Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 289
Filtrar
1.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

3.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 64(5): 208-222, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683804

RESUMO

The publication of genetic epidemiology meta-analyses has increased rapidly, but it has been suggested that many of the statistically significant results are false positive. In addition, most such meta-analyses have been redundant, duplicate, and erroneous, leading to research waste. In addition, since most claimed candidate gene associations were false-positives, correctly interpreting the published results is important. In this review, we emphasize the importance of interpreting the results of genetic epidemiology meta-analyses using Bayesian statistics and gene network analysis, which could be applied in other diseases.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e22103, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Korea is one of the few countries that has succeeded in flattening the curve of new COVID-19 cases and avoiding a second outbreak by implementing multiple strategies, ranging from an individual level to the population level. OBJECTIVE: We aim to discuss the unique strategies and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in South Korea and present a summary of policies implemented by the Korean government during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study of epidemiological data published by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on October 1, 2020. We analyzed detailed epidemiological information of COVID-19 cases, including the number of confirmed cases and resulting deaths. RESULTS: As of October 1, 2020, a total of 23,889 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 415 deaths were reported in South Korea. In this paper, we present data on the epidemiological characteristics and transmission of the disease and discuss how the South Korean government, health care providers, and society responded to the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in South Korea and the government's successful efforts in managing the spread of the disease can provide important insights to other countries dealing with the ongoing pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
6.
Brain Sci ; 10(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007889

RESUMO

This study aimed to verify noteworthy findings between genetic risk factors and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by employing the false positive report probability (FPRP) and the Bayesian false-discovery probability (BFDP). PubMed and the Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) catalog were searched from inception to 1 August, 2019. We included meta-analyses on genetic factors of ASD of any study design. Overall, twenty-seven meta-analyses articles from literature searches, and four manually added articles from the GWAS catalog were re-analyzed. This showed that five of 31 comparisons for meta-analyses of observational studies, 40 out of 203 comparisons for the GWAS meta-analyses, and 18 out of 20 comparisons for the GWAS catalog, respectively, had noteworthy estimations under both Bayesian approaches. In this study, we found noteworthy genetic comparisons highly related to an increased risk of ASD. Multiple genetic comparisons were shown to be associated with ASD risk; however, genuine associations should be carefully verified and understood.

