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1.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(6): 989-998, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS-TQIP) database is one of the most widely used databases for trauma research. We aimed to critically appraise the quality of the methodological reporting of ACS-TQIP studies. STUDY DESIGN: The ACS-TQIP bibliography was queried for all studies published between January 2018 and January 2021. The quality of data reporting was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology-Reporting of Studies Conducted Using Observational Routinely Collected Health Data (STROBE-RECORD) statement and the JAMA Surgery checklist. Three items from each tool were not applicable and thus excluded. The quality of reporting was compared between high- and low-impact factor (IF) journals (cutoff for high IF is >90th percentile of all surgical journals). RESULTS: A total of 118 eligible studies were included; 12 (10%) were published in high-IF journals. The median (interquartile range) number of criteria fulfilled was 5 (4-6) for the STROBE-RECORD statement (of 10 items) and 5 (5-6) for the JAMA Surgery checklist (of 7 items). Specifically, 73% of studies did not describe the patient population selection process, 61% did not address data cleaning or the implications of missing values, and 76% did not properly state inclusion/exclusion criteria and/or outcome variables. Studies published in high-IF journals had remarkably higher quality of reporting than those in low-IF journals. CONCLUSION: The methodological reporting quality of ACS-TQIP studies remains suboptimal. Future efforts should focus on improving adherence to standard reporting guidelines to mitigate potential bias and improve the reproducibility of published studies.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
Surgery ; 172(1): 470-475, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delays in admitting high-risk emergency surgery patients to the intensive care unit result in worse outcomes and increased health care costs. We aimed to use interpretable artificial intelligence technology to create a preoperative predictor for postoperative intensive care unit need in emergency surgery patients. METHODS: A novel, interpretable artificial intelligence technology called optimal classification trees was leveraged in an 80:20 train:test split of adult emergency surgery patients in the 2007-2017 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory values were used to develop, train, and then validate optimal classification tree algorithms to predict the need for postoperative intensive care unit admission. The latter was defined as postoperative death or the development of 1 or more postoperative complications warranting critical care (eg, unplanned intubation, ventilator requirement ≥48 hours, cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and septic shock). An interactive and user-friendly application was created. C statistics were used to measure performance. RESULTS: A total of 464,861 patients were included. The mean age was 55 years, 48% were male, and 11% developed severe postoperative complications warranting critical care. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application was created as the user-friendly interface of the complex optimal classification tree algorithms. The number of questions (ie, tree depths) needed to predict intensive care unit admission ranged from 2 to 11. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application had excellent discrimination for predicting the need for intensive care unit admission (C statistics: 0.89 train, 0.88 test). CONCLUSION: We recommend the Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application as an accurate, artificial intelligence-based tool for predicting severe complications warranting intensive care unit admission after emergency surgery. The Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk Intensive Care Unit application can prove useful to triage patients to the intensive care unit and to potentially decrease failure to rescue in emergency surgery patients.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Smartphone , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Surg Res ; 275: 172-180, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as a total measure of an individual's economic or social position in relation to others. Income and educational level are often used as quantifiable objective measures of SES but are inherently limited. Perceived SES (p-SES), refers to an individual's perception of their own SES. Herein, we assess the correlation between objective SES (o-SES) as defined by income and educational level and p-SES after injury and compare their associations with long-term outcomes after injury. METHODS: Moderate-to-severely injured patients admitted to a Level 1 trauma center were asked to complete a phone-based survey assessing functional and mental health outcomes, social dysfunction, chronic pain, and return to work/school 6-12 mo postinjury. o-SES was determined by income and educational level (low educational level: high school or lower; low income: live in zip code with median income/household lower than the national median). p-SES was determined by asking patients to categorize their SES. The correlation coefficient between o-SES and p-SES was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were built to determine the associations between o-SES and p-SES and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 729 patients were included in this study. Patients who