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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate left ventricular (LV) structure and function in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) patients before and after curative surgery. BACKGROUND: Data on catecholamine-induced effects on LV structure and function in patients with PPGL are limited and conflicting. METHODS: The study evaluated 81 consecutive patients with a PPGL, among whom 66 were evaluated 12 months after tumor removal. Fifty patients matched for age, sex, hypertension presence, and blood pressure (BP) levels served as a control group (non-PPGL group). Echocardiography was employed to assess the LV mass index (LVMI), systolic function including speckle tracking echocardiography, and diastolic function. RESULTS: Patients with PPGL were characterized by higher LVMI (median 103 [interquartile range (IQR): 88 to 132] g/m2 vs. median 94 [IQR: 74 to 106] g/m2; p = 0.006) and frequency of LV hypertrophy (44.4% vs. 24.0%; p = 0.018) compared with the non-PPGL group. Patients with PPGLs were characterized by lower global longitudinal strain (GLS) and early diastolic mitral annular velocity compared with patients in the non-PPGL group (median -17.2% [IQR: 15.6% to 18.9%] vs. median -19.3% [IQR: 17.7% to 20.6%]; p < 0.001; and median 11.1 [IQR: 8.3 to 13.0] cm/s vs. median 12.3 [IQR: 10.6 to 14.6] cm/s; p = 0.018, respectively). Presence of LV hypertrophy and GLS were independently associated with plasma free metanephrine concentrations. In operated patients, there were lower frequencies of LV hypertrophy (39.4% vs. 22.7%; p = 0.003), LVMI (median 98 [IQR: 85 to 115] g/m2 vs. median 90 [IQR: 76 to 109] g/m2; p < 0.001), and the ratio of transmitral early diastolic velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (median 6.8 [IQR: 5.5 to 8.6] vs. median 6.0 [IQR: 5.0 to 7.6]; p = 0.005) but higher values for GLS (median -17.4 [IQR: -15.8 to 19.1] vs. median -18.5 [IQR: -17.1 to 20.1] p < 0.001) after compared with before surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Catecholamine excess in patients with PPGLs can lead not only to LV hypertrophy, but also to impairment of systolic LV function and subclinical alterations of diastolic LV function, independently of BP levels. These structural and functional changes are reversible after surgical intervention.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750708

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are characterized by distinct genotype-phenotype relationships according to studies largely restricted to Caucasian populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess for possible differences in genetic landscapes and genotype-phenotype relationships of PPGLs in Chinese versus European populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 2 tertiary-care centers in China and 9 in Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of PPGL, including 719 Chinese and 919 Europeans. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Next-generation sequencing performed in tumor specimens with mutations confirmed by Sanger sequencing and tested in peripheral blood if available. Frequencies of mutations were examined according to tumor location and catecholamine biochemical phenotypes. RESULTS: Among all patients, higher frequencies of HRAS, FGFR1, and EPAS1 mutations were observed in Chinese than Europeans, whereas the reverse was observed for NF1, VHL, RET, and SDHx. Among patients with apparently sporadic PPGLs, the most frequently mutated genes in Chinese were HRAS (16.5% [13.6-19.3] vs 9.8% [7.6-12.1]) and FGFR1 (9.8% [7.6-12.1] vs 2.2% [1.1-3.3]), whereas among Europeans the most frequently mutated genes were NF1 (15.9% [13.2-18.6] vs 6.6% [4.7-8.5]) and SDHx (10.7% [8.4-13.0] vs 4.2% [2.6-5.7]). Among Europeans, almost all paragangliomas lacked appreciable production of epinephrine and identified gene mutations were largely restricted to those leading to stabilization of hypoxia inducible factors. In contrast, among Chinese there was a larger proportion of epinephrine-producing paragangliomas, mostly due to HRAS and FGFR1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes Sino-European differences in the genetic landscape and presentation of PPGLs, including ethnic differences in genotype-phenotype relationships indicating a paradigm shift in our understanding of the biology of these tumors.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609829

