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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma among healthcare providers is a barrier to the effective delivery of mental health services in primary care. Few studies have been conducted in primary care settings comparing the attitudes of healthcare providers and experiences of people with mental illness who are service users in those facilities. Such research is necessary across diverse global settings to characterize stigma and inform effective stigma reduction. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted on mental illness stigma in primary care settings in one low-income country (Nepal), two lower-middle income countries (India, Tunisia), one upper-middle-income country (Lebanon), and three high-income countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 248 participants: 64 primary care providers, 11 primary care facility managers, 111 people with mental illness, and 60 family members of people with mental illness. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. RESULTS: Primary care providers endorsed some willingness to help persons with mental illness but reported not having appropriate training and supervision to deliver mental healthcare. They expressed that people with mental illness are aggressive and unpredictable. Some reported that mental illness is incurable, and mental healthcare is burdensome and leads to burnout. They preferred mental healthcare to be delivered by specialists. Service users did not report high levels of discrimination from primary care providers; however, they had limited expectations of support from primary care providers. Service users reported internalized stigma and discrimination from family and community members. Providers and service users reported unreliable psychiatric medication supply and lack of facilities for confidential consultations. Limitations of the study include conducting qualitative interviews in clinical settings and reliance on clinician-researchers in some sites to conduct interviews, which potentially biases respondents to present attitudes and experiences about primary care services in a positive manner. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care providers' willingness to interact with people with mental illness and receive more training presents an opportunity to address stigmatizing beliefs and stereotypes. This study also raises important methodological questions about the most appropriate strategies to accurately understand attitudes and experiences of people with mental illness. Recommendations are provided for future qualitative research about stigma, such as qualitative interviewing by non-clinical personnel, involving non-clinical staff for recruitment of participants, conducting interviews in non-clinical settings, and partnering with people with mental illness to facilitate qualitative data collection and analysis.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Itália , Líbano , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tunísia
2.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. Method: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. Results: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. Conclusion: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

4.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 801, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large mental health treatment gap exists among conflict-affected populations, and Syrian refugees specifically. Promising brief psychological interventions for conflict-affected populations exist such as the World Health Organization's Problem Management Plus (PM+) and the Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE) intervention, however, there is limited practical guidance for countries of how these interventions can be taken to scale. The aim of this study was to unpack pathways for scaling up PM+ and EASE for Syrian refugees. METHODS: We conducted three separate Theory of Change (ToC) workshops in Turkey, the Netherlands, and Lebanon in which PM+ and EASE are implemented for Syrian refugees. ToC is a participatory planning process involving key stakeholders, and aims to understand a process of change by mapping out intermediate and long-term outcomes on a causal pathway. 15-24 stakeholders were invited per country, and they participated in a one-day interactive ToC workshop on scaling up. RESULTS: A cross-country ToC map for scale up brief psychological interventions was developed which was based on three country-specific ToC maps. Two distinct causal pathways for scale up were identified (a policy and financing pathway, and a health services pathway) which are interdependent on each other. A list of key assumptions and interventions which may hamper or facilitate the scaling up process were established. CONCLUSION: ToC is a useful tool to help unpack the complexity of scaling up. Our approach highlights that scaling up brief psychological interventions for refugees builds on structural changes and reforms in policy and in health systems. Both horizontal and vertical scale up approaches are required to achieve sustainability. This paper provides the first theory-driven map of causal pathways to help support the scaling-up of evidence-based brief psychological interventions for refugees and populations in global mental health more broadly.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Psicoterapia Breve/organização & administração , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Líbano , Países Baixos , Teoria Psicológica , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria/etnologia , Turquia
6.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 26(4): 320-323, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692129

RESUMO

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal syndrome classically encountered in patients receiving typical antipsychotic agents. However, many physicians have also reported the occurrence of NMS with atypical antipsychotics, notably with atypical presentations. In this report, we present a case in which a patient's antipsychotic regimen during a psychotic episode (which involved both typical and atypical antipsychotics) subsequently led to NMS. During his stay, the patient developed an altered level of consciousness, elevation of creatine phosphokinase, hemodynamic instability, and a fever. However, the patient did not have signs of rigidity, the cardinal sign of this syndrome. The authors concluded that patients could develop NMS without rigidity while receiving an antipsychotic. Given this presentation, the authors suggest that clinicians have a high level of suspicion for NMS to avoid misdiagnosis and subsequent adverse consequences. Hence, clinicians must be vigilant about atypical presentations of NMS without rigidity.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/etiologia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Maligna Neuroléptica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S281-S283, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538651

