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Int J Oncol ; 46(2): 445-58, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406094


Characterizing ovarian masses enables patients with malignancy to be appropriately triaged for treatment by subspecialist gynecological oncologists, which has been shown to optimize care and improve survival. Furthermore, correctly classifying benign masses facilitates the selection of patients with ovarian pathology that may either not require intervention, or be suitable for minimal access surgery if intervention is required. However, predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant is not the only clinically relevant information that we need to know before deciding on appropriate treatment. Knowing the specific histology of a mass is becoming of increasing importance as management options become more tailored to the individual patient. For example predicting a mucinous borderline tumor gives the opportunity for fertility sparing surgery, and will highlight the need for further gastrointestinal assessment. For benign disease, predicting the presence of an endometrioma and possible deeply infiltrating endometriosis is important when considering both who should perform and the extent of surgery. An examiner's subjective assessment of the morphological and vascular features of a mass using ultrasonography has been shown to be highly effective for predicting whether a mass is benign or malignant. Many masses also have features that enable a reliable diagnosis of the specific pathology of a particular mass to be made. In this narrative review we aim to describe the typical morphological features seen on ultrasound of different adnexal masses and illustrate these by showing representative ultrasound images.

Cistadenoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistadenoma Seroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Anexos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Anexos/patologia , Cistadenoma Mucinoso/patologia , Cistadenoma Seroso/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cisto Folicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Folicular/patologia , Humanos , Cistos Ovarianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos Ovarianos/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Ultrassonografia
BMC Public Health ; 14: 1096, 2014 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339243


BACKGROUND: Women from ethnic minority backgrounds are less likely to attend cervical screening, but further understanding of ethnic inequalities in cervical screening uptake is yet to be established. This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and ethnicity-related predictors of cervical cancer knowledge, cervical screening attendance and reasons for non-attendance among Black women in London. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by women attending Black and ethnic hair and beauty specialists in London between February and April 2013. A stratified sampling frame was used to identify Black hair specialists in London subdivisions with >10% Black population (including UK and foreign-born). Fifty-nine salons participated. Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms, self-reported screening attendance and reasons for non-attendance at cervical screening were assessed. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 937 Black women aged 18-78, describing themselves as being predominantly from African or Caribbean backgrounds (response rate 26.5%). Higher educational qualifications (p < .001) and being born in the UK (p = .011) were associated with greater risk factor knowledge. Older age was associated with greater symptom knowledge (p < .001). Being younger, single, African (compared to Caribbean) and attending religious services more frequently were associated with being overdue for screening. Women who had migrated to the UK more than 10 years ago were less likely to be overdue than those born in the UK. Of those overdue for screening who endorsed a barrier (67/133), 'I meant to go but didn't get round to it' (28%), fear of the test procedure (18%) and low risk perception (18%) were the most common barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnicity, migration and religiosity play a role in predicting cervical screening attendance among women from Black backgrounds. African women, those born in the UK and those who regularly attend church are most likely to put off attending. Additional research is needed to explore the attitudes, experiences and beliefs that explain why these groups might differ.

Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Religião , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índias Ocidentais/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
Reprod Health Matters ; 20(39): 164-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22789094


The 2006 Maputo Plan of Action aimed to help African nations to achieve the Millennium Development Goals related to reducing maternal mortality, combatting HIV and AIDS, and reducing infant and child mortality within integrated sexual and reproductive health care plans. In 2008 and 2009, UNFPA worked with senior Ministry of Health officials and national UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO teams in 33 African countries to review their development of national Maternal and Newborn Health strategies and plans through a self-assessment survey. The survey showed that many key components were missing, in particular there was poor integration of family planning; lack of budgetary, infrastructure and human resources plans; and weak monitoring and evaluation provisions. The maternal and newborn health Road Map initiative has been the single most important factor for the initiation and development of the national maternal and newborn health plans for many African countries. However the deficiencies within these national plans need to be addressed before a significant reduction in maternal and newborn mortality can realistically be achieved.

Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
Matern Child Health J ; 16(5): 941-6, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21656055


The lack of easy to use protocols and monitoring charts in the management of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia contribute to substandard care of women in resource poor settings. A treatment monitoring tool (LIVKAN chart) has been developed to improve the quality of care for these women. Based on feedback from skilled birth attendants (SBAs), a two page document which provides a visual record of the treatment and monitoring of women with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia over a 24 h period was developed. It also contains detailed treatment guidelines as well as a summary of the woman's treatment. A two page document on instructions for use of the chart was also developed. The chart design was evaluated by different level SBAs via a semi structured questionnaire. There was a 92% (109) response rate. About 30% (33) and 58% (63) of the respondents provided care to women in Primary Health Care and referral health care facilities respectively. Ninety eight percentage of respondents indicated that the chart would be of additional benefit in their care of women with pre-eclamptic/eclampsia. Seventy three percentage of respondents indicated that the chart would also be useful to lower health care facility SBAs. The design of the chart ensures that guidelines for managing/monitoring of patients are instantly available on a concise easy-to-use chart which confers added advantage over other chart designs. Having been evaluated by SBAs, acceptability and utilization in poor resource settings should be high. A study has been designed to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of this new monitoring chart in both BEOCs and CEOCs in two sub-Saharan African countries.

Eclampsia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/métodos , Tocologia/métodos , Obstetrícia/instrumentação , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Eclampsia/terapia , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Obstetrícia/métodos , Percepção , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 200(2): 127-35, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21274725


Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most frequent human cancer of Caucasian populations. Although the ultraviolet irradiation is a key contributor to the establishment of this keratinocyte malignancy, the infection by some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) has also been implicated in NMSC development. Cancers occur as a result of a complex series of interactions between the cancer cell and its surrounding matrix. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in degrading the extracellular matrix. MMP9 is an important gelatinase involved in processes such as cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In this report, we demonstrated by EMSA experiments that the MMP9 promoter contains a binding site for the transcriptional regulator E2 of HPV8. Transient reporter gene assays showed that HPV8-E2 activated the MMP9 promoter in a dose-dependent manner in human epidermal keratinocytes. An E2 transactivation-defective mutant (I73L) as well as a DNA-binding deficient mutant (R433K) demonstrated no activation of the MMP9 promoter, suggesting that both an intact transactivation and DNA-binding domain are required for E2 activation of the MMP9-promoter. The functional role of the E2 binding site within the MMP9 promoter was also confirmed by mutating the E2 binding site. In organotypic cultures of human skin, an overexpression of MMP9 was observed in suprabasal layers of the HPV8 E2-expressing epidermis thus confirming the results of the monolayer cultures. These results demonstrate that the early gene E2 of HPV8 is able to increase the expression of MMP9 by direct activation of the MMP9-promoter.

Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/virologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transativadores/genética