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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769611

RESUMO

This study investigated risk perception of contracting and dying of SARS-CoV-2 in sub-Sahara Africa during and after the lockdown periods. Two online surveys were conducted one year apart, with participants 18 years and above living in sub-Sahara Africa or the diaspora. Each survey took four weeks. The first survey was taken from 18 April to 16 May 2020, i.e., during the lockdown. The second survey was taken from 14 April to 14 May 2021, i.e., after the lockdown. A cross-sectional study using adopted and modified questionnaires for both surveys were distributed through online platforms. Question about risks perception of contracting and dying of SARS-CoV-2 were asked. The Helsinki declaration was applied, and ethical approvals were obtained. Total responses for both surveys, i.e., both during and after the lockdown, was 4605. The mean age was similar in both surveys (18-28 years). The mean risk perception scores were higher after lockdown by 3.59%. Factors associated with risk perception of COVID-19 were survey period, age group, region of residence, and occupation. Non-health care workers had a lower risk perception of COVID-19. This first comparative study on the level of risk perception of Africans during and after the lockdown shows that one in every three and every four persons in sub-Sahara Africa felt at high risk of contracting COVID-19 and thought they could die from contracting the same, respectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1562, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived risk towards the coronavirus pandemic is key to improved compliance with public health measures to reduce the infection rates. This study investigated how Sub-Saharan Africans (SSA) living in their respective countries and those in the diaspora perceive their risk of getting infected by the COVID-19 virus as well as the associated factors. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey on 1969 participants aged 18 years and above (55.1% male) was conducted between April 27th and May 17th 2020, corresponding to the mandatory lockdown in most SSA countries. The dependent variable was the perception of risk for contracting COVID-19 scores. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, and COVID-19 related knowledge and attitude scores. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses identified the factors associated with risk perception towards COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the respondents, majority were living in SSA (n = 1855, 92.8%) and 143 (7.2%) in the diaspora. There was no significant difference in the mean risk perception scores between the two groups (p = 0.117), however, those aged 18-28 years had lower risk perception scores (p = 0.003) than the older respondents, while those who were employed (p = 0.040) and had higher levels of education (p < 0.001) had significantly higher risk perception scores than other respondents. After adjusting for covariates, multivariable analyses revealed that SSA residents aged 39-48 years (adjusted coefficient, ß = 0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 1.19]) and health care sector workers (ß = 0.61, 95% CI [0.09, 1.14]) reported a higher perceived risk of COVID-19. Knowledge and attitude scores increased as perceived risk for COVID-19 increased for both SSAs in Africa (ß = 1.19, 95% CI [1.05, 1.34] for knowledge; ß = 0.63, 95% CI [0.58, 0.69] for attitude) and in Diaspora (ß = 1.97, 95% CI [1.16, 2.41] for knowledge; ß = 0.30, 95% CI [0.02, 0.58] for attitude). CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to promote preventive measures focusing on increasing people's knowledge about COVID-19 and encouraging positive attitudes towards the mitigation measures such as vaccines and education. Such interventions should target the younger population, less educated and non-healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Migração Humana , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the search for effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection continues, the public opinion around the potential use of chloroquine (CQ) in treating COVID-19 remains mixed. AIM: To examine opinion and uptake of CQ for treating COVID-19 in the sub-Saharan African (SSA) region. SETTING: This study was conducted through an online survey software titled SurveyMonkey. METHODS: Anonymous online survey of 1829 SSA countries was conducted during the lockdown period using Facebook, WhatsApp and authors' networks. Opinion and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment were assessed using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: About 14% of respondents believed that CQ could treat COVID-19 and of which, 3.2% took CQ for COVID-19 treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from Central (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 4.43) and West Africa (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15, 2.88) had higher odds of believing that CQ could treat COVID-19. Respondents from East Africa reported higher odds for uptake of CQ for COVID-19 than Central, Western and Southern Africans. Knowledge of the disease and compliance with the public health advice were associated with both belief and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSION: Central and West African respondents were more likely to believe in CQ as a treatment for COVID-19 whilst the uptake of the medication during the pandemic was higher amongst East Africans. Future intervention discouraging the unsupervised use of CQ should target respondents from Central, West and East African regions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Health Secur ; 19(4): 393-404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227870

RESUMO

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic and associated high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, there is panic among healthcare workers because of the higher risk of being infected. This study compared knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) and examined common associated factors. A web-based cross-sectional study of 1,871 respondents (430 HCWs and 1,441 non-HCWs) was conducted while lockdown measures were in place in 4 regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Data were obtained using a validated self-administered questionnaire via an online survey platform. Mean scores were calculated and summarized using a t test for both groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the unadjusted (B) and adjusted coefficients (ß) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The mean scores were slightly higher among HCWs than non-HCWs, but not statistically significant. Being worried about contracting COVID-19 was the only common factor associated with knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions between the 2 groups. Knowledge of COVID-19 was associated with attitudes and perceptions between the 2 groups. Other significant associated factors were: the sub-Saharan Africa region, ages 29 to 38 years (ß = .32; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.60 for knowledge among non-HCWs), education (ß = -.43; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.04; and ß = -.95; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.22, for knowledge among non-HCWs and HCWs, respectively), practice of self-isolation (ß = .71; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02 for attitude among non-HCWs and HCWs (ß = .97; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.49), and home quarantine due to COVID-19, in both groups. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider these factors when targeting interventions during COVID-19 and other future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Health Secur ; 19(1): 44-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606572

