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1.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221094506, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437045

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether the outcomes of postoperative patients admitted directly to an intensive care unit (ICU) differ based on the academic status of the institution and the total operative volume of the unit. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis using the eICU Collaborative Research Database v2.0, a national database from participating ICUs in the United States. All patients admitted directly to the ICU from the operating room were included. Transfer patients and patients readmitted to the ICU were excluded. Patients were stratified based on admission to an ICU in an academic medical center (AMC) versus non-AMC, and to ICUs with different operative volume experience, after stratification in quartiles (high, medium-high, medium-low, and low volume). Primary outcomes were ICU and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the need for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during ICU stay, ICU length of stay (LOS), and 30-day ventilator free days. Results: Our analysis included 22,180 unique patients; the majority of which (15,085[68%]) were admitted to ICUs in non-AMCs. Cardiac and vascular procedures were the most common types of procedures performed. Patients admitted to AMCs were more likely to be younger and less likely to be Hispanic or Asian. Multivariable logistic regression indicated no meaningful association between academic status and ICU mortality, hospital mortality, initiation of CRRT, duration of ICU LOS, or 30-day ventilator-free-days. Contrarily, medium-high operative volume units had higher ICU mortality (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.10-1.91, p-value = 0.040), higher hospital mortality (OR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.07-1.66, p-value = 0.033), longer ICU LOS (Coefficient = 0.23, 95%CI = 0.07-0.39, p-value = 0.038), and fewer 30-day ventilator-free-days (Coefficient = -0.30, 95%CI = -0.48 - -0.13, p-value = 0.015) compared to their high operative volume counterparts. Conclusions: This study found that a volume-outcome association in the management of postoperative patients requiring ICU level of care immediately after a surgical procedure may exist. The academic status of the institution did not affect the outcomes of these patients.

2.
J Surg Res ; 274: 185-195, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative deaths (IODs) are rare but catastrophic. We systematically analyzed IODs to identify clinical and patient safety patterns. METHODS: IODs in a large academic center between 2015 and 2019 were included. Perioperative details were systematically reviewed, focusing on (1) identifying phenotypes of IOD, (2) describing emerging themes immediately preceding cardiac arrest, and (3) suggesting interventions to mitigate IOD in each phenotype. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. Three IOD phenotypes were identified: trauma (T), nontrauma emergency (NT), and elective (EL) surgery patients, each with 2 sub-phenotypes (e.g., ELm and ELv for elective surgery with medical arrests or vascular injury and bleeding, respectively). In phenotype T, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated before incision in 42%, resuscitative thoracotomy was performed in 33%, and transient return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 30% of patients. In phenotype NT, ruptured aortic aneurysms accounted for half the cases, and median blood product utilization was 2,694 mL. In phenotype ELm, preoperative evaluation did not include electrocardiogram in 12%, cardiac consultation in 62%, stress test in 87%, and chest x-ray in 37% of patients. In phenotype ELv, 83% had a single peripheral intravenous line, and vascular injury was almost always followed by escalation in monitoring (e.g., central/arterial line), alert to the blood bank, and call for surgical backup. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a framework for IOD that can help with intraoperative safety and quality analysis. Focusing on interventions that address appropriateness versus futility in care in phenotypes T and NT, and on prevention and mitigation of intraoperative vessel injury (e.g., intraoperative rescue team) or preoperative optimization in phenotype EL may help prevent IODs.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca , Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia , Humanos , Toracotomia
3.
