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2.
Breast Cancer ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fulvestrant is a selective oestrogen receptor (ER) degrader used as monotherapy and combination therapy for ER positive HER2 negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) in postmenopausal women. The drug response predictor (DRP), is a mathematical algorithm based on the expression of multiple genes in the tumour. The fulvestrant DRP algorithm has previously shown effect in BC. In this study, we investigated the DRP's potential in predicting fulvestrant benefit. METHOD: Among 695 patients with ABC prospectively included in a Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) cohort we retrospectively included 226 patients who received fulvestrant as monotherapy. The DRP result was based on mRNA extracted from tumour biopsies and analysed using Affymetrix array. Primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP). RESULTS: For patients who received fulvestrant in line one to four and were previously unexposed to adjuvant endocrine therapy, we identified a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.44 (90% confidence interval (90% CI) upper limit of 1.08, one sided p = 0.066) for a predicted positive vs negative outcome. A weaker association was seen when including patients exposed to adjuvant endocrine treatment or received fulvestrant in fifth or later lines. Exploratory analyses showed that the DRP was efficient when using recent biopsies for DRP estimate and among recently treated patients. CONCLUSION: The DRP showed a potential in predicting fulvestrant treatment but was not significant in the overall analysis. Use of older biopsies, long-term endocrine treatment and multiple therapies between biopsy used for analysis and fulvestrant treatment, probably affect the predictive accuracy.

3.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-9, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354000

RESUMO

Background: Due to long-standing concerns that heavy-load lifting could increase the risk of developing lymphedema, breast cancer survivors have been advised to refrain from resistance exercise with heavy loads. This study prospectively evaluated the effect of heavy-load resistance exercise on lymphedema development in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Material and Methods: Physically inactive women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (n = 153) were randomized to a HIGH (supervised, multimodal exercise including heavy-load resistance exercise: 85-90% 1 repetition maximum [RM], three sets of 5-8 repetitions) versus LOW (pedometer and one-on-one consultations) 12-week intervention. Outcomes (baseline, 12 and 39 weeks) included lymphedema status (extracellular fluid [bioimpedance spectroscopy] and inter-arm volume % difference [dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry], lymphedema symptoms [numeric rating scale 0-10]), upper-extremity strength (1 RM), and quality of life domains (EORTC- BR23). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate equivalence between groups for lymphedema outcomes (equivalence margins for L-Dex, % difference and symptoms scale: ±5, ±3% and ±1, respectively). Superiority analysis was conducted for muscle strength and quality of life domains. Results: Postintervention equivalence between groups was found for extracellular fluid (0.4; 90% CI -2.5 to 3.2) and symptoms of heaviness (-0.2; -0.6 to 0.2), tightness (-0.1; -0.8 to 0.6) and swelling (0.2; -0.4 to 0.8). Nonequivalence was found for inter-arm volume % difference (-3.5%; -17.3 to 10.3) and pain (-0.7; -1.3 to 0), favoring HIGH. Strength gains were superior in the HIGH versus LOW group (3 kg; 1 to 5, p < .05). Further, clinically relevant reductions in breast (-11; -15 to -7) and arm (-6; -10 to -1) symptoms were found in the HIGH group. Conclusion: Findings suggest that physically inactive breast cancer survivors can benefit from supervised heavy-load resistance exercise during chemotherapy without increasing lymphedema risk. Trial registration: ISRCTN13816000.