7.
Front Physiol ; 11: 872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922301

RESUMO

Background: In COVID 19 related lung disease, which is a leading cause of death from this disease, cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) may be pivotal in the pathogenesis. TNF alpha reduces fluid absorption due to impairment of sodium and chloride transport required for building an osmotic gradient across epithelial cells, which in the airways maintains airway surface liquid helping to keep airways open and enabling bacterial clearance and aids water absorption from the alveolar spaces. TNF alpha can, through Rho-kinase, disintegrate the endothelial and epithelial cytoskeleton, and thus break up intercellular tight junctional proteins, breaching the intercellular barrier, which prevents flooding of the interstitial and alveolar spaces with fluid. Hypotheses: (1) Preservation and restoration of airway and alveolar epithelial sodium and chloride transport and the cytoskeleton dependent integrity of the cell barriers within the lung can prevent and treat COVID 19 lung disease. (2) TNF alpha is the key mediator of pulmonary edema in COVID 19 lung disease. Confirmation of hypothesis and implications: The role of a reduction in the function of epithelial sodium and chloride transport could with regards to chloride transport be tested by analysis of chloride levels in exhaled breath condensate and levels correlated with TNF alpha concentrations. Reduced levels would indicate a reduction of the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel and a correlation with TNF alpha levels indicative of its involvement. Anti-TNF alpha treatment with antibodies is already available and needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials of COVID 19 lung disease. TNF alpha levels could also be reduced by statins, aspirin, and curcumin. Chloride transport could be facilitated by CFTR activators, including curcumin and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Sodium and chloride transport could be further regulated to prevent accumulation of alveolar fluid by use of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter type 1 inhibitors, which have been associated with improved outcome in adults ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in randomized controlled trials. Primary prevention of coronavirus infection and TNF alpha release in response to it could be improved by induction of antimicrobial peptides LL-37 and human beta defensin-2 and reduction of TNF alpha production by vitamin D prophylaxis for the population as a whole.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 302-308, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December of 2019 in China, estimating the pandemic's case fatality rate (CFR) has been the focus and interest of many stakeholders. In this manuscript, we prove that the method of using the cumulative CFR is static and does not reflect the trend according to the daily change per unit of time. METHODS: A proportion meta-analysis was carried out on the CFR in every country reporting COVID-19 cases. Based on these results, we performed a meta-analysis for a global COVID-19 CFR. Each analysis was performed using two different calculations of CFR: according to the calendar date and according to the days since the outbreak of the first confirmed case. We thus explored an innovative and original calculation of CFR, concurrently based on the date of the first confirmed case as well as on a daily basis. RESULTS: For the first time, we showed that using meta-analyses according to the calendar date and days since the outbreak of the first confirmed case, were different. CONCLUSION: We propose that a CFR according to days since the outbreak of the first confirmed case might be a better predictor of the current CFR of COVID-19 and its kinetics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013359, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, at least one million children become ill with tuberculosis and around 200,000 children die. Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra are World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid molecular tests that simultaneously detect tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults and children with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, at lower health system levels. To inform updated WHO guidelines on molecular assays, we performed a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in children presumed to have active tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for (a) pulmonary tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (b) tuberculous meningitis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; (c) lymph node tuberculosis in children presumed to have tuberculosis; and (d) rifampicin resistance in children presumed to have tuberculosis - For tuberculosis detection, index tests were used as the initial test, replacing standard practice (i.e. smear microscopy or culture) - For detection of rifampicin resistance, index tests replaced culture-based drug susceptibility testing as the initial test Secondary objectives • To compare the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra for each of the four target conditions • To investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in accuracy estimates - For tuberculosis detection, we considered age, disease severity, smear-test status, HIV status, clinical setting, specimen type, high tuberculosis burden, and high tuberculosis/HIV burden - For detection of rifampicin resistance, we considered multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis burden • To compare multiple Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra results (repeated testing) with the initial Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra result SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN) Registry up to 29 April 2019, without language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials, cross-sectional trials, and cohort studies evaluating Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert Ultra in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children younger than 15 years. Reference standards comprised culture or a composite reference standard for tuberculosis and drug susceptibility testing or MTBDRplus (molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance) for rifampicin resistance. We included studies evaluating sputum, gastric aspirate, stool, nasopharyngeal or bronchial lavage specimens (pulmonary tuberculosis), cerebrospinal fluid (tuberculous meningitis), fine needle aspirates, or surgical biopsy tissue (lymph node tuberculosis). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy - Revised (QUADAS-2). For each target condition, we used the bivariate model to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We stratified all analyses by type of reference standard. We assessed certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: For pulmonary tuberculosis, 299 data sets (68,544 participants) were available for analysis; for tuberculous meningitis, 10 data sets (423 participants) were available; for lymph node tuberculosis, 10 data sets (318 participants) were available; and for rifampicin resistance, 14 data sets (326 participants) were available. Thirty-nine studies (80%) took place in countries with high tuberculosis burden. Risk of bias was low except for the reference standard domain, for which risk of bias was unclear because many studies collected only one specimen for culture. Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis For sputum specimens, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 64.6% (55.3% to 72.9%) (23 studies, 493 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and 99.0% (98.1% to 99.5%) (23 studies, 6119 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For other specimen types (nasopharyngeal aspirate, 4 studies; gastric aspirate, 14 studies; stool, 11 studies), Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity ranged between 45.7% and 73.0%, and pooled specificity ranged between 98.1% and 99.6%. For sputum specimens, Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) verified by culture were 72.8% (64.7% to 79.6%) (3 studies, 136 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 97.5% (95.8% to 98.5%) (3 studies, 551 participants; high-certainty evidence). For nasopharyngeal specimens, Xpert Ultra sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) were 45.7% (28.9% to 63.3%) and 97.5% (93.7% to 99.3%) (1 study, 195 participants). For all specimen types, Xpert MTB/RIF and Xpert Ultra sensitivity were lower against a composite reference standard than against culture. Detection of tuberculous meningitis For cerebrospinal fluid, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 54.0% (95% CI 27.8% to 78.2%) (6 studies, 28 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 93.8% (95% CI 84.5% to 97.6%) (6 studies, 213 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of lymph node tuberculosis For lymph node aspirates or biopsies, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity, verified by culture, were 90.4% (95% CI 55.7% to 98.6%) (6 studies, 68 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 89.8% (95% CI 71.5% to 96.8%) (6 studies, 142 participants; low-certainty evidence). Detection of rifampicin resistance Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (67.6% to 97.5%) (6 studies, 20 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 98.3% (87.7% to 99.8%) (6 studies, 203 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity to vary by specimen type, with gastric aspirate specimens having the highest sensitivity followed by sputum and stool, and nasopharyngeal specimens the lowest; specificity in all specimens was > 98%. Compared with Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra sensitivity in sputum was higher and specificity slightly lower. Xpert MTB/RIF was accurate for detection of rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF was sensitive for diagnosing lymph node tuberculosis. For children with presumed tuberculous meningitis, treatment decisions should be based on the entirety of clinical information and treatment should not be withheld based solely on an Xpert MTB/RIF result. The small numbers of studies and participants, particularly for Xpert Ultra, limits our confidence in the precision of these estimates.


