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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2259, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500440

RESUMO

Axillary lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a less invasive surgical proxy. We examined if consecutively derived molecular subtypes from primary breast cancers provide additional predictive value for SLNB status. 1556 patients with a breast cancer > 10 mm underwent primary surgical procedure including SLNB and tumor specimens were assigned with a transcriptomics-based molecular subtype. 1020 patients had a negative sentinel node (SN) and 536 a positive. A significant association between tumor size and SN status (p < 0.0001) was found across all samples, but no association between size and SN status (p = 0.14) was found for BasL tumors. A BasL subtype was a predictor of an SN-negative status (p = 0.001, OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38;0.90) and among the BasL, postmenopausal status was a predictor for SN-negative status (p = 0.01). Overall survival was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in patients with BasL tumors and a positive SN. Interestingly, we identified a significant correlation between hormone receptor activity and SN status within the BasL subtype. Taken together, molecular subtypes and hormone receptor activity of breast cancers add predictive value for SLNB status.

2.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapy resistance is a major cause of distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. This study evaluated differences in survival after DR in patients treated with different adjuvant endocrine therapy regimens in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. METHODS: BIG 1-98 compared 5 years of adjuvant treatment among 4 arms: tamoxifen (T), letrozole (L), tamoxifen followed by letrozole (TL), and letrozole followed by tamoxifen (LT). After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 911 of 8010 patients (T, 302; L, 285; TL, 170; and LT, 154) had DR as the site of first recurrence. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were performed to determine features associated with post-DR survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up time after DR was 59 months (interquartile range, 29-88 months). Among all patients with DR, 38.1% were 65 years old or older at enrollment, 61.9% had tumors larger than 2 cm, and 69.7% were node positive. Neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 35.6% of the patients. There was no difference in post-DR survival by treatment arm (median survival, 20.8 months for T, 17.9 months for L, 17.3 months for TL, and 20.8 months for LT; P = .21). In multivariate analysis, older patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.59) and patients with tumors larger than 2 cm (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.41), 4 or more positive nodes (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.05-1.64), progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), or shorter disease-free survival (DFS) had significantly worse post-DR survival. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with adjuvant T, L, or their sequences was not associated with differences in survival after DR. Significant differences in survival were observed by age, primary tumor size, nodal and PR status, and DFS, and this suggests that traditional baseline high-risk features remain prognostic in the metastatic setting.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Premenopausal women diagnosed with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer are prescribed 5-10 years of endocrine therapy to prevent or delay recurrence. In this study, we evaluated the association between early discontinuation of endocrine therapy and breast cancer recurrence in a cohort of premenopausal women. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We identified 4,503 patients with premenopausal ER-positive breast cancer who initiated adjuvant endocrine therapy and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Group clinical database (2002-2011). Women were excluded if they had a recurrence or were lost to follow-up less than 1.5 years after breast cancer surgery. Endocrine therapy was considered complete if the patient received at least 4.5 years of treatment or discontinued medication less than 6 months before recurrence. Exposure status was updated annually and modeled as a time-dependent variable. We accounted for baseline and time-varying confounders via time-varying weights, which we calculated from multivariable logistic regression models, and included in regression models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associating early discontinuation with recurrence. RESULTS: Over the study follow-up, 1,001 (22%) women discontinued endocrine therapy. We observed 202 (20%) recurrences among those who discontinued endocrine therapy, and 388 (11%) among those who completed the recommended treatment. The multivariable-adjusted estimated rate of recurrence was higher in women who discontinued endocrine therapy relative to those who completed their treatment (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.25-2.14). CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of clinical follow-up and behavioral interventions that support persistence of adjuvant endocrine therapy to prevent breast cancer recurrence.