reported a low p-SES were younger, more likely to suffer penetrating injuries, and to have a weak social support network. Twenty-one percent of patients with high income and high educational level classified their p-SES as low or mid-low, and conversely, 46% of patients with low education and low income classified their p-SES as high or mid-high. The correlation coefficient between p-SES and o-SES was 0.2513. After adjusting for confounders, p-SES was a stronger predictor of long-term outcomes, including functional limitations, social dysfunction, mental health outcomes, return to work/school, and chronic pain than was o-SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported p-SES correlates poorly with o-SES indicating that the commonly used calculation of income and education may not accurately capture an individuals' SES. Furthermore, we found p-SES to be more strongly correlated with long-term outcome measures than o-SES. As we strive to improve long-term outcomes after injury, p-SES may be an important variable in the early identification of individuals who are likely to suffer from worse long-term outcomes after injury.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Escolaridade , Humanos , Renda , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Traumatologia
5.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 81: 343-350, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) following lower extremity amputations (LEAs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to investigate the annual incidence of SSI and risk factors associated with SSI after LEA in diabetic patients. METHODS: LEAs performed on diabetic patients between 2005 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Incidence rates were calculated and analyzed for temporal change. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify the independent predictors of SSIs in LEA. RESULTS: In 21,449 diabetic patients, the incidence of SSIs was 6.8% after LEA, with an overall decreasing annual trend (P = 0.013). Amputation location (below-knee in reference to above-knee) [OR (95% CI): 1.35 (1.20 - 1.53), P <0.001], smoking [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.11 - 1.41), P <0.001)], female sex [OR (95% CI): 1.16 (1.03 - 1.30)], preoperative sepsis [OR (95% CI): 1.24 (1.10 - 1.40), P <0.001], P = 0.013], emergency status [OR (95% CI): 1.38 (1.17 - 1.63), P <0.001], and obesity [OR (95% CI): 1.59 (1.12 - 2.27), P = 0.009] emerged as independent predictors of SSIs, while moderate/severe anemia emerged as a risk-adjusted protective factor [OR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.62 - 0.91), P = 0.003]. Sensitivity analysis found that moderate/severe anemia, not body mass index (BMI) class, remained a significant risk factor in the development of SSIs in below-the-knee amputations; in contrast, higher BMI, not preoperative hematocrit, was significantly associated with an increased risk for SSI in above-the-knee amputations. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SSIs after LEA in diabetic patients is decreasing. Overall, below-knee amputation, smoking, emergency status, and preoperative sepsis appeared to be associated with SSIs. Obesity increased SSIs in above-the-knee amputations, while moderate/severe preoperative anemia appears to protect against below-the-knee SSIs. Surgeons should take predictors of SSI into consideration while optimizing care for their patients, and future studies should investigate the role of preoperative hematocrit correction and how it may influence outcomes positively or negatively.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 277-286, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquity of rib fractures in patients with blunt chest trauma, long-term outcomes for patients with this injury pattern are not well described. METHODS: The Functional Outcomes and Recovery after Trauma Emergencies (FORTE) project has established a multicenter prospective registry with 6- to 12-month follow-up for trauma patients treated at participating centers. We combined the FORTE registry with a detailed retrospective chart review investigating admission variables and injury characteristics. All trauma survivors with complete FORTE data and isolated chest trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score of ≤1 in all other regions) with rib fractures were included. Outcomes included chronic pain, limitation in activities of daily living, physical limitations, exercise limitations, return to work, and both inpatient and discharge pain control modalities. Multivariable logistic regression models were built for each outcome using clinically relevant demographic and injury characteristic univariate predictors. RESULTS: We identified 279 patients with isolated rib fractures. The median age of the cohort was 68 years (interquartile range, 56-78 years), 59% were male, and 84% were White. Functional and quality of life limitations were common among survivors of isolated rib fractures even 6 to 12 months after injury. Forty-three percent of patients without a preexisting pain disorder reported new daily pain, and new chronic pain was associated with low resilience. Limitations in physical functioning and exercise capacity were reported in 56% and 51% of patients, respectively. Of those working preinjury, 28% had not returned to work. New limitations in activities of daily living were reported in 29% of patients older than 65 years. Older age, higher number of rib fractures, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with higher odds of receiving regional anesthesia. Receiving a regional nerve block did not have a statistically significant association with any patient-reported outcome measures. CONCLUSION: Isolated rib fractures are a nontrivial trauma burden associated with functional impairment and chronic pain even 6 to 12 months after injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiologic, level III.