Ann Surg ; 275(2): 398-405, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This multicenter study aims to describe the injury patterns, emergency management and outcomes of the blast victims, recognize the gaps in hospital disaster preparedness, and identify lessons to be learned. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: On August 4th, 2020, the city of Beirut, Lebanon suffered the largest urban explosion since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in hundreds of deaths and thousands of injuries. METHODS: All injured patients admitted to four of the largest Beirut hospitals within 72 hours of the blast, including those who died on arrival or in the emergency department (ED), were included. Medical records were systematically reviewed for: patient demographics and comorbidities; injury severity and characteristics; prehospital, ED, operative, and inpatient interventions; and outcomes at hospital discharge. Lessons learned are also shared. RESULTS: An estimated total of 1818 patients were included, of which 30 died on arrival or in the ED and 315 were admitted to the hospital. Among admitted patients, the mean age was 44.7 years (range: 1 week-93 years), 44.4% were female, and the median injury severity score (ISS) was 10 (5, 17). ISS was inversely related to the distance from the blast epicenter (r = --0.18, P = 0.035). Most injuries involved the upper extremities (53.7%), face (42.2%), and head (40.3%). Mildly injured (ISS <9) patients overwhelmed the ED in the first 2 hours; from hour 2 to hour 8 post-injury, the number of moderately, severely, and profoundly injured patients increased by 127%, 25% and 17%, respectively. A total of 475 operative procedures were performed in 239 patients, most commonly soft tissue debridement or repair (119 patients, 49.8%), limb fracture fixation (107, 44.8%), and tendon repair (56, 23.4%). A total of 11 patients (3.5%) died during the hospitalization, 56 (17.8%) developed at least 1 complication, and 51 (16.2%) were discharged with documented long-term disability. Main lessons learned included: the importance of having key hospital functions (eg, laboratory, operating room) underground; the nonadaptability of electronic medical records to disasters; the ED overwhelming with mild injuries, delay in arrival of the severely injured; and the need for realistic disaster drills. CONCLUSIONS: We, therefore, describe the injury patterns, emergency flow and trauma outcome of patients injured in the Beirut port explosion. The clinical and system-level lessons learned can help prepare for the next disaster.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Traumatismos por Explosões/terapia , Explosões , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Traumatismos por Explosões/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defesa Civil , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(4): 664-674, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grading systems for acute cholecystitis are essential to compare outcomes, improve quality, and advance research. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system for acute cholecystitis was only moderately discriminant when predicting multiple outcomes and underperformed the Tokyo guidelines and Parkland grade. We hypothesized that through additional expert consensus, the predictive capacity of the AAST anatomic grading system could be improved. METHODS: A modified Delphi approach was used to revise the AAST grading system. Changes were made to improve distribution of patients across grades, and additional key clinical variables were introduced. The revised version was assessed using prospectively collected data from an AAST multicenter study. Patient distribution across grades was assessed, and the revised grading system was evaluated based on predictive capacity using area under receiver operating characteristic curves for conversion from laparoscopic to an open procedure, use of a surgical "bail-out" procedure, bile leak, major complications, and discharge home. A preoperative AAST grade was defined based on preoperative, clinical, and radiologic data, and the Parkland grade was also substituted for the operative component of the AAST grade. RESULTS: Using prospectively collected data on 861 patients with acute cholecystitis the revised version of the AAST grade has an improved distribution across all grades, both the overall grade and across each subscale. A higher AAST grade predicted each of the outcomes assessed (all p ≤ 0.01). The revised AAST grade outperformed the original AAST grade for predicting operative outcomes and discharge disposition. Despite this improvement, the AAST grade did not outperform the Parkland grade or the Emergency Surgery Score. CONCLUSION: The revised AAST grade and the preoperative AAST grade demonstrated improved discrimination; however, a purely anatomic grade based on chart review is unlikely to predict outcomes without addition of physiologic variables. Follow-up validation will be necessary. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Test or Criteria, Level IV.


Assuntos
Colecistite Aguda , Laparoscopia , Colecistite Aguda/diagnóstico , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos
5.
