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2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0216017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aims to estimate the minimum number of accelerometer measurement days needed to estimate habitual physical activity (PA) among 6- (2010), 18- (2011) and 30- (2012) year-old participants, belonging to three population-based Brazilian birth cohorts. METHOD: PA was assessed by triaxial wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometers and the present analysis is restricted to participants with at least 6 consecutive days of measurement. Accelerometer raw data were analyzed with R-package GGIR. Description of PA measures (overall PA, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA)) on weekdays and weekend days were conducted, and statistical differences were tested with chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Spearman Brown Formulae was applied to test reliability of different number of days of accelerometer use. RESULTS: Differences between week and weekend days regarding LPA, MVPA and overall PA, were only observed among 30-year-olds. Higher levels of MVPA (p = 0.006) and overall PA (p<0.001) were identified on weekdays. For overall PA, to achieve a reliability coefficient >0.70, two and three days of measurement were needed in adults and children, respectively. For LPA, a reliability coefficient >0.70 was achieved with five days in 6-year-old children, three days in 18-year-old young adults, and four days in 30-year-old adults. Considering MVPA, four days would be necessary to represent a week of measurement among all cohort groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show that four and five measurement days are needed to estimate all habitual PA constructs, for children and adults, respectively. Also, among 30-year-old adults, it is important to make efforts towards weekend days measurement.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 786, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964917

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic with no signs of improvement. Prolonged sitting time is an emerging risk factor that exacerbates the health consequences of physical inactivity. Both behaviours are influenced by various individual and environmental factors but it remains unknown whether early-life exposures "program" these behaviours in later life. The current evidence is limited by a small number of studies which were primarily conducted in high-income countries, and a narrow range of early-life variables examined. Using data from three population-based Brazilian birth cohorts (analytical samples: n = 2740 for 1982 cohort, aged 30 years; n = 3592 for 1993 cohort, aged 18; n = 2603 for 2004 cohort, aged 6), we show that being female and higher family socioeconomic status at birth are strong and consistent predictors of lower physical activity and higher sedentary time from childhood to adulthood. Meanwhile, higher birth weight and lower birth order may also predict lower physical activity and higher sedentary time. Our findings are distinct from evidence from high-income countries, suggesting the importance of broader socioeconomic context in determining individual's activity patterns through the life- course. Such evidence is essential for understanding the biological etiology and socioeconomic context of physical activity and sedentary behaviour at an early stage in life.

4.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(1): 137-146, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Use of objectively measured physical activity (PA) in older adults to assess relationship between PA and risk of all-causes mortality is scarce. This study evaluated the associations of PA based on accelerometry and a questionnaire with the risk of mortality among older adults from a city in Southern Brazil. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: Urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of older adults (≥60 y) from Pelotas, enrolled in 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Overall physical activity (mg), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were estimated by raw accelerometer data. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire estimated leisure time and commuting PA. Hazard ratios (excluding deaths in the first 6 mo) stratified by sex were estimated by Cox regression analysis considering adjustment for confounders. RESULTS: From the 1451 older adults interviewed in 2014, 145 died (10%) after a follow-up of an average 2.6 years. Men and women in the highest tertile of overall PA had on average a 77% and 92% lower risk of mortality than their less active counterparts (95% confidence interval [CI] = .06-.84 and 95% CI = .01-.65, respectively). The highest tertile of LPA was also related to a lower risk of mortality in individuals of both sexes (74% and 91% lower risk among men and women, respectively). MVPA statistically reduced the risk of mortality only among women (hazard ratio [HR] = .30 and HR = .07 in the second and third tertiles). Self-reported leisure-time PA was statistically associated with a lower risk of mortality only among men. Women in the highest tertiles of commuting PA showed a lower risk of mortality than those in the reference group. CONCLUSION: Accelerometry-based PA was associated with a lower risk of mortality among Brazilian older adults. Older individuals should practice any type of PA. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:137-146, 2019.