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Escala Resumida de Ferimentos , Idoso , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Ann Surg ; 275(2): 398-405, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This multicenter study aims to describe the injury patterns, emergency management and outcomes of the blast victims, recognize the gaps in hospital disaster preparedness, and identify lessons to be learned. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: On August 4th, 2020, the city of Beirut, Lebanon suffered the largest urban explosion since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in hundreds of deaths and thousands of injuries. METHODS: All injured patients admitted to four of the largest Beirut hospitals within 72 hours of the blast, including those who died on arrival or in the emergency department (ED), were included. Medical records were systematically reviewed for: patient demographics and comorbidities; injury severity and characteristics; prehospital, ED, operative, and inpatient interventions; and outcomes at hospital discharge. Lessons learned are also shared. RESULTS: An estimated total of 1818 patients were included, of which 30 died on arrival or in the ED and 315 were admitted to the hospital. Among admitted patients, the mean age was 44.7 years (range: 1 week-93 years), 44.4% were female, and the median injury severity score (ISS) was 10 (5, 17). ISS was inversely related to the distance from the blast epicenter (r = --0.18, P = 0.035). Most injuries involved the upper extremities (53.7%), face (42.2%), and head (40.3%). Mildly injured (ISS <9) patients overwhelmed the ED in the first 2 hours; from hour 2 to hour 8 post-injury, the number of moderately, severely, and profoundly injured patients increased by 127%, 25% and 17%, respectively. A total of 475 operative procedures were performed in 239 patients, most commonly soft tissue debridement or repair (119 patients, 49.8%), limb fracture fixation (107, 44.8%), and tendon repair (56, 23.4%). A total of 11 patients (3.5%) died during the hospitalization, 56 (17.8%) developed at least 1 complication, and 51 (16.2%) were discharged with documented long-term disability. Main lessons learned included: the importance of having key hospital functions (eg, laboratory, operating room) underground; the nonadaptability of electronic medical records to disasters; the ED overwhelming with mild injuries, delay in arrival of the severely injured; and the need for realistic disaster drills. CONCLUSIONS: We, therefore, describe the injury patterns, emergency flow and trauma outcome of patients injured in the Beirut port explosion. The clinical and system-level lessons learned can help prepare for the next disaster.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Traumatismos por Explosões/terapia , Explosões , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Traumatismos por Explosões/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defesa Civil , Tratamento de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Surgery ; 171(6): 1687-1694, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Trauma Outcomes Predictor tool was recently derived using a machine learning methodology called optimal classification trees and validated for prediction of outcomes in trauma patients. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor is available as an interactive smartphone application. In this study, we sought to assess the performance of the Trauma Outcomes Predictor in the elderly trauma patient. METHODS: All patients aged 65 years and older in the American College of Surgeons-Trauma Quality Improvement Program 2017 database were included. The performance of the Trauma Outcomes Predictor in predicting in-hospital mortality and combined and specific morbidity based on incidence of 9 specific in-hospital complications was assessed using the c-statistic methodology, with planned subanalyses for patients 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years. RESULTS: A total of 260,505 patients were included. Median age was 77 (71-84) years, 57% were women, and 98.8% had a blunt mechanism of injury. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor accurately predicted mortality in all patients, with excellent performance for penetrating trauma (c-statistic: 0.92) and good performance for blunt trauma (c-statistic: 0.83). Its best performance was in patients 65 to 74 years (c-statistic: blunt 0.86, penetrating 0.93). Among blunt trauma patients, the Trauma Outcomes Predictor had the best discrimination for predicting acute respiratory distress syndrome (c-statistic 0.75) and cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (c-statistic 0.75). Among penetrating trauma patients, the Trauma Outcomes Predictor had the best discrimination for deep and organ space surgical site infections (c-statistics 0.95 and 0.84, respectively). CONCLUSION: The Trauma Outcomes Predictor is a novel, interpretable, and highly accurate predictor of in-hospital mortality in the elderly trauma patient up to age 85 years. The Trauma Outcomes Predictor could prove useful for bedside counseling of elderly patients and their families and for benchmarking the quality of geriatric trauma care.