4.
Cancer Cell ; 35(6): 821-822, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185206

RESUMO

Combined inhibitions of PARP and DNA damage checkpoint have the potential for high anti-cancer efficacy, but concurrent inhibitions have been hampered by intolerable side effects. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Fang and colleagues (Fang et al., 2019) propose that sequential inhibitions of PARP and DNA damage checkpoint considerably widen the therapeutic window.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 573, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options in metastatic breast cancer are limited. New therapies preferable with predictive biomarkers are needed. The aim of these trials was to investigate if gene copy number of the topoisomerase 1 gene was predictive of response to the topoisomerase inhibitor irinotecan. METHODS: Two open-label, single-arm phase II studies including HER2 positive and negative patients were conducted. Patients were eligible for inclusion if the primary tumor or a metastatic lesion had increased expression of the topoisomerase 1 gene defined as a TOP1 gene copy number of ≥4 or a TOP1/CEN20 ratio of ≥2. Patients were treated with irinotecan +/- trastuzumab weekly for 4 weeks following 2 weeks break, until progression or unacceptable toxicities. Evaluation scans were performed every 6 weeks. Primary endpoint was clinical benefit rate defined as the fraction of patients with stable disease for ≥4 months. RESULTS: The pre-planned number of 18 patients in each trial was not reached, thus no formal statistical analysis could be performed. Nine patients with HER2 negative disease and three patients with HER2 positive disease were included. Three patients obtained a partial remission and two patients had SD. CONCLUSIONS: The trials did not include the planned number of patients. No association between gene copy number of the topoisomerase 1 gene and response to irinotecan could be proved, however a clinical benefit was found in 5/12 patients and in 2/3 patients with HER2 positive disease. This could call for further investigation of the drug in the metastatic setting, especially in HER2 positive BC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudract registration numbers 2012-002348-26 and 2012-002347-23 . Registration date August 20th 2012.

6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 39, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neratinib is an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways after HER2 receptor activation. The ExteNET study showed that neratinib significantly improved 5-year invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) in women who completed trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer (EBC). We assessed the prognostic and predictive significance of PIK3CA alterations in patients in ExteNET. METHODS: Participants were women aged ≥ 18 years (≥ 20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab ≤ 2 years before randomization, with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients were randomized to oral neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo for 1 year. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor specimens underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) PIK3CA testing for two hotspot mutations in exon 9, one hot-spot mutation in exon 20, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for PIK3CA amplification. The primary endpoint (iDFS) was tested with log-rank test and hazard ratios (HRs) estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models. RESULTS: Among the intent-to-treat population (n = 2840), tumor specimens were available for PCR testing (991 patients) and PIK3CA FISH (702 patients). Overall, 262 samples were PIK3CA altered: 201 were mutated (77%), 52 (20%) were amplified, and 9 (3%) were mutated and amplified. iDFS was non-significantly worse in placebo-treated patients with altered vs wild-type PIK3CA (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.72-2.50; P = 0.357). Neratinib's effect over placebo was significant in patients with PIK3CA-altered tumors (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.90, P = 0.028) but not PIK3CA wild-type tumors (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.36-1.41; P = 0.34). The interaction test was non-significant (P = 0.309). CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a greater absolute risk reduction associated with neratinib treatment of patients with PIK3CA-altered tumors in ExteNET, current data do not support PIK3CA alteration as a predictive biomarker of response to neratinib in HER2-positive EBC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT00878709 . Trial registered April 9, 2009.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo
7.
APMIS ; 127(5): 303-315, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689231

RESUMO

Breast cancer was the first to take advantage of targeted therapy using endocrine therapy, and for up to 20% of all breast cancer patients a further significant improvement has been obtained by HER2-targeted therapy. Greater insight in precision medicine is to some extent driven by technical and computational progress, with the first wave of a true technical advancement being the application of transcriptomic analysis. Molecular subtyping further improved our understanding of breast cancer biology and has through a new tumor classification enabled allocation of personalized treatment regimens. The next wave in technical progression must be next-generation-sequencing which is currently providing new and exciting results. Large-scale sequencing data unravel novel somatic and potential targetable mutations as well as allowing the identification of new candidate genes predisposing for familial breast cancer. So far, around 15% of all breast cancer patients are genetically predisposed with most genes being factors in pathways implicated in genome maintenance. This review focuses on whole-genome sequencing and the new possibilities that this technique, together with other high-throughput analytic approaches, provides for a more individualized treatment course of breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão
8.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800440, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475668