RESUMO

This paper describes national-level mental health responses to COVID-19 in Lebanon. It then notes factors that have supported the mental health response, including how COVID-19 represents a window of opportunity to help strengthen the mental health system in Lebanon. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , COVID-19 , Humanos , Líbano
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265759

RESUMO

Armed conflict leads to increased risk of emotional distress among children and adolescents, and increased exposure to significant daily stressors such as poverty and community and family violence. Unfortunately, these increased risks usually occur in the context of largely unavailable mental health services. There is growing empirical support that evidence-based treatment techniques can be adapted and delivered by non-specialists with high fidelity and effectiveness. However, in order to improve feasibility, applicability, and outcomes, appropriate cultural and contextual adaptation is essential when delivering in different settings and cultures. This paper reports the adaptation process conducted on a new World Health Organization psychological intervention-Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE)-for use in the north of Lebanon. Lebanon is a middle-income country that hosts the largest number of refugees per capita globally. We conducted: i) a scoping review of literature on mental health in Lebanon, with a focus on Syrian refugees; ii) a rapid qualitative assessment with adolescents, caregivers, community members, and health professionals; iii) cognitive interviews regarding the applicability of EASE materials; iv) a psychologist review to reach optimal and consistent Arabic translation of key terms; v) "mock sessions" of the intervention with field staff and clinical psychology experts; vi) gathering feedback from the Training of Trainers workshop, and subsequent implementation of practice sessions; and vii) gathering feedback from the Training of Facilitators workshop, and subsequent implementation of practice sessions. Several changes were implemented to the materials-some were Lebanon-specific cultural adaptations, while others were incorporated into original materials as they were considered relevant for all contexts of adversity. Overall, our experience with adaptation of the EASE program in Lebanon is promising and indicates the acceptability and feasibility of a brief, non-specialist delivered intervention for adolescents and caregivers. The study informs the wider field of global mental health in terms of opportunities and challenges of adapting and implementing low-intensity psychological interventions in settings of low resources and high adversity.

10.
11.
Trials ; 20(1): 545, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are significant barriers to providing accessible, quality mental health care for young adolescents affected by adversity. In an attempt to overcome this, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Early Adolescent Skills for Emotions (EASE) psychological intervention for young adolescents with internalising problems. EASE is group-based (seven sessions for adolescents, three sessions for their caregivers) and can be delivered by non-specialist providers. This paper outlines the study protocols for two trials of EASE in the Middle East - one in Lebanon and one in Jordan. METHODS: We will conduct two, single-blind, two-arm, individually randomised group treatment trials in Lebanon and Jordan, with at least 445 young adolescents per trial. Adolescents will be screened eligible for the trial if they demonstrate levels of psychological distress indicative of internalizing problems requiring treatment. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive the EASE intervention, or enhanced usual care (one home-visit psychoeducation session). The primary outcome is reduction in overall child-reported psychological distress over time, with 3 months post-treatment as the primary end point. Secondary child-reported outcomes include post-traumatic stress symptoms, depression symptoms, daily functioning, and wellbeing. Secondary caregiver-reported outcomes include parenting style, overall child distress, and caregiver psychological distress. Coping strategy use will be explored as a mediator of treatment effects in Lebanon, and relevant moderators of treatment effects will be explored. DISCUSSION: These trials will provide the first assessments of the effectiveness of the EASE intervention for use in the Middle East, with important implications for the use of low-intensity, non-specialist interventions for this age range. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Lebanon: ISRCTN75375136 . Registered on 11 March 2019. Jordan: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12619000341123. Registered on 5 March 2019 ( https://www.anzctr.org.au/ ).