Assuntos
Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Meníngea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Viés , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/normas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Meníngea/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tuberculose Meníngea/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Meníngea/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(7): e15690, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies to blood stages protective against complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection were found to be of immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG1) and IgG3 subclasses and of high affinity to the target epitopes. These target epitopes cannot be characterized using recombinant antigens because of a lack of appropriate glycosylation, phosphorylation, methylation, and bisulfide bond formation, which determine the structure of conformational and nonlinear epitopes within the tertiary and quaternary structures of native P. falciparum antigens. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a method for the comprehensive detection of all P. falciparum schizont antigens, eliciting a protective immune response. METHODS: Purified parasitophorous vacuole membrane-enclosed merozoite structures (PEMSs) containing native schizont antigens are initially generated, separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nitrocellulose. Antigens eliciting a protective antibody response are visualized by incubation with sera from patients with clinical immunity. This is followed by the elution of low-affinity antibodies with urea and detection of protective antibody responses by incubation with anti-IgG1 and anti-IgG3 antibodies, which were conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. This is followed by visualization with a color reaction. Blot signals are normalized by relating to the intensity of blot staining with a reference antibody and housekeeping antigens. Results are corrected for intensity of exposure by the relation of antibody responses to global P. falciparum antibody titers. Antigens eliciting the protective responses are identified as immunorelevant from the comparison of spot positions, indicating high-affinity IgG1 or IgG3 responses on the western blot, which is unique to or consistently more intensive in clinically immune individuals compared with nonimmune individuals. The results obtained are validated by using affinity chromatography. RESULTS: Another group previously applied 2D western blotting to analyze antibody responses to P. falciparum. The sera of patients allowed the detection of 42 antigenic spots on the 2D immunoblot. The spots detected were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for identification. A total of 19 protein spots were successfully identified and corresponded to 13 distinct proteins. Another group used immunoaffinity chromatography to identify antigens bound by IgGs produced by mice with enhanced immunity to Plasmodium yoelii. Immunorelevant antigens were isolated and identified by immobilizing immunoglobulin from immune mice to a Sephadex column and then passing a blood-stage antigen mixture through the column followed by the elution of specific bound antigens with sodium deoxycholate and the identification of those antigens by western blotting with specific antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: 2D western blotting using native antigens has the potential to identify antibody responses selective for specific defined isomeric forms of the same protein, including isoforms (protein species) generated by posttranscriptional modifications such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, and methylation. The process involved in 2D western blotting enables highly sensitive detection, high resolution, and preservation of antibody responses during blotting. Validation by immunoaffinity chromatography can compensate for the antigen loss associated with the blotting process. It has the potential for indirect quantification of protective antibody responses by enabling quantification of the amount of eluted antibody bound antigens through mass spectrometry. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/15690.