Surgery ; 171(6): 1687-1694, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Trauma Outcomes Predictor tool was recently derived using a machine learning methodology called optimal classification trees and validated for prediction of outcomes in trauma patients. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor is available as an interactive smartphone application. In this study, we sought to assess the performance of the Trauma Outcomes Predictor in the elderly trauma patient. METHODS: All patients aged 65 years and older in the American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program 2017 database were included. The performance of the Trauma Outcomes Predictor in predicting in-hospital mortality and combined and specific morbidity based on incidence of 9 specific in-hospital complications was assessed using the c-statistic methodology, with planned subanalyses for patients 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years. RESULTS: A total of 260,505 patients were included. Median age was 77 (71-84) years, 57% were women, and 98.8% had a blunt mechanism of injury. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor accurately predicted mortality in all patients, with excellent performance for penetrating trauma (c-statistic: 0.92) and good performance for blunt trauma (c-statistic: 0.83). Its best performance was in patients 65 to 74 years (c-statistic: blunt 0.86, penetrating 0.93). Among blunt trauma patients, the Trauma Outcomes Predictor had the best discrimination for predicting acute respiratory distress syndrome (c-statistic 0.75) and cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (c-statistic 0.75). Among penetrating trauma patients, the Trauma Outcomes Predictor had the best discrimination for deep and organ space surgical site infections (c-statistics 0.95 and 0.84, respectively). CONCLUSION: The Trauma Outcomes Predictor is a novel, interpretable, and highly accurate predictor of in-hospital mortality in the elderly trauma patient up to age 85 years. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor could prove useful for bedside counseling of elderly patients and their families and for benchmarking the quality of geriatric trauma care.


Assuntos
Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Benchmarking , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia
6.
World J Surg ; 45(10): 3019-3026, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Syrian conflict has produced one of the largest refugee crises in modern times. Lebanon has taken in more Syrian refugees per capita than any other nation. We aimed to study the burden of surgical disease and access to surgical care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. METHODS: This study was designed as a convenient cross-sectional cluster-based population survey of all refugee camps throughout the Bekaa region of Lebanon. We used a modified version of the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need to identify surgical conditions and barriers to care access. The head of household of each informal tented settlement provided demographic information after which two household members were randomly chosen and administered the survey. RESULTS: A total of 1,500 individuals from 750 households representing 21 camps were surveyed. Respondents had a mean age of 36.6 (15.0) years, 54.6% were female, and 59% were illiterate. Nearly 25% of respondents reported at least one surgical condition within the past year, most commonly involving the face, head, and neck region (32%) and extremities (22%). Less than 20% of patients with a surgical condition reported seeing any healthcare provider, > 75% due to financial hardship. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of surgical disease among Syrian refugees is very high with a fourth of refugees suffering from one or more surgical conditions over the past year. The surgical needs of this vulnerable population are largely unmet as financial reasons prevent patients from seeking care. Local and humanitarian efforts need to include increased access to surgical care.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síria , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
J Surg Res ; 267: 37-47, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) does not reliably predict Surgical site infections (SSI). We hypothesize that abdominal wall thickness (AWT) would serve as a better predictor of SSI for patients undergoing emergency colon operations. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated our Emergency Surgery Database (2007-2018). Emergency colon operations for any indication were included. AWT was measured by pre-operative CT scans at 5 locations. Only superficial and deep SSIs were considered as SSI in the analysis. Univariate then multivariable analyses were used to determine predictors of SSI. RESULTS: 236 patients met inclusion criteria. The incidence of post-operative SSI was 25.8% and the median BMI was 25.8kg/m2 [22.5-30.1]. The median AWT between patients with and without SSI was significantly different (2.1cm [1.4, 2.8] and 1.8cm [1.2, 2.5], respectively). A higher BMI trended toward increased rates of SSI, but this was not statistically significant. In overweight (BMI 25-29.9kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) patients, SSI versus no SSI rates were (50.0% versus 41.9% and 47.4% versus 36.4%, P = 0.365 and 0.230) respectively. The incidence of SSI in patients with an average AWT < 1.8cm was 20% and 30% for patients with average AWT ≥1.8cm. On multivariable analysis, AWT ≥1.8cm at 2cm inferior to umbilicus was an independent predictor of SSI (OR 2.98, 95%CI 1.34-6.63, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: AWT is a better predictor of SSI than BMI. Preoperative imaging of AWT may direct intraoperative decisions regarding wound management. Future clinical outcomes research in emergency surgery should include abdominal wall thickness as an important patient variable.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal , Colo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Parede Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Parede Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Colo/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
9.