5.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(1): e12578, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. To prevent an early onset, knowledge about its association with modifiable lifestyle factors is needed. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and examine its cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary time. METHODS: Participants were 6009 children and adolescents from 8 studies of the International Children's Accelerometry Database. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age and monitor wear time were used to examine the associations between physical activity, sedentary time and the metabolic syndrome in each study and effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 2.9%. In crude models, a 10 min increase in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and vigorous-intensity physical activity were inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome [OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94, OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.92]. One hour increase in sedentary time was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome [OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.13-1.45]. After adjustment for sedentary time, the association between moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity and the metabolic syndrome remained significant [OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99]. Sedentary time was not associated with the metabolic syndrome after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity [OR 1.14 95% CI 0.96-1.36]. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity of at least moderate intensity but not sedentary time is independently associated with the metabolic syndrome.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225670, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surveillance of physical activity at the population level increases the knowledge on levels and trends of physical activity, which may support public health initiatives to promote physical activity. Physical activity assessed by accelerometry is challenged by varying data processing procedures, which influences the outcome. We aimed to describe the levels and prevalence estimates of physical activity, and to examine how triaxial and uniaxial accelerometry data influences these estimates, in a large population-based cohort of Norwegian adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 5918 women and men aged 40-84 years who participated in the seventh wave of the Tromsø Study (2015-16). The participants wore an ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer attached to the hip for 24 hours per day over seven consecutive days. Accelerometry variables were expressed as volume (counts·minute-1 and steps·day-1) and as minutes per day in sedentary, light physical activity and moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA). RESULTS: From triaxial accelerometry data, 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 21-23%) of the participants fulfilled the current global recommendations for physical activity (≥150 minutes of MVPA per week in ≥10-minute bouts), while 70% (95% CI: 69-71%) accumulated ≥150 minutes of non-bouted MVPA per week. When analysing uniaxial data, 18% fulfilled the current recommendations (i.e. 20% difference compared with triaxial data), and 55% (95% CI: 53-56%) accumulated ≥150 minutes of non-bouted MVPA per week. We observed approximately 100 less minutes of sedentary time and 90 minutes more of light physical activity from triaxial data compared with uniaxial data (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence estimates of sufficiently active adults and elderly are more than three times higher (22% vs. 70%) when comparing triaxial bouted and non-bouted MVPA. Physical activity estimates are highly dependent on accelerometry data processing criteria and on different definitions of physical activity recommendations, which may influence prevalence estimates and tracking of physical activity patterns over time.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18235, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796778

RESUMO

Large epidemiological studies that use accelerometers for physical behavior and sleep assessment differ in the location of the accelerometer attachment and the signal aggregation metric chosen. This study aimed to assess the comparability of acceleration metrics between commonly-used body-attachment locations for 24 hours, waking and sleeping hours, and to test comparability of PA cut points between dominant and non-dominant wrist. Forty-five young adults (23 women, 18-41 years) were included and GT3X + accelerometers (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) were placed on their right hip, dominant, and non-dominant wrist for 7 days. We derived Euclidean Norm Minus One g (ENMO), Low-pass filtered ENMO (LFENMO), Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) and ActiGraph activity counts over 5-second epochs from the raw accelerations. Metric values were compared using a correlation analysis, and by plotting the differences by time of the day. Cut points for the dominant wrist were derived using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient optimization in a grid of possible thresholds, using the non-dominant wrist estimates as reference. They were cross-validated in a separate sample (N = 36, 10 women, 22-30 years). Shared variances between pairs of acceleration metrics varied across sites and metric pairs (range in r2: 0.19-0.97, all p < 0.01), suggesting that some sites and metrics are associated, and others are not. We observed higher metric values in dominant vs. non-dominant wrist, thus, we developed cut points for dominant wrist based on ENMO to classify sedentary time (<50 mg), light PA (50-110 mg), moderate PA (110-440 mg) and vigorous PA (≥440 mg). Our findings suggest differences between dominant and non-dominant wrist, and we proposed new cut points to attenuate these differences. ENMO and LFENMO were the most similar metrics, and they showed good comparability with MAD. However, counts were not comparable with ENMO, LFENMO and MAD.

