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1.
BMJ ; 366: l4570, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response associations between accelerometer assessed total physical activity, different intensities of physical activity, and sedentary time and all cause mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus from inception to 31 July 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies assessing physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry and associations with all cause mortality and reported effect estimates as hazard ratios, odds ratios, or relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Guidelines for meta-analyses and systematic reviews for observational studies and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts. One author performed a full text review and another extracted the data. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Individual level participant data were harmonised and analysed at study level. Data on physical activity were categorised by quarters at study level, and study specific associations with all cause mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Study specific results were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 39 studies were retrieved for full text review; 10 were eligible for inclusion, three were excluded owing to harmonisation challenges (eg, wrist placement of the accelerometer), and one study did not participate. Two additional studies with unpublished mortality data were also included. Thus, individual level data from eight studies (n=36 383; mean age 62.6 years; 72.8% women), with median follow-up of 5.8 years (range 3.0-14.5 years) and 2149 (5.9%) deaths were analysed. Any physical activity, regardless of intensity, was associated with lower risk of mortality, with a non-linear dose-response. Hazards ratios for mortality were 1.00 (referent) in the first quarter (least active), 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.54) in the second quarter, 0.34 (0.26 to 0.45) in the third quarter, and 0.27 (0.23 to 0.32) in the fourth quarter (most active). Corresponding hazards ratios for light physical activity were 1.00, 0.60 (0.54 to 0.68), 0.44 (0.38 to 0.51), and 0.38 (0.28 to 0.51), and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 1.00, 0.64 (0.55 to 0.74), 0.55 (0.40 to 0.74), and 0.52 (0.43 to 0.61). For sedentary time, hazards ratios were 1.00 (referent; least sedentary), 1.28 (1.09 to 1.51), 1.71 (1.36 to 2.15), and 2.63 (1.94 to 3.56). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of total physical activity, at any intensity, and less time spent sedentary, are associated with substantially reduced risk for premature mortality, with evidence of a non-linear dose-response pattern in middle aged and older adults. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018091808.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Mortalidade/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Am J Med ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation in relation to infection are frequent in emergency departments (ED) and may require antithrombotic therapy due to increased risk of stroke. Our objective was to describe the one-year risk of stroke in ED patients with infection, new-onset atrial fibrillation and no antithrombotic therapy. METHODS: Population-based cohort study at four EDs in Denmark and Sweden. Atrial fibrillation was identified by ECG upon arrival at the ED and infection was identified by discharge diagnosis. Patient history was followed for 12months or until initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy, ischemic stroke or death. Primary outcome was stroke within 12months compared to patients with infection and no atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: 15,505 patients were included in analysis. 48.7% were male and the median age was 71 (IQR, 56-83). Among the included patients, 2107 (13.6%) had atrial fibrillation of any kind and 822 (39.0%) of these had new-onset atrial fibrillation with a median CHA2DS2-VASc score of 3 (IQR 2-4). New-onset atrial fibrillation during infection showed an absolute post-discharge one-year risk of stroke of 2.7% (95% CI 1.6-4.2), corresponding to a crude HR of 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.3), a sex and age adjusted HR of 1.0 (95% CI 0.6-1.6) and a CHA2DS2-VASc adjusted HR of 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.8) compared to patients with infection, but no atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: ED patients with infection and new-onset atrial fibrillation without current OAC therapy had a 2.7% absolute one-year risk of stroke. Stroke events were mainly related to sex and age and risk factors identified by the CHA2DS2-VASc score.