J Surg Res ; 265: 195-203, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has long been considered a risk factor for postoperative adverse events in surgery. We sought to study the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the clinical outcomes of the high-risk emergency general surgery (EGS) elderly patients. METHODS: All EGS ≥65 years old patients in the 2007-2016 ACS-NSQIP database, identified using the variables 'emergency' and 'surgspec,' were included. Patients were classified into five groups: normal weight: BMI <25 kg/m2, overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and <30 kg/m2, Class I: BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and <35 kg/m2, Class II: BMI ≥35 kg/m2 and <40 kg/m2, and Class III: BMI ≥40 kg/m2. Patients with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to assess the relationship between obesity and 30-day postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and individual postoperative complications after adjusting for demographics (e.g., age, gender), comorbidities (e.g., diabetes mellitus, heart failure), laboratory tests (e.g., white blood cell count, albumin), and operative complexity (e.g., ASA classification). RESULTS: A total of 78,704 patients were included, of which 26,011 were overweight (33.1%), 13,897 (17.6%) had Class I obesity, 5904 (7.5%) had Class II obesity, and 4490 (5.7%) had Class III obesity. On multivariable analyses, compared to the nonobese, patients who are overweight or with Class I-III obesity paradoxically had a lower risk of mortality, bleeding requiring transfusion, pneumonia, stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). Additionally, the incidence of MI and stroke decreased in a stepwise fashion as BMI progressed from overweight to severely obese (MI: OR: 0.84 [0.73-0.95], OR: 0.73 [0.62-0.86], OR: 0.66 [0.52-0.83], OR: 0.51 [0.38-0.68]; stroke: OR: 0.80 [0.65-0.99], OR: 0.79 [0.62-1.02], OR: 0.71 [0.50-1.00], OR: 0.43 [0.28-0.68]). CONCLUSION: In our study of elderly EGS patients, overweight and obese patients had a lower risk of mortality, bleeding requiring transfusion, pneumonia, reintubation, stroke, and MI. Further studies are needed to confirm and investigate the obesity paradox in this patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Obesidade/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Am Surg ; : 3134821998664, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal use of interventional procedures and diagnostic tests for patients with suspected choledocholithiasis depends on accurate pretest risk estimation. We sought to define sensitivity/specificity of transaminases in identifying choledocholithiasis and to incorporate them into a biochemical marker composite score that could accurately predict choledocholithiasis. METHODS: All adult patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy by our Emergency Surgery Service between 2010 and 2018 were reviewed. Admission total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was captured. Choledocholithiasis was confirmed via intraoperative cholangiogram, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) or C-statistic for AST, ALT, ALP, and TB as a measure of detecting choledocholithiasis was calculated. For score development, our database was randomly dichotomized to derivation and validation cohort and a score was derived. The score was validated by calculating its C-statistic. RESULTS: 1089 patients were included; 210 (20.3%) had confirmed choledocholithiasis. The AUC was .78 for TB, .77 for ALP and AST, and .76 for ALT. 545 and 544 patients were included in the derivation and the validation cohort, respectively. The elements of the derived score were TB, AST, and ALP. The score ranged from 0 to 4. The AUC was .82 in the derivation and .77 in the validation cohort. The probability of choledocholithiasis increased from 8% to 89% at scores 0 to 4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Aspartate aminotransferase predicted choledocholithiasis adequately and should be featured in choledocholithiasis screening algorithms. We developed a biochemical composite score, shown to be accurate in preoperative choledocholithiasis risk assessment in an emergency surgery setting.