8.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885293

RESUMO

Objectives. Pericarditis, takotsubo cardiomyopathy and early repolarization syndrome (ERS) are well-known to mimic ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to study whether ECG findings of reciprocal ST depression, PR depression, ST-segment convexity or terminal QRS distortion can discriminate between ST elevation due to ischemia and non-ischemic conditions. Design. Eighty-five patients with STEMI and 94 patients with non-ischemic ST elevation were included. All patients had acute chest pain and at least 0.1 mV ST elevation. Presence of PR depression, ST-segment convexity, terminal QRS distortion or reciprocal ST depression was assessed in each ECG. Results. In anterior ST elevation, ST depression in lead II (≥0.025 mV) occurred in 40% of patients with STEMI but in none of the non-ischemic cases. In inferior ST elevation, ST depression in lead I (≥0.025 mV) was present in 83% of patients with STEMI but in none of the non-ischemic cases. Chest-lead PR depression was uncommon in STEMI (12%) compared to non-ischemic cases (38%; p < .001). Convex ST elevation occurred in 22% of STEMI cases and in 9% of non-ischemic cases (p = .01). Terminal QRS distortion was more prevalent in STEMI (40%) than in non-ischemic ST elevation (7%). In multivariable analysis, reciprocal ST depression was associated with an ischemic diagnosis, whereas ST depression in aVR and chest-lead PR depression were associated with a non-ischemic diagnosis. Conclusions. Identification of true STEMI among patients with different ST-elevation etiology may be improved by considering reciprocal ST depression, ST depression in aVR and chest-lead PR depression.

9.
J Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cornerstones in the assessment of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are patient history and physical examination, electrocardiogram, and cardiac troponins. Although there are several prior studies on this subject, they have in some cases produced inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of elements of patient history and the physical examination in ED chest pain patients for predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 30 days. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that included 1167 ED patients with nontraumatic chest pain. We collected clinical data during the initial ED assessment of the patients. Our primary outcome was 30-day MACE. RESULTS: Pain radiating to both arms increased the probability of 30-day MACE (positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 2.7), whereas episodic chest pain lasting seconds (LR+ 0.0) and >24 h (LR+ 0.1) markedly decreased the risk. In the physical examination, pulmonary rales (LR+ 3.0) increased the risk of 30-day MACE, while pain reproduced by palpation (LR+ 0.3) decreased the risk. Among cardiac risk factors, a history of diabetes (LR+ 3.0) and peripheral arterial disease (LR+ 2.7) were the most predictive factors. CONCLUSIONS: No clinical findings reliably ruled in 30-day MACE, whereas episodic chest pain lasting seconds and pain lasting more than 24 h markedly decreased the risk of 30-day MACE. Consequently, these two findings can be adjuncts in ruling out 30-day MACE.

10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few studies have investigated the independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat percentage (BF%) with insulin resistance in children. We investigated the independent and combined associations of CRF and BF% with fasting glycaemia and insulin resistance and their interactions with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time among 452 children aged 6-8 years. METHODS: We assessed CRF with a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test and used allometrically scaled maximal power output (Wmax) for lean body mass (LM) and body mass (BM) as measures of CRF. BF% and LM were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, fasting glycaemia by fasting plasma glucose, and insulin resistance by fasting serum insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). PA energy expenditure (PAEE), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time were assessed by combined movement and heart rate sensor. RESULTS: Wmax/LM was not associated with glucose (ß=0.065, 95% CI=-0.031 to 0.161), insulin (ß=-0.079, 95% CI=-0.172 to 0.015), or HOMA-IR (ß=-0.065, 95% CI=-0.161 to 0.030). Wmax/BM was inversely associated with insulin (ß=-0.289, 95% CI=-0.377 to -0.200) and HOMA-IR (ß=-0.269, 95% CI=-0.359 to -0.180). BF% was directly associated with insulin (ß=0.409, 95% CI=0.325 to 0.494) and HOMA-IR (ß=0.390, 95% CI=0.304 to 0.475). Higher Wmax/BM, but not Wmax/LM, was associated with lower insulin and HOMA-IR in children with higher BF%. Children with higher BF% and who had lower levels of MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR. CONCLUSION: Children with higher BF% together with less MVPA or higher levels of sedentary time had the highest insulin and HOMA-IR. CRF appropriately controlled for body size and composition using LM was not related to insulin resistance among children.