3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infarct evolution rate and response to acute reperfusion therapy may differ between patients, which is important to consider for accurate management and treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the association of infarct size and myocardial salvage with gender, smoking status, presence of diabetes or history of hypertension in a cohort of STEMI-patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 301) with first-time STEMI from the three recent multi-center trials (CHILL-MI, MITOCARE and SOCCER) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to determine myocardium at risk (MaR) and infarct size (IS). Myocardial salvage index (MSI) was calculated as MSI = 1-IS/MaR. Pain to balloon time, culprit vessel, trial treatments, age, TIMI grade flow and collateral flow by Rentrop grading were included as explanatory variables in the statistical model. RESULTS: Women (n = 66) had significantly smaller MaR (mean difference: 5.0 ± 1.5% of left ventricle (LV), p < 0.01), smaller IS (mean difference: 5.1 ± 1.4% of LV, p = 0.03), and larger MSI (mean difference: 9.6 ± 2.8% of LV, p < 0.01) compared to men (n = 238). These differences remained significant when adjusting for other explanatory variables. There were no significant effects on MaR, IS or MSI for diabetes, hypertension or smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender is associated with higher myocardial salvage and smaller infarct size suggesting a pathophysiological difference in infarct evolution between men and women.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity is favourably associated with certain markers of lipid metabolism. The relationship of physical activity with lipoprotein particle profiles in children is not known. Here we examine cross-sectional associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with serum markers of lipoprotein metabolism. METHODS: Our cohort included 880 children (49.0% girls, mean age 10.2 years). Physical activity intensity and time spent sedentary were measured objectively using accelerometers. 30 measures of lipoprotein metabolism were quantified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, sexual maturity and socioeconomic status were used to determine associations of physical activity and sedentary time with lipoprotein measures. Additional models were adjusted for adiposity. Isotemporal substitution models quantified theoretical associations of replacing 30 min of sedentary time with 30 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). RESULTS: Time spent in MVPA was associated with a favourable lipoprotein profile independent of sedentary time. There were inverse associations with a number of lipoprotein measures, including most apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein subclasses and triglyceride measures, the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol concentration. There were positive associations with larger HDL subclasses, HDL cholesterol concentration and particle size. Reallocating 30 min of sedentary time to MVPA had broadly similar associations. Sedentary time was only partly and weakly associated with an unfavourable lipoprotein profile. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity of at least moderate-intensity is associated with a favourable lipoprotein profile in schoolchildren, independent of time spent sedentary, adiposity and other confounders.

5.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002836, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are lacking from physical activity (PA) trials with long-term follow-up of both objectively measured PA levels and robust health outcomes. Two primary care 12-week pedometer-based walking interventions in adults and older adults (PACE-UP and PACE-Lift) found sustained objectively measured PA increases at 3 and 4 years, respectively. We aimed to evaluate trial intervention effects on long-term health outcomes relevant to walking interventions, using routine primary care data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomisation was from October 2012 to November 2013 for PACE-UP participants from seven general (family) practices and October 2011 to October 2012 for PACE-Lift participants from three practices. We downloaded primary care data, masked to intervention or control status, for 1,001 PACE-UP participants aged 45-75 years, 36% (361) male, and 296 PACE-Lift participants, aged 60-75 years, 46% (138) male, who gave written informed consent, for 4-year periods following randomisation. The following new events were counted for all participants, including those with preexisting diseases (apart from diabetes, for which existing cases were excluded): nonfatal cardiovascular, total cardiovascular (including fatal), incident diabetes, depression, fractures, and falls. Intervention effects on time to first event post-randomisation were modelled using Cox regression for all outcomes, except for falls, which used negative binomial regression to allow for multiple events, adjusting for age, sex, and study. Absolute risk reductions (ARRs) and numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were estimated. Data were downloaded for 1,297 (98%) of 1,321 trial participants. Event rates were low (<20 per group) for outcomes, apart from fractures and falls. Cox hazard ratios for time to first event post-randomisation for interventions versus controls were nonfatal cardiovascular 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.77, p = 0.02), total cardiovascular 0.34 (95% CI 0.12-0.91, p = 0.03), diabetes 0.75 (95% CI 0.42-1.36, p = 0.34), depression 0.98 (95% CI 0.46-2.07, p = 0.96), and fractures 0.56 (95% CI 0.35-0.90, p = 0.02). Negative binomial incident rate ratio for falls was 1.07 (95% CI 0.78-1.46, p = 0.67). ARR and NNT for cardiovascular events were nonfatal 1.7% (95% CI 0.5%-2.1%), NNT = 59 (95% CI 48-194); total 1.6% (95% CI 0.2%-2.2%), NNT = 61 (95% CI 46-472); and for fractures 3.6% (95% CI 0.8%-5.4%), NNT = 28 (95% CI 19-125). Main limitations were that event rates were low and only events recorded in primary care records were counted; however, any underrecording would not have differed by intervention status and so should not have led to bias. CONCLUSIONS: Routine primary care data used to assess long-term trial outcomes demonstrated significantly fewer new cardiovascular events and fractures in intervention participants at 4 years. No statistically significant differences between intervention and control groups were demonstrated for other events. Short-term primary care pedometer-based walking interventions can produce long-term health benefits and should be more widely used to help address the public health inactivity challenge. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: PACE-UP isrctn.com ISRCTN98538934; PACE-Lift isrctn.com ISRCTN42122561.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
7.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0211442, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective methods to measure physical activity (PA) can lead to better cross-cultural comparisons, monitoring temporal PA trends, and measuring the effect of interventions. However, when applying this technology in field-work, the accelerometer data processing is prone to methodological issues. One of the most challenging issues relates to standardizing total wear time to provide reliable data across participants. It is generally accepted that at least 4 complete days of accelerometer wear represent a week for adults. It is not known if this same assumption holds true for pregnant women. AIM: We assessed the optimal number of days needed to obtain reliable estimates of overall PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the 2nd trimester in pregnancy using a raw triaxial wrist-worn accelerometer. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were carried out in the antenatal wave of the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Participants wore the wrist ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. The daily average acceleration, which indicated overall PA, was measured as milli-g (mg), and time spent in MVPA (minutes/day) was analyzed in 5-minute bouts. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare variability across days of the week. Bland-Altman plots and the Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula were applied to determine the reliability coefficient associated with one to seven days of measurement. RESULTS: Among 2,082 pregnant women who wore the accelerometer for seven complete days, overall and MVPA were lower on Sundays compared to other days of the week. Reliability of > = 0.80 to evaluate overall PA was reached with at least three monitoring days, whereas seven days were needed to estimate reliable measures of MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that obtaining one week of accelerometry in adults is appropriate for pregnant women, particularly to obtain differences on weekend days and reliably estimate overall PA and MVPA.