11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 93-99, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classic risk assessment tools often treat patients' risk factors as linear and additive. Clinical reality suggests that the presence of certain risk factors can alter the impact of other factors; in other words, risk modeling is not linear. We aimed to use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to design and validate a nonlinear risk calculator for trauma patients. METHODS: A novel, interpretable AI technology called Optimal Classification Trees (OCTs) was used in an 80:20 derivation/validation split of the 2010 to 2016 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database. Demographics, emergency department vital signs, comorbidities, and injury characteristics (e.g., severity, mechanism) of all blunt and penetrating trauma patients 18 years or older were used to develop, train then validate OCT algorithms to predict in-hospital mortality and complications (e.g., acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis). A smartphone application was created as the algorithm's interactive and user-friendly interface. Performance was measured using the c-statistic methodology. RESULTS: A total of 934,053 patients were included (747,249 derivation; 186,804 validation). The median age was 51 years, 37% were women, 90.5% had blunt trauma, and the median Injury Severity Score was 11. Comprehensive OCT algorithms were developed for blunt and penetrating trauma, and the interactive smartphone application, Trauma Outcome Predictor (TOP) was created, where the answer to one question unfolds the subsequent one. Trauma Outcome Predictor accurately predicted mortality in penetrating injury (c-statistics: 0.95 derivation, 0.94 validation) and blunt injury (c-statistics: 0.89 derivation, 0.88 validation). The validation c-statistics for predicting complications ranged between 0.69 and 0.84. CONCLUSION: We suggest TOP as an AI-based, interpretable, accurate, and nonlinear risk calculator for predicting outcome in trauma patients. Trauma Outcome Predictor can prove useful for bedside counseling of critically injured trauma patients and their families, and for benchmarking the quality of trauma care.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Smartphone , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(6): 959-966, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major injury results in an early cascade of immunologic responses that increase susceptibility to infection and multiorgan dysfunction. Detailed immune profiling by mass cytometry has the potential to identify immune signatures that correspond to patient outcomes. Our objective was to determine the prognostic value of immune signatures early after major trauma injury. METHODS: Trauma patients (n = 17) were prospectively enrolled between September 2018 and December 2019. Serial whole blood samples were obtained from trauma patients (mean Injury Severity Score, 26.2; standard error of the mean, 3.7) at Days 1 and 3 after injury, and from age- and sex-matched uninjured controls using a standardized protocol for fixation, storage, and labeling. Computational analyses including K-nearest neighbor automated clustering of immune cells and Spearman's correlation analysis were used to identify correlations between cell populations, clinical measures, and patient outcomes. RESULTS: Analysis revealed nine immune cell clusters that correlated with one or more clinical outcomes. On Days 1 and 3 postinjury, the abundance of immature neutrophil and classical monocytes exhibited a strong positive correlation with increased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay. Conversely, the abundance of CD4 T-cell subsets, namely Th17 cells, is associated with improved patient outcomes including decreased ventilator days (r = -0.76), hospital-acquired pneumonia (r = -0.69), and acute kidney injury (r = -0.73). CONCLUSION: Here, we provide a comprehensive multitime point immunophenotyping analysis of whole blood from patients soon after traumatic injury to determine immune correlates of adverse outcomes. Our findings indicate that alterations in myeloid-origin cell types may contribute to immune dysfunction after injury. Conversely, the presence of effector T cell populations corresponds with decreased hospital length of stay and organ dysfunction. Overall, these data identify novel immune signatures following traumatic injury that support the view that monitoring of immune (sub)-populations may provide clinical decision-making support for at-risk patients early in their hospital course. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/Epidemiologic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Injúria Renal Aguda/imunologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/sangue , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/imunologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia
13.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(6): 912-919.e1, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Predictive Optimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk (POTTER) tool is an artificial intelligence-based calculator for the prediction of 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing emergency operations. In this study, we sought to assess the performance of POTTER in the emergency general surgery (EGS) population in particular. METHODS: All patients who underwent EGS in the 2017 American College of Surgeons NSQIP database were included. The performance of POTTER in predicting 30-day postoperative mortality, morbidity, and 18 specific complications was assessed using the c-statistic metric. As a subgroup analysis, the performance of POTTER in predicting the outcomes of patients undergoing emergency laparotomy was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 59,955 patients were included. Median age was 50 years and 51.3% were women. POTTER predicted mortality (c-statistic = 0.93) and morbidity (c-statistic = 0.83) extremely well. Among individual complications, POTTER had the highest performance in predicting septic shock (c-statistic = 0.93), respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or longer (c-statistic = 0.92), and acute renal failure (c-statistic = 0.92). Among patients undergoing emergency laparotomy, the c-statistic performances of POTTER in predicting mortality and morbidity were 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: POTTER is an interpretable, accurate, and user-friendly predictor of 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing EGS. POTTER could prove useful for bedside counseling of patients and their families and for benchmarking of EGS care.