = 111; early ID) were compared with patients who received standard care (n = 137) for in-hospital mortality, 30-day readmission, length of hospital stay (LOS), and antibiotic management. A competing risk survival analysis model compared risks of in-hospital mortality and discharge alive between groups. Results: In-hospital mortality was lower in the early ID group unadjusted (24.3% vs 38.0%, P = .02) and adjusted for covariates (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.89; P = .02). There was no significant difference in 30-day readmission (22.6% vs 23.5%, P = .89) or median LOS (10.2 vs 12.1 days, P = .15) among patients who survived. A trend toward shorter time to antibiotic de-escalation in the early ID group (log-rank test P = .07) was observed. Early ID consultation was protective of in-hospital mortality (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (asHR), 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.00, P = .0497) and predictive of discharge alive (asHR 1.58, 95% CI, 1.11-2.23; P-value .01) after adjustment. Conclusions: Among patients receiving the SS/SS bundle, early ID consultation was associated with a 40% risk reduction for in-hospital mortality. The impact of team-based care and de-escalation on SS/SS outcomes warrants further study.

4.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066619887666, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is paucity of data about prevalence of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) in children with pulmonary contusion (PC). We intend to evaluate PC in children with chest trauma and the association between PC and PARDS. DESIGN: Retrospective review of Institutional Trauma Registry for patients with trauma. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: Age 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of PC. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 1916 children with trauma, 50 (92.6%) had PC. Patients with PC and PARDS had lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (7 [3-15] vs 15 [15-15], P = .0003), higher Injury Severity Scale (ISS) score (29 [22-34] vs 19 [14-22], P = .004), lower oxygen saturations (96 [93-99] days vs 99 [98-100] days, P = .0009), higher FiO2 (1 [1-1] vs 0.21 [0.21-0.40], P < .0001), lower oxygen saturation/FiO2 (S/F) ratios (97 [90-99] vs 457 [280-471], P < .0001), need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV; 86% vs 23%, P < .0001), and mortality (28% vs 0%, P = .006) compared to those without PARDS. Forty-two percent (21/50) of patients needed IMV, of these 61% (13/21) had PARDS. Patients who needed IMV had significantly lower GCS score (8 [3-11] vs 15 [15-15], P < .0001), higher ISS score (27 [22-34] vs 18 [14-22], P = .002), longer length of stay (LOS; 7.5 [4-14] days vs 3.3 [2-5] days, P = .003), longer hospital LOS (18 [7.0-25] vs 5 [4-11], P = .008), higher PARDS rate (62% vs 7%, P < .0001), and lower S/F ratios (99 [94-190] vs 461 [353-471], P < .0001) compared to those who did not require IMV. Lower GCS score was independently associated with both PARDS and need for IMV. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric ARDS in children with PC is independently associated with lower GCS score, and its presence significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Further larger studies are needed to explore association of lower GCS and higher injury score in children with PARDS and PC.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal studies, zinc supplementation inhibited phosphate-induced arterial calcification. We tested the hypothesis that higher intake of dietary zinc was associated with lower abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) among adults in the USA. We also explored the associations of AAC with supplemental zinc intake, total zinc intake and serum zinc level. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional analyses of 2535 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-14. Dietary and supplemental zinc intakes were obtained from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Total zinc intake was the sum of dietary and supplemental zinc. AAC was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in adults ≥40 years of age and quantified using the Kauppila score system. AAC scores were categorized into three groups: no AAC (AAC = 0, reference group), mild-moderate (AAC >0-≤6) and severe AAC (AAC >6). RESULTS: Dietary zinc intake (mean ± SE) was 10.5 ± 0.1 mg/day; 28% had AAC (20% mild-moderate and 8% severe), 17% had diabetes mellitus and 51% had hypertension. Higher intake of dietary zinc was associated with lower odds of having severe AAC. Per 1 mg/day higher intake of dietary zinc, the odds of having severe AAC were 8% lower [adjusted odds ratio 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.86-0.98), P = 0.01] compared with those without AAC, after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities and laboratory measurements. Supplemental zinc intake, total zinc intake and serum zinc level were not associated with AAC. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of dietary zinc was independently associated with lower odds of having severe AAC among noninstitutionalized US adults.