11.
Adv Nutr ; 11(5): 1134-1149, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488249

RESUMO

Multiple studies have suggested that ω-3 fatty acid intake may have a protective effect on cancer risk; however, its true association with cancer risk remains controversial. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses to summarize and evaluate the evidence for the association between ω-3 fatty acid intake and cancer outcomes. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to December 1, 2018. We included meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between intake of fish or ω-3 fatty acid and cancer risk (gastrointestinal, liver, breast, gynecologic, prostate, brain, lung, and skin) and determined the level of evidence of associations. In addition, we appraised the quality of the evidence of significant meta-analyses by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. We initially screened 598 articles, and 15 articles, including 57 meta-analyses, were eligible. Among 57 meta-analyses, 15 reported statistically significant results. We found that 12 meta-analyses showed weak evidence of an association between ω-3 fatty acid intake and risk of the following types of cancer: liver cancer (n = 4 of 6), breast cancer (n = 3 of 14), prostate cancer (n = 3 of 11), and brain tumor (n = 2 of 2). In the other 3 meta-analyses, studies of endometrial cancer and skin cancer, there were no assessable data for determining the evidence levels. No meta-analysis showed convincing, highly suggestive, or suggestive evidence of an association. In the sensitivity analysis of meta-analyses by study design, we found weak associations between ω-3 fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk in cohort studies, but no statistically significant association in case-control studies. However, the opposite results were found in case of brain tumor risk. Although ω-3 fatty acids have been studied in several meta-analyses with regard to a wide range of cancer outcomes, only weak associations were identified in some cancer types, with several limitations. Considering the nonsignificant or weak evidence level, clinicians and researchers should cautiously interpret reported associations between ω-3 fatty acid consumption and cancer risks.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Neoplasias , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Risco
12.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(7): 102570, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376397

RESUMO

Now COVID-19 is causing a severe public health emergency and the mortality is rapidly increasing all over the world. In the current pandemic era, although there have been many efforts to diagnose a number of patients with symptoms or close contacts, there is no definite guideline for the initial therapeutic approach for them and therefore, many patients have been dying due to a hyperinflammatory immunological reaction labeled as "cytokine storm". Severe patients are hospitalized and the treatment is done, though they have not been established yet. Currently, however, no treatment is provided for those who are isolated at home or shelter until they get severe symptoms, which will increase the harms to the patients. In this review, we discuss some important points dedicated to the management of patients with COVID-19, which should help reducing morbidity and mortality. In this era, we suggest 7 recommendations to rescue the patients and to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 based on the immunological point of view.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Morbidade , Antissépticos Bucais , Sprays Nasais , Pandemias , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Povidona-Iodo/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Sambucus/química , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(6): 102526, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic disorder characterized by early onset fatal multi-system autoimmunity due to loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor which is crucial for the development, maturation, and maintenance of CD4+ regulatory T (T-reg) cells. Various autoimmune phenomena such as enteropathy, endocrinopathies, cytopenias, renal disease, and skin manifestations are characteristic findings in patients affected by IPEX syndrome. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we focus on both clinical and demographic characteristics of IPEX patients, highlighting possible genotype-phenotype correlations and address prognostic factors for disease outcome. METHODS: We performed a literature search to systematically investigate the case reports of IPEX which were published before August 7th, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 75 articles (195 patients) were identified. All IPEX patients included had FOXP3 mutations which were most frequently located in the forkhead domain (n = 68, 34.9%) followed by the leucine-zipper domain (n = 30, 15.4%) and repressor domain (n = 36, 18.4%). Clinical manifestations were as follows: enteropathy (n = 191, 97.9%), skin manifestations (n = 121, 62.1%), endocrinopathy (n = 104, 53.3%), hematologic abnormalities (n = 75, 38.5%), infections (n = 78, 40.0%), other immune-related complications (n = 43, 22.1%), and renal involvement (n = 32, 16.4%). Enteropathic presentations (P = 0.017), eczema (P = 0.030), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (P = 0.022) and food allergy (P = 0.009) were associated with better survival, while thrombocytopenia (P = 0.034), septic shock (P = 0.045) and mutations affecting the repressor domain (P = 0.021), intron 7 (P = 0.033) or poly A sequence (P = 0.025) were associated with increased risk of death. Immunosuppressive therapy alone was significantly associated with increased cumulative survival compared to patients who received no treatment (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: We report the most comprehensive summary of demographic and clinical profiles derived from a total of 195 IPEX patients with deleterious mutations in FOXP3. Analysis of our findings provides new insights into genotype/phenotype correlations, and clinical and genetic factors associated with increased risk of death and response to treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário , Enteropatias , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Enteropatias/imunologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Mutação , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/patologia , Síndrome , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
14.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 63(5): 158-163, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024340

RESUMO

IgA vasculitis, formerly known as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is a systemic IgA-mediated vasculitis of the small vessels commonly seen in children. The natural history of IgA vasculitis is generally self-limiting; however, one-third of patients experience symptom recurrence and a refractory course. This systematic review examined the use of dapsone in refractory IgA vasculitis cases. A literature search of PubMed databases retrieved 13 articles published until June 14, 2018. The most common clinical feature was a palpable rash (100% of patients), followed by joint pain (69.2%). Treatment response within 1-2 days was observed in 6 of 26 patients (23.1%) versus within 3-7 days in 17 patients (65.4%). Relapse after treatment discontinuation was reported in 17 patients (65.4%) but not in 3 patients (11.5 %). Four of the 26 patients (15.4%) reported adverse effects of dapsone including arthralgia (7.7%), rash (7.7%), and dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (3.8%). Our findings suggest that dapsone may affect refractory IgA vasculitis. Multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trials are necessary to determine the standard dosage of dapsone at initial or tapering of treatment in IgA vasculitis patients and evaluate whether dapsone has a significant benefit versus steroids or other medications.