11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 96, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between sitting for extended periods (i.e. prolonged sedentary time (PST)) and cardio-metabolic health is inconsistent in children. We aimed to estimate the differences in cardio-metabolic health associated with substituting PST with non-prolonged sedentary time (non-PST), light (LIPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 14 studies (7 countries) in the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD, 1998-2009) was included. Accelerometry in 19,502 participants aged 3-18 years, together with covariate and outcome data, was pooled and harmonized. Iso-temporal substitution in linear regression models provided beta coefficients (95%CI) for substitution of 1 h/day PST (sedentary time accumulated in bouts > 15 min) with non-PST, LIPA or MVPA, for each study, which were meta-analysed. RESULTS: Modelling substitution of 1 h/day of PST with non-PST suggested reductions in standardized BMI, but estimates were > 7-fold greater for substitution with MVPA (- 0.44 (- 0.62; - 0.26) SD units). Only reallocation by MVPA was beneficial for waist circumference (- 3.07 (- 4.47; - 1.68) cm), systolic blood pressure (- 1.53 (- 2.42; - 0.65) mmHg) and clustered cardio-metabolic risk (- 0.18 (- 0.3; - 0.1) SD units). For HDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure, substitution with LIPA was beneficial; however, substitution with MVPA showed 5-fold stronger effect estimates (HDL-cholesterol: 0.05 (0.01; 0.10) mmol/l); diastolic blood pressure: - 0.81 (- 1.38; - 0.24) mmHg). CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of PST with MVPA may be the preferred scenario for behaviour change, given beneficial associations with a wide range of cardio-metabolic risk factors (including adiposity, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure and clustered cardio-metabolic risk). Effect estimates are clinically relevant (e.g. an estimated reduction in waist circumference of ≈1.5 cm for 30 min/day replacement). Replacement with LIPA could be beneficial for some of these risk factors, however with substantially lower effect estimates.

13.
BMJ ; 366: l5715, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570340
14.
Front Public Health ; 7: 267, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572707

RESUMO

Background: Emergency Departments (EDs) today rely heavily on Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and associated support systems. EHR updates are known to be associated with adverse events, but reports on the consequences of breakdowns in EDs are lacking. Objectives: To describe the effects on workload, occupancy, patient Length Of Stay (LOS), and admissions at three EDs (a regional trauma center, a community hospital and a rural community hospital) during a 96 h period of EHR downtime, of which 48 h represented an unexpected breakdown. Methods: Assessments of workload, on a scale from 1 (no workload) to 6 (very high workload), were obtained from all staff before, during and after the downtime period. Occupancy, LOS and hospital admissions were extracted from data recorded in the fallback system at each ED during the downtime, and compared with the period before and after (uptime). Results: Workload increased considerably at two EDs during the downtime whereas the third ED lacked resources to assess workload due to the breakdown. The proportion of assessments ≥4 were 28.5% during uptime compared to 38.4% during downtime at the regional trauma center ED (difference 9.9%, p = 0.006, 95% CI 2.7-17%), and 22.9% compared to 41% at the rural community ED (difference 18.1%, p = 0.0002, 95%CI 7.9-28.3%). Median LOS increased by 19 min (3:56 vs. 4:15, p < 0.004) at the regional trauma center ED, by 76 min (3:34 vs. 4:50, p < 0.001) at the community ED and was unaltered at the rural community ED (2:47 vs. 2:51, p = 0.3) during downtime. Occupancy increased significantly at the community ED (1.59 vs. 0.71, p < 0.0001). Admissions rates remained unchanged during the breakdown. Fallback systems and initiatives to manage the effects of the breakdown differed between the EDs. Conclusions: EHR downtime or unexpected breakdowns increased staff workload, and had variable effects on ED crowding as measured by LOS and occupancy. Additional staff and digital fallback systems may reduce the effects on ED crowding, but this descriptive study cannot determine causality.

