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1.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(S 03): e10-e20, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a severe complication of the Fontan circulation. There is increasing discussion about whether lymphatic dysregulation is involved as pathomechanism of PLE. This investigation focuses on the interplay between alteration of lymphatic cells and immunologic pathway alterations. METHODS: Micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) expression profiling was performed in 49 patients (n = 10 Fontan patients with PLE, n = 30 Fontan patients without PLE, and n = 9 patients with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (dTGA). miRNA pathway analysis was performed to identify significantly enriched pathways. To determine lymphocyte populations and subtypes multiparameter flow cytometry was used. RESULTS: miRNAs pathway analysis of Fontan patients with PLE revealed 20 significantly changed networks of which four of the ten largest were associated with immunologic processes. This finding is supported by significant T cell deficiency with decreased CD4+ count (p = 0.0002), altered CD4 +/CD8+ ratio, and significantly modified CD4+ (p < 0.0001) and CD8+ (p = 0.0002) T cell differentiation toward effector and terminal differentiated T cells in Fontan patients with PLE. Analyses of CD4+ T cell subsets demonstrated significantly increased frequencies of CD4+ CD25+ CD127- regulatory T cells (Treg) in Fontan patients with PLE (p = 0.0011). CONCLUSION: PLE in Fontan patients is associated with severe lymphopenia, T cell deficiency, significant alterations of T cell differentiation, and increased Treg frequency reflecting an immune status of chronic inflammation and shortened protection against pathogens and autoimmunity. These cellular alterations seemed to be dysregulated by several miRNA controlled immunological pathways.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

3.
Stem Cells ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270951

RESUMO

While the bone marrow contains most hematopoietic activity during adulthood, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells can be recovered from various extramedullary sites. Cells with hematopoietic progenitor properties have even been reported in the adult brain under steady-state conditions, but their nature and localization remain insufficiently defined. Here, we describe a heterogeneous population of myeloid progenitors in the leptomeninges of adult C57BL/6 mice. This cell pool included common myeloid, granulocyte/macrophage, and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors. Accordingly, it gave rise to all major myelo-erythroid lineages in clonogenic culture assays. Brain-associated progenitors persisted after tissue perfusion and were partially inaccessible to intravenous antibodies, suggesting their localization behind continuous blood vessel endothelium such as the blood-arachnoid barrier. Flt3Cre lineage tracing and bone marrow transplantation showed that the precursors were derived from adult hematopoietic stem cells and were most likely continuously replaced via cell trafficking. Importantly, their occurrence was tied to the immunologic state of the central nervous system (CNS) and was diminished in the context of neuroinflammation and ischemic stroke. Our findings confirm the presence of myeloid progenitors at the meningeal border of the brain and lay the foundation to unravel their possible functions in CNS surveillance and local immune cell production. © AlphaMed Press 2020 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Hematopoiesis usually takes place in the bone marrow. Yet, stem- and progenitor cells regularly leave their niche to circulate throughout the body, where they can actively participate in immune responses. Intriguingly, hematopoietic progenitor-like cells have even been reported in brain homogenates of mice, but their nature, origin and location remain insufficiently defined. In contrast to the brain parenchyma, our work places the leptomeningeal barrier of the brain among an array of tissues, which are constantly patrolled by progenitors from the bone marrow. As ever more functions of these cells in immunity are unraveled, our data will provide new impulses for neuroimmunological research.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19030, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149206

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in PHD finger protein 6 (PHF6) cause Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS), a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, which manifests variably in both males and females. To investigate the mechanisms behind overlapping but distinct clinical aspects between genders, we assessed the consequences of individual variants with structural modelling and molecular techniques. We found evidence that de novo variants occurring in females are more severe and result in loss of PHF6, while inherited variants identified in males might be hypomorph or have weaker effects on protein stability. This might contribute to the different phenotypes in male versus female individuals with BFLS. Furthermore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to induce knockout of PHF6 in SK-N-BE (2) cells which were then differentiated to neuron-like cells in order to model nervous system related consequences of PHF6 loss. Transcriptome analysis revealed a broad deregulation of genes involved in chromatin and transcriptional regulation as well as in axon and neuron development. Subsequently, we could demonstrate that PHF6 is indeed required for proper neuron proliferation, neurite outgrowth and migration. Impairment of these processes might therefore contribute to the neurodevelopmental and cognitive dysfunction in BFLS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