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Catecholamines and adrenocortical steroids are important regulators of blood pressure. Bidirectional relationships between adrenal steroids and catecholamines have been established but whether this is relevant to patients with pheochromocytoma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the hypothesis that patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) have altered steroid production compared with patients with primary hypertension. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional study. SETTING: Twelve European referral centers. PATIENTS: Subjects included 182 patients with pheochromocytoma, 36 with paraganglioma and 270 patients with primary hypertension. Patients with primary aldosteronism (n = 461) and Cushing syndrome (n = 124) were included for additional comparisons. INTERVENTION: In patients with PPGLs, surgical resection of tumors. OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in mass spectrometry-based profiles of 15 adrenal steroids between groups and after surgical resection of PPGLs. Relationships of steroids to plasma and urinary metanephrines and urinary catecholamines. RESULTS: Patients with pheochromocytoma had higher (P < .05) circulating concentrations of cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and corticosterone than patients with primary hypertension. Concentrations of cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, and corticosterone were also higher (P < .05) in patients with pheochromocytoma than with paraganglioma. These steroids correlated positively with plasma and urinary metanephrines and catecholamines in patients with pheochromocytoma, but not paraganglioma. After adrenalectomy, there were significant decreases in cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, aldosterone, and 18-oxocortisol. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large study in patients with PPGLs that supports in a clinical setting the concept of adrenal cortical-medullary interactions involving an influence of catecholamines on adrenal steroids. These findings could have implications for the cardiovascular complications of PPGLs and the clinical management of patients with the tumors.

6.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(7-8): 607-614, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polycythemia vera (PV) is a rare myeloproliferative disease associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular complications. However, the precise mechanisms leading to the elevation of blood pressure (BP) and secondary target organ damage remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate BP profile, assess the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin­angiotensin system, and provide a comprehensive assessment of subclinical target organ damage in patients with PV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed PV and 20 control subjects were included. The following were assessed: BP, levels of catecholamines, urinary and plasma O­methylated catecholamine metabolites, concentrations of aldosterone and renin. We also assessed microneurography sympathetic nervous system activity (MSNA) and baroreflex control of heart rate as well as subclinical target organ damage. RESULTS: At similar levels of BP, BP variability was decreased in the PV group (mean [SD] 24­hour systolic BP, 9 [3] vs 12 [3] mm Hg; P = 0.003). Patients with PV had lower norepinephrine excretion (mean [SD], 16.54 [6.32] vs 25.46 [12.88] µg/d; P = 0.03) as well as decreased MSNA as assessed by microneurography compared with controls (mean [SD] MSNA, 30.7 [8.7] bursts/min vs 38.7 [5.4] bursts/min; P = 0.007 and MSNA 51.8 [11] bursts/100 beats vs 61.1 [11.3] bursts/100 heart beats; P = 0.04). Baroreflex control of HR was unaltered in the PV group. Increased hemoglobin levels and red blood cell count correlated with decreased retinal capillary flow in patients with PV. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PV, characterized by high hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit levels had lower sympathetic nervous activity and decreased BP variability as compared with controls. There was no relationship between hemoglobin plasma concentration, hematocrit level, and target organ damage.

7.
Horm Metab Res ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591840

RESUMO

COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the WHO and has affected millions of patients around the world. COVID-19 disproportionately affects persons with endocrine conditions, thus putting them at an increased risk for severe disease. We discuss the mechanisms that place persons with endocrine conditions at an additional risk for severe COVID-19 and review the evidence. We also suggest precautions and management of endocrine conditions in the setting of global curfews being imposed and offer practical tips for uninterrupted endocrine care.