4.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ExteNET trial demonstrated improved invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) with neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, versus placebo in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+)/hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early-stage breast cancer (eBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: ExteNET was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of 2840 patients with HER2+ eBC after neoadjuvant/adjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy. Patients were stratified by HR status and randomly assigned 1-year oral neratinib 240 mg/day or placebo. The primary endpoint was iDFS. Descriptive analyses were performed in patients with HR+ eBC who initiated treatment ≤ 1 year (HR+/≤ 1-year) and > 1 year (HR+/> 1-year) post-trastuzumab. RESULTS: HR+/≤ 1-year and HR+/> 1-year populations comprised 1334 (neratinib, n = 670; placebo, n = 664) and 297 (neratinib, n = 146; placebo, n = 151) patients, respectively. Absolute iDFS benefits at 5 years were 5.1% in HR+/≤ 1-year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.82) and 1.3% in HR+/>1-year (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.29-1.84). In HR+/≤ 1-year, neratinib was associated with a numerical improvement in overall survival (OS) at 8 years (absolute benefit, 2.1%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.55-1.13). Of 354 patients in the HR+/≤ 1-year group who received neoadjuvant therapy, 295 had residual disease, and results showed absolute benefits of 7.4% at 5-year iDFS (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.33-1.07) and 9.1% at 8-year OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.92). There were fewer central nervous system events with neratinib. Adverse events were similar to those previously reported. CONCLUSION: Neratinib significantly improved iDFS in the HER2+/HR+/≤ 1-year population, and a similar trend was observed in patients with residual disease following neoadjuvant treatment. Numerical improvements in central nervous system events and OS were consistent with iDFS benefits and suggest long-term benefit for neratinib in this population.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to tamoxifen, adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors improves disease outcomes of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. In the international, randomized, double-blind BIG 1-98 trial, 8010 women were randomized to receive tamoxifen, letrozole, or sequential use of the agents for 5 years. With a focus on switching between agents, we investigated cardiovascular events over the entire 5-year treatment period. METHODS: Of the 6182 patients enrolled, 6144 started trial treatment and were included in this analysis. Adverse events occurring during study treatment until 30 days after cessation were considered. Eight cardiovascular event types were defined. Cumulative incidence of events were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, without consideration for competing events. Multivariable Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pairwise comparisons of treatment arms. RESULTS: While on study treatment, 6.5% of patients (n = 397) had any cardiac events reported; for 2.4%, the event was grades 3-5, of which 11 (0.2%) were grade 5. Letrozole monotherapy was associated with higher risk of grade 1-5 ischemic heart disease (HR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.08) compared with tamoxifen monotherapy. Patients assigned sequential tamoxifen →letrozole (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.92-2.74) or sequential letrozole → tamoxifen (HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.68-2.14) showed a lesser degree of risk elevation. Patients assigned to tamoxifen-containing regimens had significantly higher risk of grade 1-5 thromboembolic events (tamoxifen monotherapy HR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.42-3.12; tamoxifen → letrozole HR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.32-2.92; letrozole → tamoxifen HR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.03-2.35) as compared with patients assigned letrozole alone. CONCLUSION: When initiating or switching between adjuvant endocrine treatments in postmenopausal patients, age and medical history, with special attention to prior cardiovascular events, should be balanced with expected benefit of the treatment.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 123(11): 1608-1615, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural history of breast cancer among BRCA2 carriers has not been clearly established. In a previous study from Iceland, positive ER status was a negative prognostic factor. We sought to identify factors that predicted survival after invasive breast cancer in an expanded cohort of BRCA2 carriers. METHODS: We studied 608 women with invasive breast cancer and a pathogenic BRCA2 mutation (variant) from four Nordic countries. Information on prognostic factors and treatment was retrieved from health records and by analysis of archived tissue specimens. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival using Cox regression. RESULTS: About 77% of cancers were ER-positive, with the highest proportion (83%) in patients under 40 years. ER-positive breast cancers were more likely to be node-positive (59%) than ER-negative cancers (34%) (P < 0.001). The survival analysis included 584 patients. Positive ER status was protective in the first 5 years from diagnosis (multivariate HR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.93, P = 0.03); thereafter, the effect was adverse (HR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.07-3.39, P = 0.03). The adverse effect of positive ER status was limited to women who did not undergo endocrine treatment (HR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.26-4.44, P = 0.01) and patients with intact ovaries (HR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.11-3.59, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The adverse effect of a positive ER status in BRCA2 carriers with breast cancer may be contingent on exposure to ovarian hormones.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(1): 123-133, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer constitutes almost 85% of all breast cancer patients and are a genetically highly heterogenic group. Data on the association of somatic alterations to outcome and prognosis are however sparse. In this neoadjuvant endocrine phase II trial including postmenopausal breast cancer patients with ER+, HER2 normal breast cancer, we investigated the rate of pathogenic mutations before and after treatment as well as the association with treatment response and survival. METHODS: Pretreatment and posttreatment tumour samples from 109 patients treated with neoadjuvant letrozole were collected and analysed with Next Generation Sequencing utilizing a panel of 12 genes (ALK, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ESR1, KIT, KRAS, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, and RAF1). Residual disease was assessed by a modified Miller Payne scale and the Residual Cancer Burden index. Survival data were collected prospectively. RESULTS: Among the 109 patients, 52 had at least one pathogenic mutation in the pretreatment sample and 60 in the posttreatment sample. The most frequently mutated gene was PIK3CA, followed by EGFR and KRAS. Twelve different pathogenic PIK3CA mutations were identified, primarily in exon 20 and exon 9. An altered PIK3CA mutation profile from the pre- to the posttreatment specimen was significantly associated to improved pathological outcome. Overall and Disease-Free Survival benefits in PIK3CA mutated patients was observed. CONCLUSION: Considerable heterogeneity was identified both among patients and between pre- and posttreatment samples. PIK3CA has the potential to be a predictive biomarker. To further assess the implications of a treatment related altered PIK3CA mutation profile, more data are needed.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9710, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546796