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Benchmarking/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Benchmarking/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Árvores de Decisões , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Surg Res ; 264: A1-A9, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743995

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made increasing inroads in clinical medicine. In surgery, machine learning-based algorithms are being studied for use as decision aids in risk prediction and even for intraoperative applications, including image recognition and video analysis. While AI has great promise in surgery, these algorithms come with a series of potential pitfalls that cannot be ignored as hospital systems and surgeons consider implementing these technologies. The aim of this review is to discuss the progress, promise, and pitfalls of AI in surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/tendências , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(5): 671-680, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of emergency general surgery (EGS) studies that use the American College of Surgeons-National Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database is variable. We aimed to critically appraise the methodologic reporting of EGS ACS-NSQIP studies. STUDY DESIGN: We searched the PubMed ACS-NSQIP bibliography for EGS studies published from 2004 to 2019. The quality of reporting of each study was assessed according to the number of criteria fulfilled with respect to the 13-item RECORD statement and the 10-item JAMA Surgery checklist. Three criteria in each checklist were not applicable and were therefore excluded. An analysis was conducted comparing studies published in high and low impact factor (IF) journals. RESULTS: We identified a total of 99 eligible studies. Twenty-six percent of studies were published in high IF journals, and 73% of the journals had a policy requiring adherence to reporting statements. The median number of criteria fulfilled for the RECORD statement (out of 10 items) and the JAMA Surgery checklist (out of 7 items) were both equal to 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 3, 5). Sixty-three percent of studies did not explain the methodology for data cleaning, 81% of studies did not describe the population selection process, and 55% did not discuss the implications of missing variables. There were no differences in overall scores between studies published in high and low IF journals. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic reporting of EGS studies using ACS-NSQIP remains suboptimal. Future efforts should focus on improving adherence to the policies to mitigate potential sources of bias and improve the credibility of large database studies.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Bibliografias como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
16.
World J Surg ; 45(11): 3295-3301, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In resource-limited countries, open appendectomy is still performed under general anesthesia (GA) or neuraxial anesthesia (NA). We sought to compare the postoperative outcomes of appendectomy under NA versus GA. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the International Patterns of Opioid Prescribing (iPOP) multicenter study. All patients ≥ 16 years-old who underwent an open appendectomy between October 2016 and March 2017 in one of the 14 participating hospitals were included. Patients were stratified into two groups: NA-defined as spinal or epidural-and GA. All-cause morbidity, hospital length of stay (LOS), and pain severity were assessed using univariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression adjusting for the following preoperative characteristics: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, history of opioid use, emergency status, and country. RESULTS: A total of 655 patients were included, 353 of which were in the NA group and 302 in the GA group. The countries operating under NA were Colombia (39%), Thailand (31%), China (23%), and Brazil (7%). Overall, NA patients were younger (mean age (SD): 34.5 (14.4) vs. 40.7 (17.9), p-value < 0.001) and had a lower BMI (mean (SD): 23.5 (3.8) vs. 24.3 (5.2), p-value = 0.040) than GA patients. On multivariable analysis, NA was independently associated with less postoperative complications (OR, 95% CI: 0.30 [0.10-0.94]) and shorter hospital LOS (LOS > 3 days, OR, 95% CI: 0.47 [0.32-0.68]) compared to GA. There was no difference in postoperative pain severity between the two techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Open appendectomy performed under NA is associated with improved outcomes compared to that performed under GA. Further randomized controlled studies should examine the safety and value of NA in lower abdominal surgery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Apendicectomia , Adolescente , Anestesia Geral , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Surgery ; 169(6): 1434-1440, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission is an important quality-of-care indicator. We sought to examine the rates and predictors of unplanned readmission for the high-risk non-trauma emergency laparotomy patient. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, a total of 19 centers enrolled all adult patients undergoing emergency laparotomies and systematically collected preoperative, operative, and 30-day postoperative variables. For the purpose of this study, we defined unplanned readmission as a readmission occurring within 30 days from discharge and one that was immediately preceded by an emergency department visit. Patients were excluded if they died during the index admission, were discharged to hospice, or were transferred to other hospitals. Predictors of unplanned readmission were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, laboratory variables, and preoperative acuity of disease variables. RESULTS: A total of 1,347 patients were included, of which 234 (17.4%) had an unplanned readmission. The median patient age was 60 y, 49.4% were male, and 71.4% were white. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%). Predictors of unplanned readmission included patient factors (eg, disseminated cancer [odds ratio: 2.22, confidence interval: 1.35-3.64, P = .002], weight loss >10% in the past 6 months [odds ratio: 1.65, confidence interval: 1.07-2.54, P = .023], dyspnea at baseline [odds ratio: 1.62, confidence interval: 1.06-2.48, P = .026], wound complications [odds ratio: 2.23, confidence interval: 1.55-3.19, P < .001], and discharge to nursing homes [odds ratio: 1.68, confidence interval: 1.02-2.80, P = .044]). CONCLUSION: Unplanned readmission after emergency laparotomies are common, especially for patients with wound complications or requiring nursing homes. These system factors are potential quality improvement targets to reduce readmissions.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Surg Res ; 261: 152-158, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) has been previously validated as a reliable tool to predict postoperative outcomes in emergency general surgery (EGS). The purpose of this study is to assess the differential performance of the ESS in specific EGS procedures. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was retrospectively analyzed for patients undergoing EGS between 2007 and 2017. Patients who underwent the following EGS procedures were identified: laparoscopic appendectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgery for small bowel obstruction (SBO), colectomy, and incarcerated ventral or inguinal hernia repair. The performance of the ESS in predicting mortality in each procedure was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analyses. RESULTS: A total of 467,803 patients underwent EGS (mean age 50 ± 19.9 y, females 241,330 [51.6%]), of which 191,930 (41%) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, 40,353 (8.6%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and 35,152 (7.5%) patients underwent surgery for SBO. The ESS correlated extremely well with mortality for patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (area under the curve (AUC) 0.91), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (AUC 0.91), lysis of adhesions for SBO (AUC 0.83), colectomy (AUC 0.83), and incarcerated hernia repair (AUC 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: ESS performance accurately predicts mortality across a wide range of EGS procedures, and its use should be encouraged for preoperative patient counseling and for nationally benchmarking the quality of care of EGS.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
20.
Mil Med ; 186(Suppl 1): 295-299, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scarcity of operating rooms and personal protective equipment in far-forward field settings make surgical infections a potential concern for combat mortality and morbidity. Surgical and transport personnel also face infectious risks from bodily fluid exposures. Our study aimed to describe the serial, proof-of-concept testing of the SurgiBox technology: an inflatable sterile environment that addresses the aforementioned problems, fits on gurneys and backpacks, and drapes over incisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SurgiBox environmental control unit and inflatable enclosure were optimized over five generations based on iterative feedback from stakeholders experienced in surgery in austere settings. The airflow system was developed by analytic modeling, verified through in silico modeling in SOLIDWORKS, and confirmed with prototype smoke-trail checking. Particulate counts evaluated the enclosure's ability to control and mitigate users' exposures to potentially infectious contaminants from the surgical field in various settings. SurgiBox enclosures were setup over a mannequin's torso, in a configuration and position for either thoracic or abdominal surgery. A particle counter was serially positioned in sternotomy and laparotomy positions, as well as bilateral flank positions. This setup was repeated with open ports exposing the enclosure to the external environment. To simulate stress scenarios, sampling was repeated with enclosure measurements during an increase in external particulate concentration. RESULTS: The airflow technology effectively kept contaminants away from the incision and maintained a pressure differential to reduce particle entry. Benchtop testing demonstrated that even when ports were opened or the external environment had high contaminant burden, the enclosed surgical field consistently registered 0 particle count in all positions. Time from kit opening to incision averaged 54.5 seconds, with the rate-limiting step being connecting the environmental control unit to the enclosure. The portable kit weighted 5.9 lbs. CONCLUSIONS: Analytic, in silico, and mechanical airflow modeling and benchtop testing have helped to quantify the SurgiBox system's reliability in creating and maintaining an operating room-quality surgical field within the enclosure as well as protecting the surgical team outside the enclosure. More recent and ongoing work has focused on specifying optimal use settings in the casualty chain of care, expanding support for circumferential procedures, automating airflow control, and accelerating system setup. SurgiBox's ultimate goal is to take timely, safe surgery to patients in even the most austere of settings.


Assuntos
Salas Cirúrgicas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumaça
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