8.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(10): 1636-1646, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), high birth weight, and rapid infant weight gain are associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. We examined whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) or vigorous physical activity (VPA) in 9- to 12-year-olds modified the associations between these early life risk factors and subsequent body composition and BMI. METHODS: We used data from a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), including 445 children with available data on accelerometer assessed physical activity (PA). All participants had data on BMI, 186 of them provided data on body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). We used multiple regression analyses to examine the modifying effect of PA by including interaction terms. RESULTS: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and infant weight gain were more strongly related to childhood body composition in boys than in girls. Higher VPA attenuated the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and BMI in boys (low VPA: B = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.22, 0.41; high VPA B = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.31). Birth weight was unrelated to childhood body composition, and there was no effect modification by PA. PA attenuated the associations between infant weight gain and childhood fat mass (low MVPA: B = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.48, 4.17; high MVPA: B = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.10, 1.90) and percent fat (low MVPA: B = 3.35, 95% CI = 0.56, 6.14; high MVPA: B = 1.41, 95% CI = -0.06, 2.87) in boys, but not girls. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study suggest that MVPA and VPA may attenuate the increased risk of an unfavorable body composition and BMI due to high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and rapid infant weight gain in boys, but not in girls.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5444, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931983

RESUMO

The findings of studies on the association between physical activity and adiposity are not consistent, and most are cross-sectional and used only self-reported measures. The aims of this study were to evaluate: 1) independent and combined cross-sectional associations of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary time with body composition outcomes at 30 years, and 2) prospective associations of changes in self-reported physical activity from 23 to 30 years with the same outcomes in participants from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. Body mass index, waist circumference, visceral abdominal fat, fat mass index, and android/gynoid fat ratio were the outcomes. 3,206 participants were analysed. In cross-sectional analyses, higher objectively-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with lower body mass index (ß = 0.017, 95%CI: -0.026; -0.009), waist circumference (ß = -0.043, 95%CI: -0.061; -0.025), visceral abdominal fat (ß = -0.006, 95%CI: -0.009; -0.003), and fat mass index (ß = -0.015, 95%CI: -0.021; -0.009), independent of sedentary time. Sedentary time was independently associated only with higher fat mass index (ß = 0.003, 95%CI: 0.001; 0.005). In longitudinal analyses, using self-reported measure, adiposity was lower among those who were consistently active or who became active. Adiposity was similar among the "became inactive" and "consistently inactive" subjects. Our findings suggest metabolic benefits from engagement in physical activity throughout young adulthood, with stronger associations on concurrent levels.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(16): 2062-2072, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear what level of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) offsets the health risks of sitting. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the joint and stratified associations of sitting and MVPA with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and to estimate the theoretical effect of replacing sitting time with physical activity, standing, and sleep. METHODS: A longitudinal analysis of the 45 and Up Study calculated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of sitting for each sitting-MVPA combination group and within MVPA strata. Isotemporal substitution modeling estimated the per-hour HR effects of replacing sitting. RESULTS: A total of 8,689 deaths (1,644 due to CVD) occurred among 149,077 participants over an 8.9-year (median) follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between sitting and MVPA only for all-cause mortality. Sitting time was associated with both mortality outcomes in a nearly dose-response manner in the least active groups reporting <150 MVPA min/week. For example, among those reporting no MVPA, the all-cause mortality HR comparing the most sedentary (>8 h/day) to the least sedentary (<4 h/day) groups was 1.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 2.03). There was inconsistent and weak evidence for elevated CVD and all-cause mortality risks with more sitting among those meeting the lower (150 to 299 MVPA min/week) or upper (≥300 MVPA min/week) limits of the MVPA recommendation. Replacing sitting with walking and MVPA showed stronger associations among high sitters (>6 sitting h/day) where, for example, the per-hour CVD mortality HR for sitting replaced with vigorous activity was 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.17 to 0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Sitting is associated with all-cause and CVD mortality risk among the least physically active adults; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity doses equivalent to meeting the current recommendations attenuate or effectively eliminate such associations.

