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1.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 21(12): 104, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768799

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As survival rates of those diagnosed with childhood cancer improve over time, the number of long-term survivors continues to grow. Advances have not only been made in the upfront treatment of childhood cancer, but also in the identification and treatment of late complications that may arise as a result of the chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgical interventions required to provide a cure. RECENT FINDINGS: As new therapies emerge that are often more targeted to cancerous cells while sparing healthy tissues, the hope is that cure can be achieved without the same long-term side effects for survivors. However, much is unknown regarding how these novel interventions will impact patients in the years to come. It is critical that we continue to follow patients treated with new modalities in order to identify and treat the long-term complications that may arise in future childhood cancer survivors.

2.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1255-1267, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040184

RESUMO

The pleiotropic actions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) are essential for regulation of immune responses and maintenance of immune tolerance. The IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) is composed of IL-2Rα, IL-2Rß, and IL-2Rγ subunits, with defects in IL-2Rα and IL-2Rγ and their downstream signaling effectors resulting in known primary immunodeficiency disorders. Here, we report the first human defect in IL-2Rß, occurring in two infant siblings with a homozygous IL2RB mutation in the WSXWS motif, manifesting as multisystem autoimmunity and susceptibility to CMV infection. The hypomorphic mutation results in diminished IL-2Rß surface expression and dysregulated IL-2/15 signaling, with an anticipated reduction in regulatory T cells. However, in contrast to the IL-2Rß-/- animal model, which lacks NK cells, these siblings demonstrate an expansion of NK cells, particularly the CD56bright subset, and a lack of terminally differentiated NK cells. Thus, the early-onset autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are linked to functional deficits arising from altered IL-2Rß expression and signaling in T and NK cells.

4.
Lancet ; 390(10112): 2569-2582, 2017 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015. Age-matched and sex-frequency-matched community controls were used for comparison. 21 treatment exposure variables were included in the analysis, with data abstracted from medical records. 168 CHCs for all participants were graded for severity using a modified Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events. Multiple imputation with predictive mean matching was used for missing occurrences and grades of CHCs in the survivors who were not clinically evaluable. Mean cumulative count was used for descriptive cumulative burden analysis and marked-point-process regression was used for inferential cumulative burden analysis. FINDINGS: Of 5522 patients treated for childhood cancer at St Jude Children's Research Hospital who had complete records, survived 10 years or longer, and were 18 years or older at time of study, 3010 (54·5%) were alive, had enrolled, and had had prospective clinical assessment. 2512 (45·5%) of the 5522 patients were not clinically evaluable. The cumulative incidence of CHCs at age 50 years was 99·9% (95% CI 99·9-99·9) for grade 1-5 CHCs and 96·0% (95% CI 95·3-96·8%) for grade 3-5 CHCs. By age 50 years, a survivor had experienced, on average, 17·1 (95% CI 16·2-18·1) CHCs of any grade, of which 4·7 (4·6-4·9) were CHCs of grade 3-5. The cumulative burden in matched community controls of grade 1-5 CHCs was 9·2 (95% CI 7·9-10·6; p<0·0001 vs total study population) and of grade 3-5 CHCs was 2·3 (1·9-2·7, p<0·0001 vs total study population). Second neoplasms, spinal disorders, and pulmonary disease were major contributors to the excess total cumulative burden. Notable heterogeneity in the distribution of CHC burden in survivors with differing primary cancer diagnoses was observed. The cumulative burden of grade 1-5 CHCs at age 50 years was highest in survivors of CNS malignancies (24·2 [95% CI 20·9-27·5]) and lowest in survivors of germ cell tumours (14·0 [11·5-16·6]). Multivariable analyses showed that older age at diagnosis, treatment era, and higher doses of brain and chest radiation are significantly associated with a greater cumulative burden and severity of CHCs. INTERPRETATION: The burden of CHCs in survivors of childhood cancer is substantial and highly variable. Our assessment of total cumulative burden in survivors of paediatric cancer, with detailed characterisation of long-term CHCs, provide data to better inform future clinical guidelines, research investigations, and health services planning for this vulnerable, medically complex population. FUNDING: The US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Blood Adv ; 1(24): 2243-2246, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296872