15.
Br J Sports Med ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562122

RESUMO

In the past few decades, the field of physical activity has grown and evolved in scope, depth, visibility and impact around the world. Global progress has been observed in research and practice in physical activity regarding surveillance, health outcomes, correlates/determinants, interventions, translation and policy. The 2012 and 2016 Lancet series on physical activity provide some of the most comprehensive global analysis on various topics within physical activity. Based on the Lancet series and other key developments in the field, literature searches, and expert group meetings and consultation, we provide a global summary on the progress of, gaps in and future directions for physical activity research in the following areas: (1) surveillance and trends, (2) correlates and determinants, (3) health outcomes and (4) interventions, programmes and policies. Besides lessons learnt within each specific area, several recommendations are shared across areas of research, including improvement in measurement, applying a global perspective with a growing emphasis on low-income and middle-income countries, improving inclusiveness and equity in research, making translation an integral part of research for real-world impact, taking an 'upstream' public health approach, and working across disciplines and sectors to co-design research and co-create solutions. We have summarised lessons learnt and recommendations for future research as 'roadmaps' in progress to encourage moving the field of physical activity towards achieving population-level impact globally.

16.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(11-12): 2487-2498, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the associations of physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with heart rate variability (HRV) in children. METHODS: The participants were a population sample of 377 children aged 6-9 years (49% boys). ST, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) were assessed using a combined heart rate and movement sensor, maximal power output per kilograms of lean body mass as a measure of CRF by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, and HRV variables (SDNN, RMSSD, LF, and HF) using 5 min resting electrocardiography. Data were analysed by linear regression adjusted for years from peak height velocity. RESULTS: In boys, ST was inversely associated (ß = - 0.185 to - 0.146, p ≤ 0.049) and MVPA, VPA, PAEE, and CRF were directly associated (ß = 0.147 to 0.320, p ≤ 0.048) with HRV variables. CRF was directly associated with all HRV variables and PAEE was directly associated with RMSSD after mutual adjustment for ST, PAEE, and CRF (ß = 0.169 to 0.270, p ≤ 0.046). In girls, ST was inversely associated (ß = - 0.382 to - 0.294, p < 0.001) and LPA, MPA, VPA, MVPA, and PAEE were directly associated with HRV variables (ß = 0.144 to 0.348, p ≤ 0.049). After mutual adjustment for ST, PAEE, and CRF, only the inverse associations of ST with HRV variables remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher ST and lower PA and CRF were associated with poorer cardiac autonomic nervous system function in children. Lower CRF in boys and higher ST in girls were the strongest correlates of poorer cardiac autonomic function.

17.
BMJ ; 366: l4570, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the dose-response associations between accelerometer assessed total physical activity, different intensities of physical activity, and sedentary time and all cause mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, Sport Discus from inception to 31 July 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies assessing physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry and associations with all cause mortality and reported effect estimates as hazard ratios, odds ratios, or relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Guidelines for meta-analyses and systematic reviews for observational studies and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts. One author performed a full text review and another extracted the data. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias. Individual level participant data were harmonised and analysed at study level. Data on physical activity were categorised by quarters at study level, and study specific associations with all cause mortality were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Study specific results were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 39 studies were retrieved for full text review; 10 were eligible for inclusion, three were excluded owing to harmonisation challenges (eg, wrist placement of the accelerometer), and one study did not participate. Two additional studies with unpublished mortality data were also included. Thus, individual level data from eight studies (n=36 383; mean age 62.6 years; 72.8% women), with median follow-up of 5.8 years (range 3.0-14.5 years) and 2149 (5.9%) deaths were analysed. Any physical activity, regardless of intensity, was associated with lower risk of mortality, with a non-linear dose-response. Hazards ratios for mortality were 1.00 (referent) in the first quarter (least active), 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.54) in the second quarter, 0.34 (0.26 to 0.45) in the third quarter, and 0.27 (0.23 to 0.32) in the fourth quarter (most active). Corresponding hazards ratios for light physical activity were 1.00, 0.60 (0.54 to 0.68), 0.44 (0.38 to 0.51), and 0.38 (0.28 to 0.51), and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were 1.00, 0.64 (0.55 to 0.74), 0.55 (0.40 to 0.74), and 0.52 (0.43 to 0.61). For sedentary time, hazards ratios were 1.00 (referent; least sedentary), 1.28 (1.09 to 1.51), 1.71 (1.36 to 2.15), and 2.63 (1.94 to 3.56). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of total physical activity, at any intensity, and less time spent sedentary, are associated with substantially reduced risk for premature mortality, with evidence of a non-linear dose-response pattern in middle aged and older adults. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018091808.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Mortalidade/tendências , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Med ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation in relation to infection are frequent in emergency departments (EDs) and may require antithrombotic therapy because of the increased risk of stroke. Our objective was to describe the 1-year risk of stroke in patients in the ED with infection, new-onset atrial fibrillation, and no antithrombotic therapy. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study at 4 EDs in Denmark and Sweden. Atrial fibrillation was identified by electrocardiogram (ECG) upon arrival at the ED, and infection was identified by discharge diagnosis. Patient history was followed for 12 months or until initiation of oral anticoagulant therapy, ischemic stroke, or death. Primary outcome was stroke within 12 months compared to patients with infection and no atrial fibrillation. RESULTS: In the analysis, 15,505 patients were included; 48.7% were male and the median age was 71 (IQR, 56-83). Among the included patients, 2107 (13.6%) had atrial fibrillation of any kind and 822 (39.0%) of these had new-onset atrial fibrillation with a median CHA2DS2-VASc score of 3 (IQR 2-4). New-onset atrial fibrillation during infection showed an absolute postdischarge 1-year risk of stroke of 2.7% (95% CI 1.6-4.2), corresponding to a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.3), a sex and age adjusted HR of 1.0 (95% CI 0.6-1.6), and a CHA2DS2-VASc adjusted HR of 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.8) compared to patients with infection but no atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in the ED with infection and new-onset atrial fibrillation without current oral anticoagulant therapy had a 2.7% absolute 1-year risk of stroke. Stroke events were mainly related to sex and age and risk factors identified by the CHA2DS2-VASc score.