6.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and preeclampsia are major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many different organs are involved in the diseases' clinical phenotype. The underlying mechanism is still unknown, with a possible genetic component. This case-control study investigated effects on the risk of preeclampsia of genetic variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in the estrogen and progesterone pathway genes. METHODS: The study included 167 patients with preeclampsia and 115 healthy controls from the "Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies" (FRAMES). All patients completed an epidemiological questionnaire, data from which were correlated with prospective data on pregnancy and labor. DNA was isolated from blood samples and genotyping was done by PCR. Variants in the aromatase gene CYP19A1 (rs10046, rs4646), progesterone receptor gene (rs1042838, rs10895068), and estrogen receptor-α gene (rs488133) were examined, and the genotype distribution in the two groups was analyzed statistically. RESULTS: A significant difference in the distribution frequency of genotypes between preeclampsia patients and controls was identified in one of the five SNPs. For rs10895068 in the progesterone receptor gene, genotype G/A was significantly more frequent among cases than controls (P = 0.023). No significant differences between the two cohorts were found in the other SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant association between only one SNP in the progesterone receptor and preeclampsia. Other studies have also noted genetic aspects of preeclampsia. The underlying mechanism and causal relationship are not yet known, and further research is needed to explain the extent of genetic variations and the causal relationship in preeclampsia.

7.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that tag genetic variation in the glucocorticoid pathways (particularly in maternal genes FKBP5, NR3C1, and CRHR1) and birth weight. METHODS: The Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Study (FRAMES) recruited healthy pregnant women prospectively for the assessment of maternal and fetal health. Germline DNA was collected from 375 pregnant women. Nine SNPs in the above-mentioned genes were genotyped. After reconstruction of haplotypes for each gene, a linear regression model was applied to the data to describe the association between haplotypes and birth weight. RESULTS: Female sex in the newborn (compared to male) was associated with lower birth weight, whereas a later week of gestation, higher body mass index pre-pregnancy, and higher parity were associated with higher birth weight. No association with birthweight was shown for the haplotypes of the selected SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of healthy unselected pregnant women, the analyzed candidate haplotypes in FKBP5, NR3C1, and CRHR1 did not show any association with birth weight. This might be in line with several other studies that have found no influence of fetal polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor gene or triggers of the maternal HPA axis such as stress and psychosocial problems on birth weight. However, the small sample size in this study and the lack of consideration of individual risk factors and levels of stress in this cohort needs to be taken into account when interpreting the results.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15750, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978482

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive human leukocyte antigens HLA-G and HLA-F are expressed on trophoblast and malignant cells. Four membrane-bound and three soluble HLA-G protein isoforms have been described, which have different immunosuppressive potentials. HLA-F has three transcript variants, resulting in three different protein isoforms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of HLA-G and HLA-F protein isoform expression patterns in patients with breast cancer. Core biopsies were taken at diagnosis in patients with HER2+ (n = 28), luminal B-like (n = 49) and triple-negative (n = 38) breast cancers who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Expression levels of HLA-F and -G were correlated with the pathological complete response (pCR). Protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis, using two antibodies for each HLA, specific for different isoforms. The protein expression of HLA isoforms did not significantly differ between breast cancer subtypes. However, some initial indications were found for an association between the soluble HLA-G6 protein isoform and pCR in HER2+ breast cancer. The study provides preliminary evidence for the evaluation of HLA-G isoform expression, in particular HLA-G6, as a possible new marker for pCR in HER2+ breast cancer.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 527-538, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758447