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adolescente , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Método Simples-Cego
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116815

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health is an established mode of delivering treatment for common mental disorders in many high income countries. However, evidence of its effectiveness in lower income countries is lacking. This mixed methods study presents lessons learned and preliminary data on the feasibility of a minimally guided e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. The aim was to pilot test Step-by-Step, a WHO guided e-mental health intervention, and research methods prior to future, controlled testing. Methods: Participants were recruited using social media and advertisements in primary care clinics. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires on depression symptoms (primary outcome, PHQ-8), anxiety symptoms, well-being, disability and self-perceived problem severity, and a client satisfaction questionnaire. In addition, seven completers, four drop-outs, 11 study staff, and four clinic managers were interviewed with responses thematically analyzed. Website analytics were used to understand participant behavior when using the website. Results: A total of 129 participants signed up via the Step-by-Step website. Seventy-four participants started session 1 after completing pre-test questionnaires and 26 completed both baseline and post-intervention data. Among those who completed post-assessments, depression symptoms improved (PHQ-8 scores (t=5.62, p < 0.001 two-tailed, df = 25). Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed a significant difference between baseline and post-Step-by-Step scores on all secondary outcome measures. Client satisfaction data was positive. Interview responses suggested that the intervention could be made more appropriate for younger, single people, more motivating, and easier to use. Those who utilized the support element of the intervention were happy with their relationship with the non-specialist support person (e-helper), though some participants would have preferred specialist support. E-helpers would have liked more training on complex cases. Website analytics showed that many users dropped out before intervention start, and that some re-entered screening data having been excluded from the study. Conclusion: Step-by-Step skills and techniques, model of service integration, and its non-specialist support element are acceptable. Though the sample was small and non-controlled and drop-out was high, results suggest that it may be effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms and increasing well-being. Lessons learned will inform content revision, the development of an app version of Step-by-Step, and the research methodology of upcoming effectiveness studies.

13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 8(sup2): 1388102, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163867

RESUMO

The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.

14.
East Mediterr Health J ; 23(3): 257-261, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493274

RESUMO

Evidence on substance use in Lebanon shows an increase in usage, limited availability and accessibility to evidence-based services, and high level of stigma and discrimination. In line with the "Mental Health and Substance Use Strategy for Lebanon 2015-2020", the Ministry of Public Health initiated the process of developing a strategy focused on substance use response to address these challenges in collaboration with the Ministries of Education and Higher Education, Interior and Municipalities, Justice and Social Affairs. The result of this process was a strategy launched jointly by the ministries including six domains of action covering the whole spectrum of substance use response with strategic objectives addressing the challenges identified through stakeholders' consultations. The following key principles adopted throughout the process contributed to the successful development of the strategy: building on evidence and international frameworks, maximizing the participation of all stakeholders, prioritising national consensus, maintaining flexibility and maximizing transparency.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Líbano , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
15.
World Psychiatry ; 16(1): 43-44, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127910
16.
BJPsych Int ; 13(4): 87-89, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093915

RESUMO

The Lebanese Ministry of Public Health has launched a National Mental Health Programme, which in turn has established the Mental Health and Substance Use Strategy for Lebanon 2015-2020. In parallel, research involving refugees has been conducted since the onset of the Syrian crisis. The findings point to an increase in mental health disorders in the Syrian refugee population, which now numbers more than 1 million.

17.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 44: 48-53, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26338493

RESUMO

Mental health legislation represents an important mean of protecting the rights of persons with mental disabilities by preventing human rights violations and discrimination and by legally reinforcing the objectives of a mental health policy. The last decade has seen significant changes in the laws relating to psychiatric practice all over the world, especially with the implementation of the Convention for the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD). In this paper, we review the existing legislation in Lebanon concerning the following areas in mental health: treatment and legal protection of persons with mental disabilities, criminal laws in relation to offenders with mental disorders, and laws regulating incapacity. We will discuss these texts in comparison with international recommendations and standards on the rights of persons with disabilities, showing the recurrent contradiction between them. Throughout our article, we will address the clinical dilemmas that Lebanese psychiatrists encounter in practice, in the absence of a clear legislation that can orient their decisions and protect their patients from abuse.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Líbano , Competência Mental , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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