RESUMO

Outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have markedly improved over the past 2 decades, underscoring a need to better understand the long-term health effects of this intensive treatment modality. We describe the burden of chronic medical conditions and frail health among St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study participants treated for childhood hematologic malignancies with HSCT (n = 112) or with conventional therapy (n = 1106). Chronic conditions and frail health were ascertained clinically and classified according to a modified version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03) and the Fried Frailty Criteria. Seventy-nine transplants were allogeneic (41 from a sibling donor, 34 unrelated, and 4 others from related donor). Twenty-five allogeneic donor recipients had a history of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Compared to those treated with conventional therapy, a higher percentage of HSCT survivors had severe, disabling, or life threatening (grade 3-4) chronic conditions (81.3% vs 69.2%, P = .007). By age 25 years, HSCT survivors experienced 148 grade 3-4 events/100 compared to 60 among conventional therapy survivors (P < .001). Percentages of survivors with second neoplasms (17.0% vs 7.9%, P = .003), grade 3-4 cardiovascular (19.6% vs 10.2%, P = .004) and pulmonary (16.1% vs 4.6%, P < .001) conditions, and frail health (7.1% vs 1.6%, P < .001) were higher after HSCT than conventional therapy. These results underscore the need for clinical follow-up and provide data to guide the development of prevention and/or intervention strategies for this vulnerable population.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(5): 666-674, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035022

RESUMO

Characterization of toxicity associated with cancer and its treatment is essential to quantify risk, inform optimization of therapeutic approaches for newly diagnosed patients, and guide health surveillance recommendations for long-term survivors. The NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) provides a common rubric for grading severity of adverse outcomes in cancer patients that is widely used in clinical trials. The CTCAE has also been used to assess late cancer treatment-related morbidity but is not fully representative of the spectrum of events experienced by pediatric and aging adult survivors of childhood cancer. Also, CTCAE characterization does not routinely integrate detailed patient-reported and medical outcomes data available from clinically assessed cohorts. To address these deficiencies, we standardized the severity grading of long-term and late-onset health events applicable to childhood cancer survivors across their lifespan by modifying the existing CTCAE v4.03 criteria and aligning grading rubrics from other sources for chronic conditions not included or optimally addressed in the CTCAE v4.03. This article describes the methods of late toxicity assessment used in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study, a clinically assessed cohort in which data from multiple diagnostic modalities and patient-reported outcomes are ascertained. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 666-74. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/classificação , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 15(2): 443-451, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647685

RESUMO

PKU patients react to therapy with a low phenylalanine diet, but adherence to this diet is troublesome, subsequently the expansion of alternative ways is demand. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is one of this ways, which converts phenylalanine to harmless metabolites; trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia. In the current study, the extraction of PAL enzyme was used to investigate the efficiency for production of functional PKU egg white and mushroom flour with good quality by evaluation of colour characteristics, determination of phenylalanine concentrations and genetic materials expression of PKU related genes and DNA damage. Results indicated that the PAL enzyme treated of egg white and mushroom flour was stable colour and the calculated reduction per cent in phenylalanine concentration from female mice fed on untreated and PAL-treated samples was 22.77% in egg white and 31.37% in mushroom flour. Also, the results revealed that female mice fed on diet contained treated egg white exhibited low expression levels of PKU exons (3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) and low DNA damage which were similar to those in control mice.

8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 17(6): 908-15, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20932924

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers potentially curative therapy for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). We evaluated HCT outcomes in 85 patients with CMML, 1.0-69.1 (median 51.7) years of age, with follow-up extending to 19 years. CMML was considered de novo in 71 and secondary in 14 patients. Conditioning regimens were of various intensities. Thirty-eight patients had related (34 HLA identical), and 47 (39 HLA matched) unrelated donors. The source of stem cells was marrow in 32 and peripheral blood progenitor cells in 53 patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II-IV occurred in 72% and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 26% of patients. Relapse incidence was 27% at 10 years. Relapse correlated with increasing scores by the MD Anderson prognostic score (P = .01). The major causes of death were relapse and infections ±GVHD. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 38% at 10 years. Mortality was negatively correlated with pre-HCT hematocrit (P = .007), and increased with high-risk cytogenetics (P = .02), higher HCT Comorbidity Index (P = .0008), and increased age (P = .02). WHO classification did not statistically significantly affect outcome. Thus, a proportion of patients with CMML have lasting remissions following allogeneic HCT and appear to be cured of their disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Histocompatibilidade , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Histocompatibilidade/genética , Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/imunologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
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