RESUMO

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe multi-systemic inflammatory disease characterized by neutrophilic pustulosis and triggered by pro-inflammatory IL-36 cytokines in skin. While 19%-41% of affected individuals harbor bi-allelic mutations in IL36RN, the genetic cause is not known in most cases. To identify and characterize new pathways involved in the pathogenesis of GPP, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 31 individuals with GPP and demonstrated effects of mutations in MPO encoding the neutrophilic enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). We discovered eight MPO mutations resulting in MPO -deficiency in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO mutations, primarily those resulting in complete MPO deficiency, cumulatively associated with GPP (p = 1.85E-08; OR = 6.47). The number of mutant MPO alleles significantly differed between 82 affected individuals and >4,900 control subjects (p = 1.04E-09); this effect was stronger when including IL36RN mutations (1.48E-13) and correlated with a younger age of onset (p = 0.0018). The activity of four proteases, previously implicated as activating enzymes of IL-36 precursors, correlated with MPO deficiency. Phorbol-myristate-acetate-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was reduced in affected cells (p = 0.015), and phagocytosis assays in MPO-deficient mice and human cells revealed altered neutrophil function and impaired clearance of neutrophils by monocytes (efferocytosis) allowing prolonged neutrophil persistence in inflammatory skin. MPO mutations contribute significantly to GPP's pathogenesis. We implicate MPO as an inflammatory modulator in humans that regulates protease activity and NET formation and modifies efferocytosis. Our findings indicate possible implications for the application of MPO inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases. MPO and affected pathways represent attractive targets for inducing resolution of inflammation in neutrophil-mediated skin diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Psoríase/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Adulto , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Armadilhas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Psoríase/patologia , Doenças Raras/enzimologia , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/patologia , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 544-554, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730804

RESUMO

RNA polymerase II interacts with various other complexes and factors to ensure correct initiation, elongation, and termination of mRNA transcription. One of these proteins is SR-related CTD-associated factor 4 (SCAF4), which is important for correct usage of polyA sites for mRNA termination. Using exome sequencing and international matchmaking, we identified nine likely pathogenic germline variants in SCAF4 including two splice-site and seven truncating variants, all residing in the N-terminal two thirds of the protein. Eight of these variants occurred de novo, and one was inherited. Affected individuals demonstrated a variable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, and various skeletal and structural anomalies. Paired-end RNA sequencing on blood lymphocytes of SCAF4-deficient individuals revealed a broad deregulation of more than 9,000 genes and significant differential splicing of more than 2,900 genes, indicating an important role of SCAF4 in mRNA processing. Knockdown of the SCAF4 ortholog CG4266 in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster resulted in impaired locomotor function, learning, and short-term memory. Furthermore, we observed an increased number of active zones in larval neuromuscular junctions, representing large glutamatergic synapses. These observations indicate a role of CG4266 in nervous system development and function and support the implication of SCAF4 in neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In summary, our data show that heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in SCAF4 are causative for a variable neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired mRNA processing.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Convulsões/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Animais , Criança , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Variação Genética/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Locomoção/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(9): 103998, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622959

RESUMO

Autosomal-recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 18 (SCAR18) is a rare neurologic disorder. It is caused by bi-allelic aberrations in the GRID2 gene, encoding an ionotropic glutamate receptor. In total, 20 affected individuals with mainly homozygous/compound heterozygous intragenic deletions/duplications, two different missense variants and one nonsense variant in GRID2 have been reported, so far. SCAR18 is characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, severely impaired gait due to cerebellar ataxia, ocular movement abnormalities, and cerebellar atrophy in brain imaging. By trio exome sequencing, we now identified a novel homozygous nonsense variant (c.568C > T; p.Gln190*) in GRID2 in a four year old female from a consanguineous family who presented with a particularly severe manifestation of SCAR18. The girl was born after an uneventful pregnancy and showed early-onset, profoundly delayed psychomotor development with no achieved psychomotor milestones at age 4 years. Additionally, she presented with severe muscular hypotonia, progressive truncal and appendicular ataxia, binocular vertical nystagmus, central hearing loss and incomplete loss of sight. She was dystrophic, interacted only very little and had behavioral anomalies such as eating hair and bruxism. Brain imaging showed cerebellar hypoplasia, extended cerebrospinal fluid spaces and beginning reduction of cerebral volume. Our findings further delineate the mutational and clinical spectrum of GRID2-associated spinocerebellar ataxia type 18 and indicate that homozygous nonsense variants are possibly associated with the severe end of the SCAR18 phenotypic spectrum.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

13.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(6): 3731-3743, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080705