8.
Metabolism ; 110: 154297, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors that are mostly benign. Metastatic disease does occur in about 10% of cases of PCC and up to 25% of PGL, and for these patients no effective therapies are available. Patients with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene tend to have metastatic disease. We hypothesized that a down-regulation in the active succinate dehydrogenase B subunit should result in notable changes in cellular metabolic profile and could present a vulnerability point for successful pharmacological targeting. METHODS: Metabolomic analysis was performed on human hPheo1 cells and shRNA SDHB knockdown hPheo1 (hPheo1 SDHB KD) cells. Additional analysis of 115 human fresh frozen samples was conducted. In vitro studies using N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) and N1,N12- diethylspermine (DESPM) treatments were carried out. DENSPM efficacy was assessed in human cell line derived mouse xenografts. RESULTS: Components of the polyamine pathway were elevated in hPheo1 SDHB KD cells compared to wild-type cells. A similar observation was noted in SDHx PCC/PGLs tissues compared to their non-mutated counterparts. Specifically, spermidine, and spermine were significantly elevated in SDHx-mutated PCC/PGLs, with a similar trend in hPheo1 SDHB KD cells. Polyamine pathway inhibitors DENSPM and DESPM effectively inhibited growth of hPheo1 cells in vitro as well in mouse xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates overactive polyamine pathway in PCC/PGL with SDHB mutations. Treatment with polyamine pathway inhibitors significantly inhibited hPheo1 cell growth and led to growth suppression in xenograft mice treated with DENSPM. These studies strongly implicate the polyamine pathway in PCC/PGL pathophysiology and provide new foundation for exploring the role for polyamine analogue inhibitors in treating metastatic PCC/PGL. PRéCIS: Cell line metabolomics on hPheo1 cells and PCC/PGL tumor tissue indicate that the polyamine pathway is activated. Polyamine inhibitors in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that polyamine inhibitors are promising for malignant PCC/PGL treatment. However, further research is warranted.

9.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(7): 471-484, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512611

RESUMO

COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the WHO and has affected millions of patients around the world. COVID-19 disproportionately affects persons with endocrine conditions, thus putting them at an increased risk for severe disease. We discuss the mechanisms that place persons with endocrine conditions at an additional risk for severe COVID-19 and review the evidence. We also suggest precautions and management of endocrine conditions in the setting of global curfews being imposed and offer practical tips for uninterrupted endocrine care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
12.
J Hypertens ; 38(8): 1443-1456, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412940

RESUMO

: Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are chromaffin cell tumours that require timely diagnosis because of their potentially serious cardiovascular and sometimes life- threatening sequelae. Tremendous progress in biochemical testing, imaging, genetics and pathophysiological understanding of the tumours has far-reaching implications for physicians dealing with hypertension and more importantly affected patients. Because hypertension is a classical clinical clue for PPGL, physicians involved in hypertension care are those who are often the first to consider this diagnosis. However, there have been profound changes in how PPGLs are discovered; this is often now based on incidental findings of adrenal or other masses during imaging and increasingly during surveillance based on rapidly emerging new hereditary causes of PPGL. We therefore address the relevant genetic causes of PPGLs and outline how genetic testing can be incorporated within clinical care. In addition to conventional imaging (computed tomography, MRI), new functional imaging approaches are evaluated. The novel knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, linking distinct genetic causes of disease to clinical behaviour and biochemical phenotype, provides the rationale for patient-tailored strategies for diagnosis, follow-up and surveillance. Most appropriate preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are reviewed, as is minimally invasive surgery. Finally, we discuss risk factors for developing metastatic disease and how they may facilitate personalised follow-up. Experts from the European Society of Hypertension have prepared this position document that summarizes the current knowledge in epidemiology, genetics, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of PPGL.

13.
Clin Chem ; 66(5): 661-662, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353130
14.
J Pathol ; 251(4): 378-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462735

RESUMO

Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a hereditary background in over one-third of patients. Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes increase the risk for PPGLs and several other tumours. Mutations in subunit B (SDHB) in particular are a risk factor for metastatic disease, further highlighting the importance of identifying SDHx mutations for patient management. Genetic variants of unknown significance, where implications for the patient and family members are unclear, are a problem for interpretation. For such cases, reliable methods for evaluating protein functionality are required. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (SDHB-IHC) is the method of choice but does not assess functionality at the enzymatic level. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based measurements of metabolite precursors and products of enzymatic reactions provide an alternative method. Here, we compare SDHB-IHC with metabolite profiling in 189 tumours from 187 PPGL patients. Besides evaluating succinate:fumarate ratios (SFRs), machine learning algorithms were developed to establish predictive models for interpreting metabolite data. Metabolite profiling showed higher diagnostic specificity compared to SDHB-IHC (99.2% versus 92.5%, p = 0.021), whereas sensitivity was comparable. Application of machine learning algorithms to metabolite profiles improved predictive ability over that of the SFR, in particular for hard-to-interpret cases of head and neck paragangliomas (AUC 0.9821 versus 0.9613, p = 0.044). Importantly, the combination of metabolite profiling with SDHB-IHC has complementary utility, as SDHB-IHC correctly classified all but one of the false negatives from metabolite profiling strategies, while metabolite profiling correctly classified all but one of the false negatives/positives from SDHB-IHC. From 186 tumours with confirmed status of SDHx variant pathogenicity, the combination of the two methods resulted in 185 correct predictions, highlighting the benefits of both strategies for patient management. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