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Luminal breast cancer has a long natural history, with recurrences continuing beyond 10 years after diagnosis. We analyzed long-term follow-up (LTFU) of efficacy outcomes and adverse events in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study reported after a median follow-up of 12.6 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BIG 1-98 is a four-arm, phase III, double-blind, randomized trial comparing adjuvant letrozole versus tamoxifen (either treatment received for 5 years) and their sequences (2 years of one treatment plus 3 years of the other) for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. When pharmaceutical company sponsorship ended at 8.4 years of median follow-up, academic partners initiated an observational, LTFU extension collecting annual data on survival, disease status, and adverse events. Information from Denmark was from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Intention-to-treat analyses are reported. RESULTS: Of 8,010 enrolled patients, 4,433 were alive and not withdrawn at an LTFU participating center, and 3,833 (86%) had at least one LTFU report. For the monotherapy comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen, we found a 9% relative reduction in the hazard of a disease-free survival event with letrozole (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.01). HRs for other efficacy end points were similar to those for disease-free survival. Efficacy of letrozole versus tamoxifen for contralateral breast cancer varied significantly over time (0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and > 10-year HRs, 0.62, 0.47, and 1.35, respectively; treatment-by-time interaction P = .005), perhaps reflecting a longer carryover effect of tamoxifen. Reporting of specific long-term adverse events seemed more effective with national registry than with case-record reporting of clinical follow-up. CONCLUSION: Efficacy end points continued to show trends favoring letrozole. Letrozole reduced contralateral breast cancer frequency in the first 10 years, but this reversed beyond 10 years. This study illustrates the value of extended follow-up in trials of luminal breast cancer.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411790

RESUMO

In a formal prospective-retrospective analysis of the phase III SBG0102 clinical trial randomizing metastatic breast cancer patients to gemcitabine-docetaxel or to single agent docetaxel, patients with basal-like tumors by PAM50 gene expression had significantly better overall survival in the gemcitabine arm. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), triple negative status was not predictive, but more specific biomarkers have since become available defining basal-like by nestin positivity or loss of inositol-polyphosphate-4-phosphate (INPP4B). Here, we evaluate their capacity to identify which patients benefit from gemcitabine in the metastatic setting. Nestin and INPP4B staining and interpretation followed published methods. A prespecified statistical plan evaluated the primary hypothesis that patients with basal-like breast cancer, defined as "nestin+ or INPP4B-", would have superior overall survival on gemcitabine-docetaxel when compared to docetaxel. Interaction tests, Kaplan-Meier curves and forest plots were used to assess prognostic and predictive capacities of biomarkers relative to treatment. Among 239 cases evaluable for our study, 36 (15%) had been classified as basal-like by PAM50. "Nestin+ or INPP4B-" was observed in 41 (17%) of the total cases and was significantly associated with PAM50 basal-like subtype. Within an estimated median follow-up of 13 years, patients assigned as IHC basal "nestin+ or INPP4B-" had significantly better overall survival on gemcitabine-docetaxel versus docetaxel monotherapy (HR = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.16-0.60), whereas no differences were observed for other patients (HR = 0.99), p-interaction<0.01. In the metastatic setting, women with IHC basal breast cancers defined as "nestin+ or INPP4B-" have superior overall survival when randomized to gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy compared to docetaxel alone. These findings need to be validated using larger prospective-retrospective phase III clinical trials series.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362513