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and shortened life expectancy in breast cancer survivors. This randomised controlled trial (n = 153) was designed for patients with a physically inactive lifestyle prediagnosis and concurrently referred to adjuvant chemotherapy. We compared two 12-week exercise interventions aimed at physiological and patient-reported outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, metabolic markers, physical activity, pain, fatigue), including a 39-week follow-up. A supervised hospital-based moderate to high intensity group exercise intervention was compared to an instructed home-based individual pedometer intervention. The two 12-week interventions included oncologists' recommendations and systematic health counselling. Outcomes were measured at baseline and week 6, 12 and 39. Primary outcome cardiorespiratory fitness declined significantly during chemotherapy and was restored in both interventions at follow-up. The interventions effectively engaged breast cancer patients in sustaining physical activities during and following adjuvant treatment. A composite metabolic score improved significantly. Positive cardiorespiratory fitness responders had improved clinical effects on fatigue, pain and dyspnoea versus negative responders. We conclude that a loss of cardiorespiratory fitness among physically inactive breast cancer patients may be restored by early initiated interventions and by adapting to physical activity recommendations, leading to a decreased cardiovascular risk profile in breast cancer survivors.

10.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 46, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among patients with triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. However, the significance of TILs is less clear in luminal breast cancer. Here, we in postmenopausal patients with primary oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+), HER2 normal, operable breast cancer assessed the importance of inducing TILs during 4 months of letrozole on response in a neoadjuvant phase II study. METHODS: Participants were postmenopausal women with ER+, HER2 normal operable breast cancer assigned to 4 months of neoadjuvant letrozole. Pretreatment core biopsies and surgical specimens were assessed centrally for the percentage of TILs on haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides according to the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group on Breast Cancer guidelines. Pathological response was assessed by the Residual Cancer Burden (RCB) index and a modified Miller-Payne grading system and was analysed according to change in TILs. RESULTS: Tumour specimens were available from 106 of the 112 patients treated per protocol. TIL concentration increased with mean 6.8 percentage point (p < 0.0001) during treatment (range - 39 to 60). An increase in TILs was significantly associated with pathological response with OR = 0.71 (95% CI 0.53-0.96; p = 0.02) per 10% absolute increase for pathological response and correspondingly OR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.40-0.78; p = 0.0007) for lower RCB index per 10% increase. CONCLUSION: Increasing TILs during letrozole was significantly associated with a poor treatment response. An increase in TILs during endocrine therapy might imply immunogenicity, and these patients could be targetable by immunotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.govNCT00908531, registered 27 May 2009.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/imunologia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
11.
J Clin Invest ; 130(8): 4069-4080, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379725