RESUMO

Misinformation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant threat to global public health because it can inadvertently exacerbate public health challenges by promoting spread of the disease. This study used a convenience sampling technique to examine factors associated with misinformation about COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa using an online cross-sectional survey. A link to the online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,969 participants through social media platforms and the authors' email networks. Four false statements-informed by results from a pilot study-were included in the survey. The participants' responses were classified as "Agree," "Neutral," and "Disagree." A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associated factors. Among those who responded to the survey, 19.3% believed that COVID-19 was designed to reduce world population, 22.2% thought the ability to hold your breath for 10 seconds meant that you do not have COVID-19, 27.8% believed drinking hot water flushes down the virus, and 13.9% thought that COVID-19 had little effect on Blacks compared with Whites. An average of 33.7% were unsure whether the 4 false statements were true. Multivariate analysis revealed that those who thought COVID-19 was unlikely to continue in their countries reported higher odds of believing in these 4 false statements. Other significant factors associated with belief in misinformation were age (older adults), employment status (unemployed), gender (female), education (bachelor's degree), and knowledge about the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Strategies to reduce the spread of false information about COVID-19 and other future pandemics should target these subpopulations, especially those with limited education. This will also enhance compliance with public health measures to reduce spread of further outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494209

RESUMO

Mental health and emotional responses to the effects of COVID-19 lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are of serious public health concern and may negatively affect the mental health status of people. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as emotional reactions among sub-Saharan Africans (SSAs) and associated factors among SSAs during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This was a web-based cross-sectional study on mental health and emotional features from 2005 respondents in seven SSA countries. This study was conducted between 17 April and 17 May 2020 corresponding to the lockdown period in most SSA countries. Respondents aged 18 years and above and the self-reported symptoms were feeling anxious, being worried, angry, bored and frustrated. These were the main outcomes and were treated as dichotomous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with these symptoms. We found that over half (52.2%) of the participants reported any of the mental health symptoms and the prevalence of feeling bored was 70.5% followed by feeling anxious (59.1%), being worried (57.5%), frustrated (51.5%) and angry (22.3%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis revealed that males, those aged >28 years, those who lived in Central and Southern Africa, those who were not married, the unemployed, those living with more than six persons in a household, had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Similarly, people who perceived low risk of contracting the infection, and those who thought the pandemic would not continue after the lockdown had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Health care workers had lower odds for feeling angry than non-healthcare workers. During the COVID-19 lockdown periods in SSA, about one in two participants reported mental health and emotional symptoms. Public health measures can be effectively used to identify target groups for prevention and treatment of mental health and emotional symptoms. Such interventions should be an integral component of SSA governments' response and recovery strategies of any future pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708720

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore knowledge, practice of risk and guidelines of the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) infection among the eye care practitioners and the potential associated factors. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was distributed via emails and social media networks between 2nd and 18th May 2020 corresponding to the week of the lockdown in Nigeria to eye care practitioners (ECPs). Data for 823 respondents were analyzed. Knowledge and risk practice were categorized as binary outcome and univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to examine the associated factors. The mean score for COVID-19-related knowledge of public health guidelines was high and varied across the ECPs. Ophthalmic Nurses, Ophthalmologists and Optometrists showed higher COVID-19-related knowledge than other ECPs (p < 0.001), particularly those working in the private sector. More than 50% of ECPs stated they provided essential services during the COVID-19 lockdown via physical consultation, particularly the Ophthalmologists. Most respondents reported that the guidelines provided by their Association were useful but expressed their lack of confidence in attending to patients during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Compared to other ECPs in Nigeria, more Ophthalmic Nurses received training in the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). This survey is the first to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. ECPs in Nigeria displayed good knowledge about COVID-19 and provided eye care services during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria, despite the majority not receiving any training on the use of PPEs with concerns over attending to patients. There is need for the government to strengthen health systems by improving and extending training on standard infection prevention and control measures to ECPs for effective control of the pandemic and in the future as essential health workers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 19(4): 107-17, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27337860

RESUMO

Pregnancy also presents with ocular changes, just as it affects other non-reproductive systems of the female. It has been reported to be associated with development of new health conditions or can exacerbate pre- existing health conditions. This paper reviews the management of Mrs AA, a 41 year old pregnant woman (primigravida) with refractive changes from myopia in the first trimester, to hyperopia in the second and third trimesters of her pregnancy. A comprehensive ocular examination was performed including fundus photograph and Optical Coherent Tomography. The results revealed signs of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in both eyes which may have been due to various hormonal changes in pregnancy with resultant changes in refractive error. These ocular changes associated with pregnancy are, most often transient in nature, though occasionally permanent. This condition therefore requires clinical observation and monitoring until the resolution of the serous detachment is complete, and vision returned back to normal. Other ocular changes that are pregnancy related were reviewed.


Assuntos
Hiperopia/patologia , Hiperopia/terapia , Miopia/patologia , Miopia/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
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