RESUMO

Laboratory studies suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes inhibits breast cancer development. We aimed to evaluate whether postdiagnosis use of COX-2 selective or other nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among Danish breast cancer patients. From the clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Group, we identified 52,723 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 2012. Data on nonaspirin NSAID use, CBC and potential confounding variables were obtained from nationwide registries. We defined postdiagnosis use (two or more prescriptions) as a time-varying covariate with a one-year lag. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CBC associated with nonaspirin NSAID use. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years (interquartile range: 2.3-9 years), 1,444 patients were diagnosed with CBC. Overall, postdiagnosis use of nonaspirin NSAID was associated with an adjusted HR for CBC of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.87-1.11). The HRs did not vary substantially with duration or intensity of nonaspirin NSAID use. Moreover, similar associations were found for COX-2 selective (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.85-1.23) and nonselective (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82-1.13) nonaspirin NSAIDs. In conclusion, our nationwide cohort study of breast cancer patients does not suggest a reduced risk of CBC with nonaspirin NSAID use regardless of the COX-2 selectivity.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 119(10): 1297-1305, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have demonstrated antineoplastic effects in breast cancer cell lines, particularly in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative cell lines. However, epidemiological studies have not supported a preventive effect of statin use against breast cancer. Therefore, we examined the association between statin use and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk among women with breast cancer. METHODS: We identified 52,723 women with non-metastatic breast cancer during 1996-2012 from the Danish Breast Cancer Group database. We defined time-varying post-diagnosis statin use as minimum two prescriptions lagged by 1 year. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CBC associated with statin use. RESULTS: Statin use was associated with a lower CBC risk (HR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.73-1.05). The inverse association was strongest for long-term use overall (HR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.43-0.96), although the HR specifically for long-term consistent use and high-intensity use approached unity. Among ER-negative breast cancer patients, statin use was associated with a CBC risk reduction (HR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.45-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: We found some indication that statins reduce the risk of CBC. Further evaluations are needed to disentangle the equivocal results for long-term use and to establish if ER-negative breast cancer patients may benefit most from statin use.

12.
Prev Med ; 116: 186-193, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261243

RESUMO

Observational studies of aspirin use and breast cancer risk have provided inconsistent results. The occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among breast cancer survivors may serve as a useful high-risk model to identify preventive drug effects. Using this model, we examined the association between post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and risk of CBC. We identified all women recorded with a first primary breast cancer in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Database between 1996 and 2012. Information on drug use, tumor and patient characteristics, treatment, and CBC was obtained from nationwide registries. In the main analysis, we defined time-varying post-diagnosis low-dose aspirin use as two or more prescriptions filled during follow-up and applied a one-year exposure lag. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between post-diagnosis low-dose aspirin use and CBC risk. Among 52,723 breast cancer patients, 1,444 women developed CBC during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The adjusted HR for CBC associated with post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.75-1.09). We observed no substantial variation in HRs according to pattern of low-dose aspirin use or estrogen receptor status of the first or the contralateral breast cancer. In conclusion, this large nationwide cohort study of breast cancer survivors does not provide strong evidence suggesting an association between post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and risk of CBC.

13.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e021805, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068618

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Predictors of Breast Cancer Recurrence (ProBe CaRe) study was established to evaluate modification of tamoxifen (TAM) effectiveness in premenopausal women through reduced activity of TAM-metabolising enzymes. It comprehensively evaluates the effects of pharmacogenetic variants, use of concomitant medications and biomarkers involved in oestrogen metabolism on breast cancer recurrence risk. PARTICIPANTS: The ProBe CaRe study was established using resources from the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG), including 5959 premenopausal women diagnosed with stage I-III primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2010 in Denmark. Eligible participants were divided into two groups based on oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression and receipt of TAM therapy, 4600 are classified as ERα+/TAM+ and 1359 are classified as ERα-/TAM-. The ProBe CaRe study is a population-based cohort study nested in a nearly complete source population, clinical, tumour and demographic data were abstracted from DBCG registry data. Linkage to Danish registries allows for abstraction of information regarding comorbid conditions, comedication use and mortality. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples have been prepared for DNA extraction and immunohistochemical assay. FINDINGS TO DATE: To mitigate incorrect classification of patients into specific categories, we conducted a validation substudy. We compared data acquired from registry and from medical record review to calculate positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values. We observed PPVs near 100% for tumour size, lymph node involvement, receptor status, surgery type, receipt of radiotherapy, receipt of chemotherapy and TAM treatment. We found that the PPVs were 96% (95% CI 83% to 100%) for change in endocrine therapy and 61% (95% CI 42% to 77%) for menopausal transition. FUTURE PLANS: The ProBeCaRe cohort study is well positioned to comprehensively examine pharmacogenetic variants. We will use a Bayesian pathway analysis to evaluate the complete TAM metabolic path to allow for gene-gene interactions, incorporating information of other important patient characteristics.