12.
Curr Obes Rep ; 8(2): 66-76, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905041

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To what extent do different methods of physical activity measurement and statistical analysis influence the reported associations between physical activity and weight gain? RECENT FINDINGS: The obesity epidemic has led to a focus on lifestyle approaches to the prevention of weight gain. Physical activity is one such approach. A number of studies have reported beneficial associations between higher levels of physical activity and weight gain at the population level. However, limitations of physical activity measurement and analytical models in some of these studies are likely to have resulted in overestimation of the strength of association. Understanding the limitations of assessment methods and analytical models used in epidemiological research should facilitate more realistic appraisal for physical activity to prevent weight gain at the population level and inform approaches to future research.

14.
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 10, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few trials have compared estimates of change in physical activity (PA) levels using self-reported and objective PA measures when evaluating trial outcomes. The PACE-UP trial offered the opportunity to assess this, using the self-administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and waist-worn accelerometry. METHODS: The PACE-UP trial (N = 1023) compared usual care (n = 338) with two pedometer-based walking interventions, by post (n = 339) or with nurse support (n = 346). Participants wore an accelerometer at baseline and 12 months and completed IPAQ for the same 7-day periods. Main outcomes were weekly minutes, all in ≥10 min bouts as per UK PA guidelines of: i) accelerometer moderate-to-vigorous PA (Acc-MVPA) ii) IPAQ moderate+vigorous PA (IPAQ-MVPA) and iii) IPAQ walking (IPAQ-Walk). For each outcome, 12 month values were regressed on baseline to estimate change. RESULTS: Analyses were restricted to 655 (64%) participants who provided data on all outcomes at baseline and 12 months. Both intervention groups significantly increased their accelerometry MVPA minutes/week compared with control: postal group 42 (95% CI 22, 61), nurse group 43 (95% CI 24, 63). IPAQ-Walk minutes/week also increased: postal 57 (95% CI 2, 112), nurse 43 (95% CI -11, 97) but IPAQ-MVPA minutes/week showed non-significant decreases: postal -11 (95% CI -65, 42), nurse -34 (95% CI -87, 19). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the necessity of using a questionnaire focussing on the activities being altered, as with IPAQ-Walk questions. Even then, the change in PA was estimated with far less precision than with accelerometry. Accelerometry is preferred to self-report measurement, minimising bias and improving precision when assessing effects of a walking intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN98538934 . Registered 2 March 2012.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Autorrelato , Caminhada , Actigrafia , Idoso , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(4): 566-574, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548545