15.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(4): e13203, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer risk has been associated with certain gene variations in microRNA (miRNA), but conflicting evidence warrants re-assessing of significant results in meta-analyses. We summarized published meta-analyses that assess the associations between miRNA polymorphism and cancers to show the validity of the findings. METHOD: We searched PubMed and investigated the results of meta-analyses published through November 2018. We re-assessed the results based on false-positive report probability (FPRP) to test the noteworthiness of the associations. RESULTS: Sixty-eight miRNA polymorphisms in 45 meta-analyses associated with cancer were included. Four (7.4%) and sixteen (25.0%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were noteworthy (FPRP < 0.2) at a prior probability of 0.001 for interesting candidate genes and a statistical power to detect an odds ratio (OR) of 1.1 and 1.5, respectively. The four miRNA SNPs noteworthy at an OR of 1.1 were as follows: miR-146a/rs2910164 Cvs.G; miR-27a/rs895819 Cvs.T; miR-423/rs6505162 Cvs.A; and miR-605/rs2043556 Cvs.T. The 16 SNPs noteworthy at an OR of 1.5 include the four genotype comparisons at an OR of 1.1, and the additional 12 genotype comparisons were as follows: miR-196a2/rs11614913 Tvs.C; miR-27a/rs895819 GGvs.AA + AG; miR-196a2/rs11614913 C vs.T; miR-146a/rs2910164 Gvs.C; miR-196a2/rs11614913 Tvs.C; miR-146a/rs2910164 Cvs.G; miR-499/rs3746444 homozygous model; miR-146a/rs2910164 CCvs.GG + GC; miR-499/rs3746444 TCvs.TT; miR-499/rs3746444 GAvs.AA; miR-146a/rs2910164 CCvs.GG; and miR-499/rs3746444 Gvs.A. No association was noteworthy at a prior probability of 0.000001. CONCLUSION: Out of 68 published associations of miRNA polymorphisms with cancer, sixteen have shown noteworthiness in our re-assessing meta-analysis. Our findings summarize the results of meta-analyses on the association of cancer with SNPs and underline the importance of interpreting results with caution.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
J Clin Med ; 9(2)2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979352

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to provide an overview and understand the strength of evidence and the extent of potential biases and the validity of claimed associations between the use of statins and cancer mortality or survival. We performed a comprehensive umbrella review of meta-analyses and systematically appraised the relevant meta-analyses of observational studies on the associations between statin use and cancer mortality or survival in various kinds of cancer. We searched the PubMed database and screened the reference list of relevant articles. We obtained the summary effect, 95% confidence interval, heterogeneity, and also examined small study effects and 95% prediction intervals for effect sizes, and the level of evidence was determined from the criteria. Regarding cancer mortality, statin use showed convincing evidence for an association with a reduced cancer-specific mortality rate for colorectal cancer. Four associations with reduced all-cause mortality (for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endocrine-related gynecological cancer, and ovarian cancer) had a suggestive evidence. Moreover, analyses in nine cancers showed a weak level of evidence, while the remaining 15 did not indicate significant changes in either direction. Although there was a preventive effect of statin on cancer mortality in some cancer types, the evidence supporting the use of statins to reduce cancer mortality or survival was low.