6.
Cornea ; 38(11): 1364-1369, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335528

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare visual outcomes and complications of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) in eyes with anterior chamber (AC) versus pars plana (PP) glaucoma drainage devices (GDDs). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 85 eyes that underwent DSEK and had previous or concurrent AC (37 eyes) or PP (48 eyes) GDD implantation. Outcome measures examined included visual acuity, donor dislocation rate, intraocular pressure, and secondary graft failure (SGF). RESULTS: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution vision improved from 1.50 (SD = 0.64) to 0.88 (SD = 0.71) in the AC group and from 1.37 (SD = 0.59) to 1.20 (SD = 0.76) in the PP group, with no significant group difference. Intraocular pressure did not differ between the groups preoperatively but was higher in the AC group compared with the PP group postoperatively [mean (SD) 14.5 (6.28) versus 11.5 (5.54) mm Hg, P = 0.03]. Graft dislocation occurred in 35.1% and 29.2% of eyes in the AC and PP groups, respectively. SGF occurred in 18.9% and 41.7% with median time 17.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 4.6-32.1) and 27.9 (IQR 15.1-34.7) months to development in the AC and PP groups, respectively. Multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models found no statistically significant factors (tube location, age, sex, concurrent tube revision, new tube insertion) associated with either donor dislocation or SGF. CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in donor dislocation or SGF in eyes with PP compared with AC GDD, despite the decreased proximity of the shunt from the endothelial graft. Overall, GDD has a significantly adverse effect on long-term graft survival and close follow-up is warranted.

7.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(10): 1723-1734, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065859

RESUMO

Suicidal behavior increases substantially during early adolescence, a critical understudied developmental period. This study reports on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and course of suicidal ideation among Puerto Rican early adolescents, a high-risk group for suicidal behavior in adulthood. Gender differences and the prospective association of psychiatric disorders with course of suicidal ideation are examined. Participants were 1228 Puerto Rican adolescents (ages 10-13 at wave 1; 48% female) and parents, selected through probability-based sampling, assessed yearly across three waves. Adolescents and parents reported via Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV about 12-month suicide attempts and suicidal ideation (further categorized as never present, onset, recurrence, and remission), mood and anxiety disorders; parents reported on disruptive disorders. Over the three waves, 9.5% early adolescents thought about suicide and 2.1% attempted suicide. In adjusted multinomial regression models, compared to those with never present suicidal ideation, female gender was related to onset of suicidal ideation (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.22-5.55). Disruptive disorders were related to onset (OR = 5.80; 95% CI, 2.06-16.32) and recurrence of suicidal ideation (OR = 5.07, 95% CI, 1.14-22.47), mood disorders were related to remission (OR = 14.42, 95% CI, 3.90-53.23), and anxiety disorders to onset of suicidal ideation (OR = 3.68, 95% CI, 1.75-7.73). Our findings inform strategies tailored for early adolescents. To address onset of suicidal ideation, prevention should focus on girls and those with anxiety or disruptive disorders. When ideation is recurrent, interventions oriented to reduce disruptive behavior and its consequences may help achieve remission.