RESUMO

Neuronal activity initiates transcriptional programs that shape long-term changes in plasticity. Although neuron subtypes differ in their plasticity response, most activity-dependent transcription factors (TFs) are broadly expressed across neuron subtypes and brain regions. Thus, how region- and neuronal subtype-specific plasticity are established on the transcriptional level remains poorly understood. We report that in young adult (i.e., 6-8 weeks old) mice, the developmental TF SOX11 is induced in neurons within 6 h either by electroconvulsive stimulation or by exploration of a novel environment. Strikingly, SOX11 induction was restricted to the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. In the novel environment paradigm, SOX11 was observed in a subset of c-FOS expressing neurons (ca. 15%); whereas around 75% of SOX11+ DG granule neurons were c-FOS+, indicating that SOX11 was induced in an activity-dependent fashion in a subset of neurons. Environmental enrichment or virus-mediated overexpression of SOX11 enhanced the excitability of DG granule cells and downregulated the expression of different potassium channel subunits, whereas conditional Sox11/4 knock-out mice presented the opposite phenotype. We propose that Sox11 is regulated in an activity-dependent fashion, which is specific to the DG, and speculate that activity-dependent Sox11 expression may participate in the modulation of DG neuron plasticity.

14.
Nat Genet ; 52(2): 167-176, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959995

RESUMO

The kidneys integrate information from continuous systemic processes related to the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of metabolites. To identify underlying molecular mechanisms, we performed genome-wide association studies of the urinary concentrations of 1,172 metabolites among 1,627 patients with reduced kidney function. The 240 unique metabolite-locus associations (metabolite quantitative trait loci, mQTLs) that were identified and replicated highlight novel candidate substrates for transport proteins. The identified genes are enriched in ADME-relevant tissues and cell types, and they reveal novel candidates for biotransformation and detoxification reactions. Fine mapping of mQTLs and integration with single-cell gene expression permitted the prioritization of causal genes, functional variants and target cell types. The combination of mQTLs with genetic and health information from 450,000 UK Biobank participants illuminated metabolic mediators, and hence, novel urinary biomarkers of disease risk. This comprehensive resource of genetic targets and their substrates is informative for ADME processes in humans and is relevant to basic science, clinical medicine and pharmaceutical research.


Assuntos
Biotransformação/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Coortes , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Rim/citologia , Metoprolol/farmacocinética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Urina/fisiologia , Xenobióticos/farmacocinética , Xenobióticos/urina
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1204, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988313

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are clinically and genetically extremely heterogeneous with shared phenotypes often associated with genes from the same networks. Mutations in TCF4, MEF2C, UBE3A, ZEB2 or ATRX cause phenotypically overlapping, syndromic forms of NDDs with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy and microcephaly. To characterize potential functional links between these genes/proteins, we screened for genetic interactions in Drosophila melanogaster. We induced ubiquitous or tissue specific knockdown or overexpression of each single orthologous gene (Da, Mef2, Ube3a, Zfh1, XNP) and in pairwise combinations. Subsequently, we assessed parameters such as lethality, wing and eye morphology, neuromuscular junction morphology, bang sensitivity and climbing behaviour in comparison between single and pairwise dosage manipulations. We found most stringent evidence for genetic interaction between Ube3a and Mef2 as simultaneous dosage manipulation in different tissues including glia, wing and eye resulted in multiple phenotype modifications. We subsequently found evidence for physical interaction between UBE3A and MEF2C also in human cells. Systematic pairwise assessment of the Drosophila orthologues of five genes implicated in clinically overlapping, severe NDDs and subsequent confirmation in a human cell line revealed interactions between UBE3A/Ube3a and MEF2C/Mef2, thus contributing to the characterization of the underlying molecular commonalities.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Olho/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transfecção , Asas de Animais/metabolismo
17.
Cell Rep ; 29(9): 2862-2874.e9, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775051

RESUMO

Intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) and formation of Lewy bodies are neuropathological characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) and related α-synucleinopathies. Oligomerization and spreading of α-syn from neuron to neuron have been suggested as key events contributing to the progression of PD. To directly visualize and characterize α-syn oligomerization and spreading in vivo, we generated two independent conditional transgenic mouse models based on α-syn protein complementation assays using neuron-specifically expressed split Gaussia luciferase or split Venus yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). These transgenic mice allow direct assessment of the quantity and subcellular distribution of α-syn oligomers in vivo. Using these mouse models, we demonstrate an age-dependent accumulation of a specific subtype of α-syn oligomers. We provide in vivo evidence that, although α-syn is found throughout neurons, α-syn oligomerization takes place at the presynapse. Furthermore, our mouse models provide strong evidence for a transsynaptic cell-to-cell transfer of de novo generated α-syn oligomers in vivo.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739488