15.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(10): 1609-1610, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286244
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 507: 98-103, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism (PA) involves a multistep process reliant on the accuracy of aldosterone measurements at each step. We report on immunoassay interference leading to a wrongful diagnosis and indication for surgical intervention. CASE: A 38-year old hypertensive male with a 1.4 cm left adrenal mass was diagnosed with PA based on an elevated aldosterone:renin ratio and a positive saline infusion test. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) indicated left-sided aldosterone hypersecretion, supporting a decision to remove the left adrenal. The patient was also enrolled in a study to evaluate mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling, which indicated plasma aldosterone concentrations measured in five different peripheral samples averaging only 11% those of the immunoassay. Mass spectrometric measurements did not support left-sided adrenal aldosterone hypersecretion. Two independent laboratories confirmed differences in measurements by immunoassay and mass spectrometry. Lowered concentrations measured by the immunoassay that matched those by mass spectrometry were achieved after sample purification to remove macromolecules, confirming immunoassay interference. CONCLUSIONS: Although our patient may represent an isolated case of immunoassay interference leading to misdiagnosis of PA, unnecessary AVS and potentially wrongful removal of an adrenal, it is also possible that such inaccuracies may impact the diagnostic process and treatment for other patients.

17.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 27(7): 403-413, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348959

RESUMO

Biochemical characterization of primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH) by distinct plasma steroid profiles and its putative correlation to disease has not been previously studied. LC-MS/MS-based steroid profiling of 16 plasma steroids was applied to 36 subjects (22 females, 14 males) with PBMAH, 19 subjects (16 females, 3 males) with other forms of adrenal Cushing's syndrome (ACS), and an age and sex-matched control group. Germline ARMC5 sequencing was performed in all PBMAH cases. Compared to controls, PBMAH showed increased plasma 11-deoxycortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxycortisol, and aldosterone, but lower progesterone, DHEA, and DHEA-S with distinct differences in subjects with and without pathogenic variants in ARMC5. Steroids that showed isolated differences included cortisol and 18-oxocortisol with higher (P < 0.05) concentrations in ACS than in controls and aldosterone with higher concentrations in PBMAH when compared to controls. Larger differences in PBMAH than with ACS were most clear for corticosterone, but there were also trends in this direction for 18-hydroxycortisol and aldosterone. Logistic regression analysis indicated four steroids - DHEA, 11-deoxycortisol, 18-oxocortisol, and corticosterone - with the most power for distinguishing the groups. Discriminant analyses with step-wise variable selection indicated correct classification of 95.2% of all subjects of the four groups using a panel of nine steroids; correct classification of subjects with and without germline variants in ARMC5 was achieved in 91.7% of subjects with PBMAH. Subjects with PBMAH show distinctive plasma steroid profiles that may offer a supplementary single-test alternative for screening purposes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158431

RESUMO

Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and variable risk of malignancy. The current therapy of choice is surgical resection. Nevertheless, PCCs/PGLs are associated with a lifelong risk of tumor persistence or recurrence. A high rate of germline or somatic mutations in numerous genes has been found in these tumors. For some, the tumorigenic processes are initiated during embryogenesis. Such tumors carry gene mutations leading to pseudohypoxic phenotypes and show more immature characteristics than other chromaffin cell tumors; they are also often multifocal or metastatic and occur at an early age, often during childhood. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells with an inherent ability of self-renewal, de-differentiation, and capacity to initiate and maintain malignant tumor growth. Targeting CSCs to inhibit cancer progression has become an attractive anti-cancer therapeutic strategy. Despite progress for this strategy for solid tumors such as neuroblastoma, brain, breast, and colon cancers, no substantial advance has been made employing similar strategies in PCCs/PGLs. In the current review, we discuss findings related to the identification of normal chromaffin stem cells and CSCs, pathways involved in regulating the development of CSCs, and the importance of the stem cell niche in development and maintenance of CSCs in PCCs/PGLs. Additionally, we examine the development and feasibility of novel CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating especially recurrent and metastatic tumors.