14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 391-400, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099635

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines remain a cornerstone in the treatment of primary and advanced breast cancer (BC). This study has evaluated the predictive value of a multigene mRNA-based drug response predictor (DRP) in the treatment of advanced BC with epirubicin. The DRP is a mathematical method combining in vitro sensitivity and gene expression with clinical genetic information from > 3000 clinical tumor samples. METHODS: From a DBCG cohort, 140 consecutive patients were treated with epirubicin between May 1997 and November 2016. After patient informed consent, mRNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and analyzed using Affymetrix arrays. Using time to progression (TTP) as primary endpoint, the efficacy of epirubicin was analyzed according to DRP combined with clinicopathological data collected retrospectively from patients' medical records. Statistical analysis was done using Cox proportional hazards model stratified by treatment line. RESULTS: Median TTP was 9.3 months. The DRP was significantly associated to TTP (P = 0.03). The hazard ratio for DRP scores differing by 50 percentage points was 0.55 (95% CI -0.93, one-sided). A 75% DRP was associated with a median TTP of 13 months compared to 7 months following a 25% DRP. Multivariate analysis showed that DRP was independent of age and number of metastases. CONCLUSION: The current study prospectively validates the predictive capability of DRP regarding epirubicin previously shown retrospectively allowing the patients predicted to be poor responders to choose more effective alternatives. Randomized prospective studies are needed to demonstrate if such an approach will lead to increased overall survival.

15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 79, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PAM50-based (Prosigna) risk of recurrence (ROR) score and intrinsic subtypes are prognostic for women with high-risk breast cancer. We investigate the predictive ability of Prosigna regarding the effectiveness of cyclophosphamide-based adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer. METHODS: Prosigna assays were performed on the NanoString platform in tumors from participants in Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 77B, a four-arm trial that randomized premenopausal women with high-risk early breast cancer to no systemic treatment, levamisole, oral cyclophosphamide (C) or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF). RESULTS: In total, this retrospective analysis included 460 women (40% of the 1146 randomized patients). The continuous Prosigna ROR score was prognostic in the no systemic treatment group (unadjusted P < 0.001 for disease-free survival (DFS), P = 0.001 for overall survival (OS)). No statistically significant interaction of continuous ROR score and treatment on DFS and OS was found. A highly significant association was observed between intrinsic subtypes and C/CMF treatment for DFS (Pinteraction = 0.003 unadjusted, P = 0.001 adjusted) and OS (Pinteraction = 0.04). In the adjusted analysis treatment with C/CMF was associated with a reduced risk of DFS events in patients with basal-like (hazard ratio (HR) 0.14; 95% CI 0.06; 0.32) and luminal B (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.27; 0.84) subtypes but not in patients with Human epidermal growth factor receptor-enriched (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.56; 1.95) or luminal A (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.32; 1.16) subtypes. CONCLUSION: The Prosigna ROR score and intrinsic subtypes were prognostic in high-risk premenopausal patients with breast cancer, and intrinsic subtypes identify high-risk patients with or without major benefit from adjuvant C/CMF treatment.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(10): 1367-1374, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862411