8.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(7): e359-e365, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because studies of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with venous thromboembolism and non-valvular atrial fibrillation have had minimal representation of morbidly obese patients (ie, body-mass index [BMI] ≥40 kg/m2), their efficacy and safety in this population are unclear. We investigated whether apixaban and rivaroxaban are as effective and safe as warfarin in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: We did a single-centre, retrospective analysis of chart data for all adult patients aged at least 18 years at Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, NY, USA) with a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 who were prescribed apixaban, rivaroxaban, or warfarin for either venous thromboembolism or atrial fibrillation between March 1, 2013, and March 1, 2017. Patients who had both venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation were excluded, as were patients with indications other than atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. Outcomes of recurrent venous thromboembolism, stroke, and bleeding were measured from the first prescription date to the earliest of a thrombotic event, medication discontinuation, death, or end of study on June 30, 2017. Analyses were stratified by anticoagulation indication and adjusted for comorbidities, CHA2DS2-VASc score, and age where appropriate. Outcome rates were compared using Pearson's χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Time-to-event analyses accounting for length of follow-up were used to compare risks of outcomes. FINDINGS: We obtained data for 795 patients: 150 prescribed apixaban, 326 rivaroxaban, and 319 warfarin. In 366 patients prescribed an anticoagulant for venous thromboembolism, the incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism was similar between the apixaban, rivaroxaban, and warfarin cohorts (1/47 [2·1%, 95% CI 0·0-6·3], 3/152 [2·0%, 0·0-4·2], and 2/167 [1·2%, 0·0-2·9], respectively; p=0·74). Incidence of major bleeding in this patient group was also similar between the treatment cohorts (1/47 patients on apixaban [2·1%, 95% CI 0·0-6·3], 2/152 on rivaroxaban [1·3%, 0·0-3·1], and 4/167 on warfarin [2·4%, 0·1-4·7]; p=0·77). In 429 patients prescribed an anticoagulant for atrial fibrillation, incidence of stroke was similar between the treatment cohorts (1/103 patients on apixaban [1·0%, 95% CI 0·0-2·9], 4/174 on rivaroxaban [2·3%, 0·1-4·5], and 2/152 on warfarin [1·3%, 0·0-3·1], p=0·71). In this patient group, major bleeding occurred in 3/103 patients on apixaban (2·9%, 95% CI 0·0-6·2), 5/174 on rivaroxaban (2·9%, 0·4-5·4), and 12/152 on warfarin (7·9%, 3·6-12·2); p=0·063. Time-to-event analyses showed that risk of all outcomes in patients with venous thromboembolism, and stroke and composite bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, were similar between the anticoagulant cohorts. INTERPRETATION: Our retrospective study provides further evidence of similar efficacy and safety between the direct oral anticoagulants apixaban and rivaroxaban, and warfarin in morbidly obese patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. These data, if confirmed in prospective studies, might enable patients with a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 to benefit from more convenient, and possibly safer, anticoagulants. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Obesidade Mórbida/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
9.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(22): 841-847, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The LigaSure system has been successfully used in thoracic and abdominal surgery. However, to date, its use in the resection of sarcomas has not been systematically studied. We aimed to determine whether the use of the LigaSure system reduces blood loss and blood transfusion volumes in sarcoma surgery. METHODS: One hundred forty-two consecutive patients who underwent sarcoma surgeries between July 2010 and October 2016 were included. Conventional electrocautery alone (n = 91) and with LigaSure (n = 51) were compared. Case-matched samples (n = 46) from each group were additionally compared. RESULTS: The use of the LigaSure system resulted in a significant decrease in mean intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.02) and blood transfusion volume (P = 0.04). Likewise, a significant decrease in both mean and median intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.003; P < 0.0001) was seen with LigaSure in the case-matched analysis. In the soft-tissue sarcoma subgroup, a significant decrease was observed in mean hemoglobin reduction (P = 0.03) and mean intraoperative blood loss with LigaSure (P = 0.04). No adverse perioperative complications attributed to the LigaSure system were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The LigaSure vessel sealing and dividing system is a safe and effective hemostatic tool for deep dissection in bone and soft-tissue sarcoma surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

11.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(10): 1014-1022, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between the duration of antibiotic administration during the first week of life and subsequent growth velocity during hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study comparing the inhospital growth of infants born between 30 and 326/7 weeks' gestational age (GA) admitted to the Montefiore Weiler and Wakefield neonatal intensive care units between January 2009 and December 2015. Antibiotic duration during the first week of life was classified as no antibiotics, <5 days of antibiotics, or ≥5 days of antibiotics. Differences between discharge and birth weight Z-scores were compared between the three groups using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Of the infants, 87% received antibiotics during the first week of life, with 16% of infants completing ≥5 days. Compared with infants receiving ≤5 days of antibiotics, infants treated with ≥5 days had a lower GA, lower Apgar scores, more invasive respiratory support, longer duration of total parenteral nutrition, delayed initiation of enteral feeding, and a higher weight Z-score on admission and discharge (p < 0.05). However, there was no distinction in growth between the three groups assessed by the difference between admission and discharge weight Z-scores (p = 0.64), growth velocity (gram/kilogram/day) (p = 0.104), or an exponential growth velocity outcome (p = 0.423). CONCLUSION: Early antibiotic exposure was not associated with increased growth velocity between birth and discharge. Our study was limited by its retrospective nature and lack of follow-up data postdischarge.