Assuntos
Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Idoso , Inteligência Artificial , Benchmarking , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia
9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(12): 3221-3227, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559431

RESUMO

The convergent procedure is a newly developed hybrid ablation procedure that involves extensive epicardial ablation of the posterior left atrial wall followed by endocardial mapping and addition of pulmonary vein isolation. It is a team-based approach that provides a promising option for patients with persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation. In this manuscript, we present a detailed description of the surgical component of this procedure and include potential pitfalls based on our experience in performing it.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Veias Pulmonares , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Endocárdio , Humanos , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): 913-920, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine the proportion and characteristics of traumatic injury survivors who perceive a negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their recovery and to define post-injury outcomes for this cohort. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated physical, psychological, and social stressors that may create a uniquely difficult recovery and reintegration environment for injured patients. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years) survivors of moderate-to-severe injury completed a survey 6 to 14 months post-injury during the COVID-19 pandemic. This survey queried individuals about the perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery and assessed post-injury functional and mental health outcomes. Regression models were built to identify factors associated with a perceived negative impact of the pandemic on injury recovery, and to define the relationship between these perceptions and long-term outcomes. RESULTS: Of 597 eligible trauma survivors who were contacted, 403 (67.5%) completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent reported that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted their recovery and 24% reported difficulty accessing needed healthcare. Younger age, lower perceived-socioeconomic status, extremity injury, and prior psychiatric illness were independently associated with negative perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on injury recovery. In adjusted analyses, patients who reported a negative impact of the pandemic on their recovery were more likely to have new functional limitations, daily pain, lower physical and mental component scores of the Short-Form-12 and to screen positive for PTSD and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is negatively impacting the recovery of trauma survivors. It is essential that we recognize the impact of the pandemic on injured patients while focusing on directed efforts to improve the long-term outcomes of this already at-risk population.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(8): 2584-2587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial trauma can have long-lasting consequences on an individual's physical, mental, and social well-being. The authors sought to assess the long-term outcomes of patients with facial injuries. METHODS: This is a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients with face abbreviated injury scores ≥1 within the Functional Outcomes and Recovery after Trauma Emergencies registry. The Functional Outcomes and Recovery after Trauma Emergencies registry collects patient-reported outcomes data for patients with moderate-severe trauma 6 to 12 months after injury. Outcomes variables included general and trauma-specific quality of life, functional limitations, screening for post-traumatic stress disorder, and postdischarge healthcare utilization. RESULTS: A total of 188 patients with facial trauma were included: 69.1% had an isolated face and/or head injury and 30.9% had a face and/or head injuries as a part of polytrauma injury. After discharge, 11.7% of patients visited the emergency room, and 13.3% were re-admitted to the hospital. Additionally, 36% of patients suffered from functional limitations and 17% of patients developed post-traumatic stress disorder. A total of 34.3% patients reported that their injury scars bothered them, and 49.4% reported that their injuries were hard to deal with emotionally. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who sustain facial trauma suffer significant long-term health-related quality of life consequences stemming from their injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Faciais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Assistência ao Convalescente , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
13.
World J Surg ; 45(10): 3019-3026, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Syrian conflict has produced one of the largest refugee crises in modern times. Lebanon has taken in more Syrian refugees per capita than any other nation. We aimed to study the burden of surgical disease and access to surgical care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. METHODS: This study was designed as a convenient cross-sectional cluster-based population survey of all refugee camps throughout the Bekaa region of Lebanon. We used a modified version of the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need to identify surgical conditions and barriers to care access. The head of household of each informal tented settlement provided demographic information after which two household members were randomly chosen and administered the survey. RESULTS: A total of 1,500 individuals from 750 households representing 21 camps were surveyed. Respondents had a mean age of 36.6 (15.0) years, 54.6% were female, and 59% were illiterate. Nearly 25% of respondents reported at least one surgical condition within the past year, most commonly involving the face, head, and neck region (32%) and extremities (22%). Less than 20% of patients with a surgical condition reported seeing any healthcare provider, > 75% due to financial hardship. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of surgical disease among Syrian refugees is very high with a fourth of refugees suffering from one or more surgical conditions over the past year. The surgical needs of this vulnerable population are largely unmet as financial reasons prevent patients from seeking care. Local and humanitarian efforts need to include increased access to surgical care.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síria , Populações Vulneráveis
14.