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of factors governing genome stability underlies hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. One significant pathway that is disabled as a result is homologous recombination repair (HRR). With the aim of identifying new candidate genes, we examined early-onset breast cancer patients negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants. Here, we focused on CtIP (RBBP8 gene), which mediates HRR through the end resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Notably, these patients exhibited a number of rare germline RBBP8 variants. Functional analysis revealed that these variants did not affect DNA DSB end resection efficiency. However, expression of a subset of variants led to deleterious nucleolytic degradation of stalled DNA replication forks in a manner similar to that of cells lacking BRCA1 or BRCA2. In contrast to BRCA1 and BRCA2, CtIP deficiency promoted the helicase-driven destabilization of RAD51 nucleofilaments at damaged DNA replication forks. Taken together, our work identifies CtIP as a critical regulator of DNA replication fork integrity, which, when compromised, may predispose to the development of early-onset breast cancer.

12.
Acta Oncol ; 59(9): 1009-1015, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351149

RESUMO

Background: Statins treat hyperlipidemia and prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that they also have anti-neoplastic activity. Several studies show a reduced rate of breast cancer recurrence among lipophilic statin users (e.g., simvastatin), motivating calls for clinical trials of statins in breast cancer patients. We measured the impact of genetic variation in statin-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters on the recurrence rate in simvastatin-treated breast cancer patients.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study among Danish women diagnosed with non-metastatic, invasive breast cancer between 2004-2010 who had filled ≥1 prescription for simvastatin after diagnosis. Cases were all breast cancer recurrences from the source population; one control was matched to each case on cancer stage, estrogen receptor and hormone therapy status, calendar period of diagnosis, and duration of simvastatin exposure. We genotyped variants in simvastatin-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4/rs35599367 and CYP3A5/rs776746) and drug transporters (ABCB1/rs2032582 and SLCO1B1/rs4149056), and estimated their association with recurrence with logistic regression models.Results: We observed protective (though imprecisely-measured) associations between variants in genes encoding drug transporters (ABCB1 and SLCO1B1) and simvastatin-metabolizing enzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) and breast cancer recurrence in simvastatin-treated women. For example, carrying two variant alleles in ABCB1 was associated with a 31% lower rate of recurrence (multivariable OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.31, 1.5).Conclusion: Our study provides weak evidence to support the use of genetic variation in ABCB1, SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 as biomarkers of breast tumor response to simvastatin. Validation of these findings within adjuvant clinical trials is encouraged.

13.
Acta Oncol ; 59(7): 825-832, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347139

RESUMO

Background: Retrospective studies have suggested that chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is associated with improved recurrence-free or overall survival. The SBG 2000-1 trial was designed to verify the favorable prognosis associated with chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in early breast cancer. Patients not experiencing chemotherapy-induced leukopenia were randomized into standard dosed or individually escalated chemotherapy doses based on the grade of leukopenia after a first standard dose.Patients and methods: 1452 women in Sweden and Denmark with operable node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer aged 18-60 years were recruited to participate in this trial. Participants received a first FEC cycle at standard doses (600/60/600 mg/m2). Patients (n = 1052) with nadir leukopenia grade 0-2 after the first cycle were randomized between either 6 standard FEC or 6 tailored FEC courses with doses of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide escalated during courses 2 and 3 and thereafter aimed at achieving grade 3 leukopenia. Patients with nadir leukopenia grade 3-4 after the first course continued treatment with standard FEC. Results of the randomized comparison has been published previously. The present study focuses on chemotherapy-induced leukopenia as a covariable with outcome in randomized and non-randomized patients. The prognostic value of leukopenia after course 3, was studied in a Cox model adjusted for cumulative doses of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. The association of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia with prognosis was a preplanned secondary endpoint for this trial.Results: The eight-year distant disease-free survival was 73%, 77%, 78% and 83% for patients with leucocyte nadir grade 0, 1, 2 and 3-4, respectively. Higher degree of leukopenia was highly significantly associated to improved distant disease-free survival (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96, p = .008) and overall survival (HR 0.87 (0.76-0.99, p = .032).Conclusion: This prospective study confirms that chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is a covariable with outcome in primary breast cancer, even after adjustment for chemotherapy doses.