12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 96: 171-177, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078153

RESUMO

The extensive comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents leads to clinical heterogeneity, and is an often-overlooked issue in etiopathogenic and treatment studies in developmental psychopathology. In a representative sample (N=8236) of New York City public school students assessed six months after 9/11, latent class analysis was applied to 48 symptoms across seven disorders: posttraumatic stress, agoraphobia, separation anxiety, panic disorder, generalized anxiety (GAD), major depression (MDD) and conduct disorder (CD). Our objective was to identify classes defined by homogenous symptom profiles, and to examine the association between class membership and gender, age, race, different types of exposure to 9/11, and impairment. Eight homogenous comorbidity patterns were identified, including four severe disturbance classes: a multimorbid internalizing class (INT), a class with a high probability of CD, MDD, and GAD symptoms (Distress/EXT), a non-comorbid externalizing class, and a non-comorbid MDD class. Demographic and 9/11-related exposures showed some degree of specificity in their association with severe symptom profiles. Impairment was particularly high in the INT and Distress/EXT classes. A better characterization of phenomic data, that takes comorbidity into account, is essential to understand etiopathogenic processes, and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine. The high probability of endorsing symptoms of multiple disorders in the INT and Distress/EXT classes supports the use of treatments focusing on multimorbidity. Clinical trials should evaluate the effectiveness of disorder-specific versus transdiagnostic interventions. The association between class membership and demographic and exposure variables suggests that interventions may be improved by considering specific predictors of class membership.


Assuntos
Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Terrorismo , Adolescente , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Prevalência , Terrorismo/psicologia
13.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 56(12): 1081-1088.e1, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). METHOD: This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. RESULTS: Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. CONCLUSION: Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etnologia , Cultura , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estudos Prospectivos , Porto Rico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
14.
Circ Heart Fail ; 10(11)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent low-level hemolysis (LLH) during continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support is associated with subsequent thrombosis. Free hemoglobin from ongoing hemolysis scavenges nitric oxide (NO) to create an NO deficiency which can augment platelet function leading to a prothrombotic state. The phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, potentiates NO signaling to inhibit platelet function. Accordingly, we investigated the association of sildenafil administration and thrombotic events in patients with LLH during Heart Mate II support. METHODS AND RESULTS: A single-center review of all patients implanted with a Heart Mate II who survived to discharge (n=144). LLH was defined by a discharge lactate dehydrogenase level of 400 to 700 U/L. Patients were categorized as (1) LLH not on sildenafil, (2) LLH on sildenafil, (3) no LLH not on sildenafil, and (4) no LLH on sildenafil. Age, sex, platelet count, and mean platelet volume were similar between groups. Seventeen patients had either device thrombosis or ischemic stroke. Presence of LLH was associated with a greater risk of thrombosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 15; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-50; P<0.001 versus no LLH, not on sildenafil). This risk was reduced in patients with LLH on sildenafil (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-16.1; P=0.61). Device thrombosis and ischemic stroke were associated with an increase in mean platelet volume (9.6±0.5 to 10.9±0.8 fL, P<0.001). Patients with LLH not on sildenafil had a greater increase in mean platelet volume in comparison to those with LLH on sildenafil (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil is associated with reduced device thrombosis and ischemic stroke during ongoing LLH on Heart Mate II support.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 74: 134-143, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events (CE) is a foreseeable risk for psychiatric disorders in first responders (FRs). Our objective was to examine the impact of work-related CE that could serve as predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in FRs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional examination of previous CE and past-month PTSD outcomes and depression in 209 FRs. METHODS: Logistic (probable PTSD; probable depression) and Poisson regressions (PTSD score) of the outcomes on work-related CE indexes, adjusting for demographic variables. Differences across occupational groups were also examined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the sensitivity and specificity of CE indexes. RESULTS: All indexes were significantly and differently associated with PTSD; associations with depression were non-significant. The index capturing the sheer number of different incidents experienced regardless of frequency ('Variety') showed conceptual, practical and statistical advantages compared to other indexes. In general, the indexes showed poor to fair discrimination accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related CE is specifically associated with PTSD. Focusing on the variety of exposures may be a simple and effective strategy to predict PTSD in FRs. Further research on sensitivity and specificity of exposure indexes, preferably examined prospectively, is needed and could lead to early identification of individuals at risk.