RESUMO

In 90% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases, genetic alteration of the proto-oncogene Kras has occurred, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of cancerous cells. Targeting Kras has proven to be difficult and the battle against pancreatic cancer is ongoing. A promising approach to combat cancer was the discovery of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system, which can be used to genetically modify cells. To assess the potential of a CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) method to eliminate Kras mutations in cells, we aimed to knock-out the c.35G>A (p.G12D) Kras mutation. Therefore, three cell lines with a heterozygous Kras mutation (the human cell lines SUIT-2 and Panc-1 and the cell line TB32047 from a KPC mouse model) were used. After transfection, puromycin selection and single-cell cloning, proteins from two negative controls and five to seven clones were isolated to verify the knock-out and to analyze changes in key signal transduction proteins. Western blots showed a specific knock-out in the KrasG12D protein, but wildtype Kras was expressed by all of the cells. Signal transduction analysis (for Erk, Akt, Stat3, AMPKα, and c-myc) revealed expression levels similar to the wildtype. The results described herein indicate that knocking-out the KrasG12D mutation by CRISPR/Cas9 is possible. Additionally, under regular growth conditions, the knock-out clones resembled wildtype cells.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Edição de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(12): 1136-1147, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 17q12 microdeletions containing HNF1B and intragenic variants within this gene are associated with variable developmental, endocrine, and renal anomalies, often already noted prenatally as hyperechogenic/cystic kidneys. Here, we describe prenatal and postnatal phenotypes of seven individuals with HNF1B aberrations and compare their clinical and genetic data to those of previous studies. METHODS: Prenatal sequencing and postnatal chromosomal microarray analysis were performed in seven individuals with renal and/or neurodevelopmental phenotypes. We evaluated HNF1B-related clinical features from 82 studies and reclassified 192 reported intragenic HNF1B variants. RESULTS: In a prenatal case, we identified a novel in-frame deletion p.(Gly239del) within the HNF1B DNA-binding domain, a mutational hot spot as demonstrated by spatial clustering analysis and high computational prediction scores. The six postnatally diagnosed individuals harbored 17q12 microdeletions. Literature screening revealed variable reporting of HNF1B-associated clinical traits. Overall, both mutation groups showed a high phenotypic heterogeneity. The reclassification of all previously reported intragenic HNF1B variants provided an up-to-date overview of the mutational spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the value of prenatal HNF1B screening in renal developmental diseases. Standardized clinical reporting and systematic classification of HNF1B variants are necessary for a more accurate risk quantification of prenatal and postnatal clinical features, improving genetic counseling and prenatal decision making.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico , Análise em Microsséries , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Mutação , Gravidez , Síndrome
20.
Nature ; 572(7771): 670-675, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391580

RESUMO

Macrophages are considered to contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis1. However, both the exact origin and the role of macrophages in inflammatory joint disease remain unclear. Here we use fate-mapping approaches in conjunction with three-dimensional light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and single-cell RNA sequencing to perform a comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis of the composition, origin and differentiation of subsets of macrophages within healthy and inflamed joints, and study the roles of these macrophages during arthritis. We find that dynamic membrane-like structures, consisting of a distinct population of CX3CR1+ tissue-resident macrophages, form an internal immunological barrier at the synovial lining and physically seclude the joint. These barrier-forming macrophages display features that are otherwise typical of epithelial cells, and maintain their numbers through a pool of locally proliferating CX3CR1- mononuclear cells that are embedded into the synovial tissue. Unlike recruited monocyte-derived macrophages, which actively contribute to joint inflammation, these epithelial-like CX3CR1+ lining macrophages restrict the inflammatory reaction by providing a tight-junction-mediated shield for intra-articular structures. Our data reveal an unexpected functional diversification among synovial macrophages and have important implications for the general role of macrophages in health and disease.


Assuntos
Articulações/citologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Sinoviócitos/citologia , Sinoviócitos/fisiologia , Junções Íntimas/fisiologia , Animais , Artrite/imunologia , Artrite/patologia , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/análise , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C/metabolismo , Rastreamento de Células , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Articulações/patologia , Macrófagos/classificação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Sinoviócitos/classificação , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
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