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare estimations of sedentary time (SED) and time spent in physical activity (PA) intensities in children with overweight/obesity across different age-appropriate cut-points based on different body-worn attachment sites and acceleration metrics. A total of 104 overweight/obese children (10.1 ± 1.1 years old, 43 girls) concurrently wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on their right hip and non-dominant wrist for 7 days (24 hours). Euclidean norm -1 g (ENMO) and activity counts from both vertical axis (VACounts) and vector magnitude (VMCounts) were derived. We calculated estimates of SED and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) intensity PA using different published cut-points for children. The prevalence of children meeting the recommended 60 min/d of MVPA was calculated. The time spent in SED and the different PA intensities largely differed across cut-points based on different attachment sites and acceleration metrics (ie, SED = 11-252 min/d; light PA = 10-217 min/d; moderate PA = 1-48 min/d; vigorous PA = 1-35 min/d; MVPA = 4-66 min/d). Consequently, the prevalence of children meeting the recommended 60 min/d of MVPA varied from 8% to 96% of the study sample. The present study provides a comprehensive comparison between available cut-points for different attachment and acceleration metrics in children. Furthermore, our data clearly show that it is not possible (and probably will never be) to know the prevalence of meeting the PA guidelines based on accelerometer data since apparent differences range from almost zero to nearly everyone meeting the guidelines.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total heart volume (THV) within the pericardium is not constant throughout the cardiac cycle and THV would intuitively be lowest at end systole. We have, however, observed a phase shift between ventricular outflow and atrial inflow which causes the minimum THV to occur before end systole. The aims were to explain the mechanism of the late-systolic net inflow to the heart and determine whether this net inflow is affected by increased cardiac output or systolic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy controls (n = 21) and patients with EF<35% (n = 14) underwent magnetic resonance imaging with flow measurements in vessels to and from the heart, and this was repeated in nine controls during 140 µgram kg-1  min-1 adenosine infusion. Minimum THV occurred 78 ± 6 ms before end of systolic ejection (8 ± 1% of the cardiac cycle) in controls. The late-systolic net inflow was 12·3 ± 1·1 ml or 6·0 ± 0·5% of total stroke volume (TSV). Cardiac output increased 66 ± 8% during adenosine but late-systolic net inflow to the heart did not change (P = 0·73). In patients with heart failure, late-systolic net inflow of the heart's left side was lower (3·4 ± 0·5%) compared to healthy subjects (5·3 ± 0·6%, P = 0·03). CONCLUSIONS: Heart size increases before end systole due to a late-systolic net inflow which is unaffected by increased cardiac output. This may be explained by inertia of blood that flows into the atria generated by ventricular systole. The lower late-systolic net inflow in patients with systolic heart failure may be a measure of decreased ventricular filling due to decreased systolic function, thus linking systolic to diastolic dysfunction.

19.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; : 1-20, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department (ED), and it is a challenge to identify low-risk chest pain patients eligible for early discharge. We aimed to develop a simple objective decision rule to exclude 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in ED chest pain patients. DESIGN: We analyzed prospectively included patients presenting with chest pain. Low risk patients were identified with the clinical objective rule-out evaluation (CORE). CORE was based on high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) tests at ED presentation (0h) and 2h later together with a simplified risk score consisting of four objective variables: age ≥65 years and a history of arterial disease, hypertension or diabetes. For the patient to be classified as low risk in the CORE rule, hs-cTnT had to be ≤14 ng/l both at 0 and 2h, and the sum of the risk score had to be 0. The primary outcome was MACE within 30 days. RESULTS: Among the 751 patients in the final analysis, 90 (11.9%) had a MACE. CORE identified 248 (33%) of patients as low risk with a sensitivity of 98.9% (CI 93.1-99.9) and a negative predictive value of 99.6% (95% CI 97.4-100) for 30-day MACE. Adding the ED physician's interpretation of the ECG to CORE did not improve diagnostic performance. CONCLUSION: A simple objective decision rule (CORE) identified one-third of all patients as having a very low 30-day risk of MACE. These patients may potentially be discharged without additional investigations for acute coronary syndrome.

20.
Atherosclerosis ; 278: 299-306, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: International reference values for cardiometabolic risk variables, to allow for standardization of continuous risk scores in children, are not currently available. The aim of this study was to provide international age- and gender-specific reference values for cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. METHODS: Cohorts of children sampled from different parts of Europe (North, South, Mid and Eastern) and from the United States were pooled. In total, 22,479 observations (48.7% European vs. 51.3% American), 11,234 from girls and 11,245 from boys, aged 6-18 years were included in the study. Linear mixed-model regression analysis was used to analyze the associations between age and each cardiometabolic risk factor. RESULTS: Reference values for 14 of the most commonly used cardiometabolic risk variables in clustered risk scores were calculated and presented by age and gender: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), sum of 4 skinfolds (sum4skin), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC:HDL-C ratio, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-score (HOMA-score), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a common standard to define cardiometabolic risk in children. Adapting this approach makes single risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic disease risk scores comparable to the reference material itself and comparable to cardiometabolic risk values in studies using the same strategy. This unified approach therefore increases the prospect to estimate and compare prevalence and trends of cardiometabolic risk in children when using continuous cardiometabolic risk scores.

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