19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 161, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infarct evolution rate and response to acute reperfusion therapy may differ between patients, which is important to consider for accurate management and treatment of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the association of infarct size and myocardial salvage with gender, smoking status, presence of diabetes or history of hypertension in a cohort of STEMI-patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 301) with first-time STEMI from the three recent multi-center trials (CHILL-MI, MITOCARE and SOCCER) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to determine myocardium at risk (MaR) and infarct size (IS). Myocardial salvage index (MSI) was calculated as MSI = 1-IS/MaR. Pain to balloon time, culprit vessel, trial treatments, age, TIMI grade flow and collateral flow by Rentrop grading were included as explanatory variables in the statistical model. RESULTS: Women (n = 66) had significantly smaller MaR (mean difference: 5.0 ± 1.5% of left ventricle (LV), p < 0.01), smaller IS (mean difference: 5.1 ± 1.4% of LV, p = 0.03), and larger MSI (mean difference: 9.6 ± 2.8% of LV, p < 0.01) compared to men (n = 238). These differences remained significant when adjusting for other explanatory variables. There were no significant effects on MaR, IS or MSI for diabetes, hypertension or smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Female gender is associated with higher myocardial salvage and smaller infarct size suggesting a pathophysiological difference in infarct evolution between men and women.

20.
Atherosclerosis ; 288: 186-193, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity is favourably associated with certain markers of lipid metabolism. The relationship of physical activity with lipoprotein particle profiles in children is not known. Here we examine cross-sectional associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with serum markers of lipoprotein metabolism. METHODS: Our cohort included 880 children (49.0% girls, mean age 10.2 years). Physical activity intensity and time spent sedentary were measured objectively using accelerometers. 30 measures of lipoprotein metabolism were quantified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, sexual maturity and socioeconomic status were used to determine associations of physical activity and sedentary time with lipoprotein measures. Additional models were adjusted for adiposity. Isotemporal substitution models quantified theoretical associations of replacing 30 min of sedentary time with 30 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). RESULTS: Time spent in MVPA was associated with a favourable lipoprotein profile independent of sedentary time. There were inverse associations with a number of lipoprotein measures, including most apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein subclasses and triglyceride measures, the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol concentration. There were positive associations with larger HDL subclasses, HDL cholesterol concentration and particle size. Reallocating 30 min of sedentary time to MVPA had broadly similar associations. Sedentary time was only partly and weakly associated with an unfavourable lipoprotein profile. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity of at least moderate-intensity is associated with a favourable lipoprotein profile in schoolchildren, independent of time spent sedentary, adiposity and other confounders.

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