RESUMO

Importance: Everolimus plus exemestane and capecitabine are approved second-line therapies for advanced breast cancer. Objective: A postapproval commitment to health authorities to estimate the clinical benefit of everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus or capecitabine monotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Design: Open-label, randomized, phase 2 trial of treatment effects in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that had progressed during treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Interventions: Patients were randomized to 3 treatment regimens: (1) everolimus (10 mg/d) plus exemestane (25 mg/d); (2) everolimus alone (10 mg/d); and (3) capecitabine alone (1250 mg/m2 twice daily). Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of progression-free survival (PFS) for everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus alone (primary objective) or capecitabine alone (key secondary objective). Safety was a secondary objective. No formal statistical comparisons were planned. Results: A total of 309 postmenopausal women were enrolled, median age, 61 years (range, 32-88 years). Of these, 104 received everolimus plus exemestane; 103, everolimus alone; and 102, capecitabine alone. Median follow-up from randomization to the analysis cutoff (June 1, 2017) was 37.6 months. Estimated HR of PFS was 0.74 (90% CI, 0.57-0.97) for the primary objective of everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus alone and 1.26 (90% CI, 0.96-1.66) for everolimus plus exemestane vs capecitabine alone. Between treatment arms, potential informative censoring was noted, and a stratified multivariate Cox regression model was used to account for imbalances in baseline characteristics; a consistent HR was observed for everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus (0.73; 90% CI, 0.56-0.97), but the HR was closer to 1 for everolimus plus exemestane vs capecitabine (1.15; 90% CI, 0.86-1.52). Grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more frequent with capecitabine (74%; n = 75) vs everolimus plus exemestane (70%; n = 73) or everolimus alone (59%; n = 61). Serious adverse events were more frequent with everolimus plus exemestane (36%; n = 37) vs everolimus alone (29%; n = 30) or capecitabine (29%; n = 30). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that everolimus plus exemestane combination therapy offers a PFS benefit vs everolimus alone, and they support continued use of this therapy in this setting. A numerical PFS difference with capecitabine vs everolimus plus exemestane should be interpreted cautiously owing to imbalances among baseline characteristics and potential informative censoring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01783444.

17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(2): 489-499, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: How a second breast cancer diagnosis affects survival in comparison with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) is unclear. Prognostic factors for contralateral breast cancer (CBC) are also not well established. We aimed to investigate the survival pattern after CBC with particular focus on time between first and second breast cancer diagnosis and age at CBC diagnosis. METHODS: Within the nationwide Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database, we identified 68,466 breast cancer patients diagnosed during 1978-2012. Patients who subsequently developed CBC were identified in a previously established database (N = 3004). Patients were followed for breast cancer-specific death in the Danish Register of Causes of Death until 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Cumulative breast cancer mortality from date of CBC was estimated using the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Compared with UBC patients, the rate of dying from breast cancer was more than twofold higher following a CBC diagnosis, after adjustment for age, period, tumor characteristics, and treatment of the first breast cancer (HR 2.48; 95% CI 2.31-2.66). Short time interval (< 5 years) was associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality after CBC among patients < 70 years at CBC diagnosis compared with longer time intervals, but not among patients ≥ 70 years at CBC diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer-specific mortality rates were markedly higher after compared with before a CBC diagnosis. We found higher breast cancer-specific mortality after CBC associated with a short interval between diagnoses among patients diagnosed with CBC before age 70 years.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(10): 1447-1453, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493047

RESUMO

AIMS: Anthracycline-based chemotherapy improves survival in breast cancer patients but is associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF). However, the risk of late-onset HF is debatable and mainly based on observational studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthracycline-based chemotherapy on long-term risk of clinical HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1990 and 1998 the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 89D trial randomized 980 Danish women with early breast cancer to adjuvant cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. Incident HF was the primary endpoint obtained from Danish administrative registries. Follow-up ended at December 2014. The risk of HF was evaluated in a cumulative incidence analysis and a Fine-Gray proportional hazards model. Median follow-up time was 16.9 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3.7-20.9]. In the epirubicin treatment group, 23 new cases of HF were identified vs. 9 in the non-epirubicin group corresponding to incidence rates per 1000 patient-years of 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-5.6] vs. 1.4 (95% CI 0.7-2.7). The cumulative incidence of HF was higher in the epirubicin treatment group compared with the non-epirubicin group (P < 0.01), yielding a hazard ratio of 3.00 (95% CI 1.39-6.49, P < 0.01) for HF associated with epirubicin. The median dose of epirubicin was 451.9 mg/m2 (IQR 400.0-523.5). CONCLUSIONS: Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is associated with a three-fold increased risk of late-onset clinical HF relative to non-anthracycline chemotherapy in this randomized clinical trial, but overall risk is low.

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