Assuntos
Socorristas/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Distribuição Aleatória , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 87: 30-36, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental warmth (PW) has a strong influence on child development and may precede the onset of psychiatric disorders in children. PW is interconnected with other family processes (e.g., coercive discipline) that may also influence the development of psychiatric disorders in children. We prospectively examined the association between PW and child psychiatric disorders (anxiety, major depression disorder, ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders) over the course of three years among Puerto Rican youth, above and beyond the influence of other family factors. METHODS: Boricua Youth Study participants, Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at Wave 1 living in the South Bronx (New York) (SB) and San Juan and Canguas (PR) (n = 2,491), were followed for three consecutive years. Youth psychiatric disorders were measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV). Generalized Linear Mixed models tested the association between PW (Wave 1) and psychiatric disorders in the next two years adjusting for demographic characteristics and family processes. RESULTS: Higher levels of PW were related to lower odds of child anxiety and major depressive disorder over time (OR = 0.69[0.60; 0.79]; 0.49[0.41; 0.58], respectively). The strength of the association between PW and ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder declined over time, although it was still significant in the last assessment (OR = 0.44[0.37; 0.52]; 0.46[0.39; 0.54], respectively). PW had a unique influence on psychiatric disorders beyond the influence of other parenting and family processes. Stronger associations were observed among girls for depression and ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating PW behaviors such as acceptance, support, and comforting into interventions focused on parenting skills may help prevent child psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Estatística como Assunto
17.
J Child Fam Stud ; 25(11): 3417-3429, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713212

RESUMO

This paper examines whether family structure and its transitions are associated with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican-origin children. It uses longitudinal data (three waves) from the Boricua Youth Study, which includes probability samples of children in the South Bronx (New York) and San Juan (Puerto Rico) (n = 2,142). We also examine factors which may explain how family structure and transitions may be related to child psychiatric disorders. Our results show that for both internalizing and externalizing disorders there were no significant differences between children of cohabiting (biological or step) parents or of single parents compared to children of married biological parents. In Puerto Rico only, transitioning once from a two-parent family to a single-parent family was related to child internalizing disorders. Family transitions were not associated with externalizing disorders at either site. Context may be an important factor shaping the risk that family dissolution is followed by an internalizing disorder among children.

18.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 54(12): 1042-50, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26598479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. METHOD: Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. RESULTS: On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. CONCLUSION: It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sensação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Porto Rico/etnologia
19.
Lancet ; 385(9977): 1536-44, 2015 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25579833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. METHODS: The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025), compared with the control group. 14 pupils (0·70%) reported incident suicide attempts at the 12 month follow-up in the YAM versus 34 (1·51%) in the control group, and 15 pupils (0·75%) reported incident severe suicidal ideation in the YAM group versus 31 (1·37%) in the control group. No participants completed suicide during the study period. INTERPRETATION: YAM was effective in reducing the number of suicide attempts and severe suicidal ideation in school-based adolescents. These findings underline the benefit of this universal suicide preventive intervention in schools. FUNDING: Coordination Theme 1 (Health) of the European Union Seventh Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Análise por Conglomerados , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autorrelato , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
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