17.
Int J Otolaryngol ; 2019: 4367240, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781229

RESUMO

Sensorineural hearing loss is mainly acquired and affects an estimated 1.3 billion humans worldwide. It is related to aging, noise, infection, ototoxic drugs, and genetic defects. It is essential to identify reversible and preventable causes to be able to reduce the burden of this disease. Inflammation is involved in most causes and leads to tissue injury through vasospasm-associated ischemia. Vasospasm is reversible. This review summarized evidence linking inflammation-induced vasospasm to several forms of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. The link between vasospasm and sensorineural hearing loss is directly evident in subarachnoid haemorrhage, which involves the release of vasoconstriction-inducing cytokines like interleukin-1, endothelin-1, and tumour necrosis factor. These proinflammatory cytokines can also be released in response to infection, autoimmune disease, and acute or chronically increased inflammation in the ageing organism as in presbyacusis or in noise-induced cochlear injury. Evidence of vasospasm and hearing loss has also been discovered in bacterial meningitis and brain injury. Resolution of inflammation-induced vasospasm has been associated with improvement of hearing in autoimmune diseases involving overproduction of interleukin-1 from inflammasomes. There is mainly indirect evidence for vasospasm-associated sensorineural hearing loss in most forms of systemic or injury- or infection-induced local vascular inflammation. This opens up avenues in prevention and treatment of vascular and systemic inflammation as well as vasospasm itself as a way to prevent and treat most forms of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Future research needs to investigate interventions antagonising vasospasm and vasospasm-inducing proinflammatory cytokines and their production in randomised controlled trials of prevention and treatment of acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Prime candidates for interventions are hereby inflammasome inhibitors and vasospasm-reducing drugs like nitric oxide donors, rho-kinase inhibitors, and magnesium which have the potential to reduce sensorineural hearing loss in meningitis, exposure to noise, brain injury, arteriosclerosis, and advanced age-related and autoimmune disease-related inflammation.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731749

RESUMO

Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a genomic biomarker that predicts favorable responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Here, we set out to assess the predictive value of TMB on long-term survival outcomes in patients undergoing ICIs. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov from inception to 6 August 2019. We included retrospective studies or clinical trials of ICIs that reported hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and/or progression-free survival (PFS) according to TMB. Data on 5712 patients from 26 studies were included. Among patients who received ICIs, high TMB groups showed better OS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.67) and PFS (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.67) compared to low TMB groups. In patients with high TMB, those who received ICIs had a better OS (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.95) and PFS (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.92) compared to those who received chemotherapy alone, while in patients with low TMB, such ICI benefits of OS or PFS were not statistically significant. In conclusion, TMB may be an effective biomarker to predict survival in patients undergoing ICI treatment. The role of TMB in identifying patient groups who may benefit from ICIs should be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731818

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review for evidence of the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapies. We searched PubMed from inception to 14 February 2018 for meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cancer immunotherapies. Re-analyses were performed to estimate the summary effect size under random-effects, the 95% confidence interval (CI), heterogeneity, and the 95% prediction interval, and we determined the strength of the evidence. We examined publication bias and excess significance bias. 63 articles corresponding to 247 meta-analyses were eligible. Nine meta-analyses were classified to have convincing evidence, and 75 were classified as suggestive evidence. The clinical benefit of immunotherapy was supported by convincing evidence in the following settings: anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for treating advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, adoptive cell immunotherapy for NSCLC, and the combination of interferon α and chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma. A further meta-analysis of 16 RCTs showed that anti-PD-1/PD-L1 mAb therapy had a benefit in patients with solid tumors (overall survival; hazard ratio = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.68-0.79; p < 0.001), supported by convincing evidence. In the future, rigorous approaches are needed when interpreting meta-analyses to gain better insight into the true efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

20.
Int J Pediatr ; 2019: 3598123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316567

RESUMO

Introduction: We investigated whether reduced mobility is associated with a reduction in serum creatinine in otherwise well children with neurodisability. Materials and Methods: This was a record based retrospective study and creatinine levels of children in groups with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) category 1, 2, or 3 (group I); GMFCS 4 or 5 (group II); and age matched controls (group III) were compared. Results: Creatinine values were significantly different (p=0.002) between patients with neurodisability (mean 32.0 (SD 9.3), n=88) compared to patients without (mean 36.5 SD (9.8), n=88). There was no significant difference in creatinine levels (p=0.684) between group I (mean 35.6 (9.1), n=23) and group III (mean 36.5 (9.8), n=88). A significantly lower creatinine level (p<0.001) was found in group II (mean 30.7 (9.1), n=65) compared to group III and group I compared to group II (p=0.034). Creatinine levels were with a mean (SD) of 25.7 (4.1) micromol/l significantly lower in patients with GMFCS 4 or 5 who died (n=4) compared to survivors (31.1 (3.6)), (p=0.04, n=61). Conclusions: Children with neurodisability with severe mobility restriction had a significantly lower serum creatinine compared to controls with less severe or no neurodisability. Death in severe neurodisability may be associated with lower creatinine levels.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...