19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(5): 499-509, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187575

RESUMO

Objective: Sympathoadrenal activity is decreased during overnight rest. This study assessed whether urinary-free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine in overnight/first-morning urine collections might offer an alternative to measurements in 24-h collections or plasma for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). Design and methods: Prospective multicenter cross-sectional diagnostic study involving 706 patients tested for PPGL, in whom tumors were confirmed in 79 and excluded in 627 after follow-up. Another 335 age- and sex-matched volunteers were included for reference purposes. Catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites were measured in 24-h collections divided according to waking and sleeping hours and normalized to creatinine. Plasma metabolites from blood sampled after supine rest were measured for comparison. Results: Urinary outputs of norepinephrine, normetanephrine, epinephrine and metanephrine in the reference population were respectively 50 (48-52)%, 35 (32-37)%, 76 (74-78)% and 15 (12-17)% lower following overnight than daytime collections. Patients in whom PPGLs were excluded showed 28 (26-30)% and 6 (3-9)% day-to-night falls in normetanephrine and metanephrine, while patients with PPGLs showed no significant day-to-night falls in metabolites. Urinary methoxytyramine was consistently unchanged from day to night. According to receiver-operating characteristic curves, diagnostic accuracy of metabolite measurements in overnight/first-morning urine samples did not differ from measurements in 24-h urine collections, but was lower for both than for plasma. Using optimized reference intervals, diagnostic specificity was higher for overnight than daytime collections at similar sensitivities. Conclusions: Measurements of urinary-free catecholamine metabolites in first-morning/overnight urine collections offer an alternative for diagnosis of PPGL to 24-h collections but remain less accurate than plasma measurements.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Dopamina/análogos & derivados , Metanefrina/urina , Paraganglioma/urina , Feocromocitoma/urina , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Dopamina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Hypertens ; 38(8): 1551-1558, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Structural abnormalities in resistance arteries are a hallmark of patients with hypertension. In hypertensive patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL), it is still a matter of debate whether structural vascular changes are because of elevated blood pressure (BP) or to toxic effects of elevated circulating catecholamines. Hence, the aim of our study was to assess whether catecholamine excess and/or elevated BP affect the structure of small retinal arteries in patients with catecholamine-producing tumors. METHODS: The study included 27 patients with PPGL and 27 hypertensive patients. All patients underwent biochemical tests for catecholamine excess, echocardiography and analyses of scanning-laser-Doppler-flowmetry (SLDF) both at baseline and 12 months following surgical resection of PPGL. RESULTS: Baseline retinal arterial diameter, arterial wall thickness and wall cross sectional area (WCSA) were higher in patients with PPGL as compared with subjects without PPGL (arterial diameter: 110 ±â€Š16.5 vs. 99.5 ±â€Š10.8 µm, wall thickness: 16.3 ±â€Š6.0 vs. 13.5 ±â€Š4.0 µm, WCSA: 4953.9 ±â€Š2472.8 vs. 3784.1 ±â€Š1446.3 µm, P < 0.05). Significant correlations were noted between wall thickness and WCSA and echocardiographic parameters assessing diastolic and systolic function of left ventricle. No correlations between retinal parameters, BP level and plasma concentrations of metanephrines were observed. In patients with PPGL, there were postoperative decreases in wall thickness (16.4 ±â€Š15.8 vs. 14.8 ±â€Š4.7 µm; P = 0.011) and WLR (0.42 ±â€Š0.13 vs. 0.37 ±â€Š0.10; P = 0.003) at 12 months after surgical removal of tumors. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that catecholamine excess is related to thickening of retinal arteries independent of BP and reversible after surgical cure. These data support a role of catecholamines in vascular remodeling in PPGL patients.

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