14.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 20(4): e423-e432, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253134

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has documented clinical utility for the prediction of 10-year distant recurrence (DR). The present study investigated the value of Prosigna-PAM50 for predicting 10-year DR and overall survival after 5 years of endocrine treatment for postmenopausal patients with invasive lobular carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the Danish Breast Cancer Group database, we identified patients with a diagnosis from 2000 to 2003 of estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative invasive ductal (n = 1570) or lobular (n = 341) cancer > 20 mm or 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes and applied multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: The median follow-up for DR was 9.3 years and for overall survival 15.2 years. Of the 341 lobular and 1570 ductal cases, 140 (41%) and 349 (22%) were classified as low ROR, with a 10-year DR rate of 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7%-13.6%) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.8%-6.2%), respectively. The 10-year DR rate for the intermediate ROR group for those with lobular cancer was 18% (95% CI, 10.1%-27.9%) compared with 9.7% (95% CI, 6.7%-13.4%) for those with ductal cancer. Luminal B tumors had a significantly worse outcome than luminal A tumors in both lobular (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.03%-3.45%; P = .04) and ductal (hazard ratio, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.29%-4.43%; P < .0001) cancer. CONCLUSION: Prosigna PAM-50 provides significant prognostic information beyond the clinicopathologic factors in patients with invasive lobular breast cancer. Those with lobular cancer had worse 10-year DR rates compared with those with ductal cancer in the same ROR category. Our results could have an effect on the treatment decisions regarding the addition of chemotherapy for those in the intermediate ROR group.

15.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140564

RESUMO

The DBCG89D trial randomized high-risk early breast cancer patients to adjuvant CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil) or CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluorouracil). Prosigna assays were performed by researchers with no access to clinical data. Time to distant recurrence (DR) was the primary endpoint, time to recurrence (TR) and overall survival (OS) secondary. Among the 980 Danish patients enrolled, Prosigna results were obtained in 686. Continuous ROR score was associated with DR for CMF (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.33), and for CEF (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.18), P interaction = 0.06. DR was significantly longer in CEF compared to CMF treated patients with Her2-enriched tumors (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.86), but not in patients with luminal tumors. Heterogeneity of treatment effect was significant for TR and OS. In this prospective-retrospective analysis, patients with Her2-enriched breast cancer derived substantial benefit from anthracycline chemotherapy whereas anthracyclines are not an essential component of chemotherapy for patients with luminal subtypes. The benefit of CEF vs. CMF correlated with increasing ROR Score.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 122(7): 1102-1108, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have shown both pro- and antineoplastic effects of antihistamines. Here, we evaluated the effect of H1 antihistamines on contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, and whether cationic amphiphilic (CAD) antihistamines could increase the sensitivity to chemotherapy. METHODS: From the Danish Breast Cancer Group clinical database, we identified all women aged ≥20 years with a first-time diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996-2012. Information on drug use, CBC and potential confounding factors was retrieved from nationwide registries. Using Cox proportional hazard regression models, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CBC associated with H1-antihistamine use. RESULTS: We identified 52,723 patients with breast cancer with a total of 310,583 person-years of follow-up. Among them, 1444 patients developed a new primary tumour in the contralateral breast. Post-diagnosis use of H1 antihistamines (≥2 prescriptions) was not strongly associated with CBC risk (HR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.90-1.31) compared with non-use (<2 prescriptions). Use of CAD antihistamines among patients receiving chemotherapy was not associated with a decrease in CBC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings do not suggest any association of H1-antihistamine use with CBC development.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 582-590, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen and its metabolites compete with estrogen to occupy the estrogen receptor. The conventional dose of adjuvant tamoxifen overwhelms estrogen in this competition, reducing breast cancer recurrence risk by nearly half. Phase I metabolism generates active tamoxifen metabolites, and phase II metabolism deactivates them. No earlier pharmacogenetic study has comprehensively evaluated the metabolism and transport pathways, and no earlier study has included a large population of premenopausal women. METHODS: We completed a cohort study of 5,959 Danish nonmetastatic premenopausal breast cancer patients, in whom 938 recurrences occurred, and a case-control study of 541 recurrent cases in a cohort of Danish predominantly postmenopausal breast cancer patients, all followed for 10 years. We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks and genotyped 32 variants in 15 genes involved in tamoxifen metabolism or transport. We estimated conventional associations for each variant and used prior information about the tamoxifen metabolic path to evaluate the importance of metabolic and transporter pathways. RESULTS: No individual variant was notably associated with risk of recurrence in either study population. Both studies showed weak evidence of the importance of phase I metabolism in the clinical response to adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior knowledge, our results support the role of phase I metabolic capacity in clinical response to tamoxifen. Nonetheless, no individual variant substantially explained the modest phase I effect on tamoxifen response. IMPACT: These results are consistent with guidelines recommending against genotype-guided prescribing of tamoxifen, and for the first time provide evidence supporting these guidelines in premenopausal women.

18.
Breast Cancer ; 27(2): 266-276, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fulvestrant is a selective oestrogen receptor (ER) degrader used as monotherapy and combination therapy for ER positive HER2 negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) in postmenopausal women. The drug response predictor (DRP), is a mathematical algorithm based on the expression of multiple genes in the tumour. The fulvestrant DRP algorithm has previously shown effect in BC. In this study, we investigated the DRP's potential in predicting fulvestrant benefit. METHOD: Among 695 patients with ABC prospectively included in a Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) cohort we retrospectively included 226 patients who received fulvestrant as monotherapy. The DRP result was based on mRNA extracted from tumour biopsies and analysed using Affymetrix array. Primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP). RESULTS: For patients who received fulvestrant in line one to four and were previously unexposed to adjuvant endocrine therapy, we identified a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.44 (90% confidence interval (90% CI) upper limit of 1.08, one sided p = 0.066) for a predicted positive vs negative outcome. A weaker association was seen when including patients exposed to adjuvant endocrine treatment or received fulvestrant in fifth or later lines. Exploratory analyses showed that the DRP was efficient when using recent biopsies for DRP estimate and among recently treated patients. CONCLUSION: The DRP showed a potential in predicting fulvestrant treatment but was not significant in the overall analysis. Use of older biopsies, long-term endocrine treatment and multiple therapies between biopsy used for analysis and fulvestrant treatment, probably affect the predictive accuracy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fulvestranto/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Fulvestranto/efeitos adversos , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Acta Oncol ; 58(12): 1667-1675, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354000

RESUMO

Background: Due to long-standing concerns that heavy-load lifting could increase the risk of developing lymphedema, breast cancer survivors have been advised to refrain from resistance exercise with heavy loads. This study prospectively evaluated the effect of heavy-load resistance exercise on lymphedema development in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer.Material and Methods: Physically inactive women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (n = 153) were randomized to a HIGH (supervised, multimodal exercise including heavy-load resistance exercise: 85-90% 1 repetition maximum [RM], three sets of 5-8 repetitions) versus LOW (pedometer and one-on-one consultations) 12-week intervention. Outcomes (baseline, 12 and 39 weeks) included lymphedema status (extracellular fluid [bioimpedance spectroscopy] and inter-arm volume % difference [dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry], lymphedema symptoms [numeric rating scale 0-10]), upper-extremity strength (1 RM), and quality of life domains (EORTC- BR23). Linear mixed models were used to evaluate equivalence between groups for lymphedema outcomes (equivalence margins for L-Dex, % difference and symptoms scale: ±5, ±3% and ±1, respectively). Superiority analysis was conducted for muscle strength and quality of life domains.Results: Postintervention equivalence between groups was found for extracellular fluid (0.4; 90% CI -2.5 to 3.2) and symptoms of heaviness (-0.2; -0.6 to 0.2), tightness (-0.1; -0.8 to 0.6) and swelling (0.2; -0.4 to 0.8). Nonequivalence was found for inter-arm volume % difference (-3.5%; -17.3 to 10.3) and pain (-0.7; -1.3 to 0), favoring HIGH. Strength gains were superior in the HIGH versus LOW group (3 kg; 1 to 5, p < .05). Further, clinically relevant reductions in breast (-11; -15 to -7) and arm (-6; -10 to -1) symptoms were found in the HIGH group.Conclusion: Findings suggest that physically inactive breast cancer survivors can benefit from supervised heavy-load resistance exercise during chemotherapy without increasing lymphedema risk. Trial registration: ISRCTN13816000.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linfedema/etiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Treinamento de Resistência/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Caminhada , Levantamento de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos
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