Surgery ; 170(5): 1501-1507, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score was recently validated in a prospective multicenter study as an accurate predictor of mortality in emergency general surgery patients. The Emergency Surgery Score is easily calculated using multiple demographic, comorbidity, laboratory, and acuity of disease variables. We aimed to investigate whether the Emergency Surgery Score can predict 30-day postoperative mortality across patients undergoing emergency surgery in multiple surgical specialties. METHODS: Our study is a retrospective cohort study using data from the national American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2007-2017). We included patients that underwent emergency gynecologic, urologic, thoracic, neurosurgical, orthopedic, vascular, cardiac, and general surgical procedures. The Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient, and the correlation between the Emergency Surgery Score and 30-day mortality was assessed for each specialty using the c-statistics methodology. RESULTS: Of 6,485,915 patients, 173,890 patients were included. The mean age was 60 years, 50.6% were female patients, and the overall mortality was 9.7%. The Emergency Surgery Score predicted mortality best in emergency gynecologic, general, and urologic surgery (c-statistics: 0.97, 0.87, 0.81, respectively). The Emergency Surgery Score predicted mortality moderately well in emergency thoracic, neurosurgical, orthopedic, and vascular surgery (c-statistics 0.73-0.79). For example, the mortality of gynecology patients with an Emergency Surgery Score of 5, 9, and 13 was 2%, 27%, and 50%, respectively. The Emergency Surgery Score performed poorly in cardiac surgery. CONCLUSION: The Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts mortality across patients undergoing emergency surgery in multiple surgical specialties, especially general, gynecologic, and urologic surgery. The Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for perioperative patient counseling and for benchmarking the quality of surgical care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Surg Res ; 265: 195-203, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has long been considered a risk factor for postoperative adverse events in surgery. We sought to study the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the clinical outcomes of the high-risk emergency general surgery (EGS) elderly patients. METHODS: All EGS ≥65 years old patients in the 2007-2016 ACS-NSQIP database, identified using the variables 'emergency' and 'surgspec,' were included. Patients were classified into five groups: normal weight: BMI <25 kg/m2, overweight: BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and <30 kg/m2, Class I: BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and <35 kg/m2, Class II: BMI ≥35 kg/m2 and <40 kg/m2, and Class III: BMI ≥40 kg/m2. Patients with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to assess the relationship between obesity and 30-day postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and individual postoperative complications after adjusting for demographics (e.g., age, gender), comorbidities (e.g., diabetes mellitus, heart failure), laboratory tests (e.g., white blood cell count, albumin), and operative complexity (e.g., ASA classification). RESULTS: A total of 78,704 patients were included, of which 26,011 were overweight (33.1%), 13,897 (17.6%) had Class I obesity, 5904 (7.5%) had Class II obesity, and 4490 (5.7%) had Class III obesity. On multivariable analyses, compared to the nonobese, patients who are overweight or with Class I-III obesity paradoxically had a lower risk of mortality, bleeding requiring transfusion, pneumonia, stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). Additionally, the incidence of MI and stroke decreased in a stepwise fashion as BMI progressed from overweight to severely obese (MI: OR: 0.84 [0.73-0.95], OR: 0.73 [0.62-0.86], OR: 0.66 [0.52-0.83], OR: 0.51 [0.38-0.68]; stroke: OR: 0.80 [0.65-0.99], OR: 0.79 [0.62-1.02], OR: 0.71 [0.50-1.00], OR: 0.43 [0.28-0.68]). CONCLUSION: In our study of elderly EGS patients, overweight and obese patients had a lower risk of mortality, bleeding requiring transfusion, pneumonia, reintubation, stroke, and MI. Further studies are needed to confirm and investigate the obesity paradox in this patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Obesidade/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(5): 880-890, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe characteristics, multisystem outcomes, and predictors of mortality of the critically ill COVID-19 patients in the largest hospital in Massachusetts. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection between March 14, 2020, and April 28, 2020, were included; hospital and multisystem outcomes were evaluated. Data were collected from electronic records. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300 during admission and bilateral radiographic pulmonary opacities. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for available confounders were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 235 patients were included. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-8), and the median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 was 208 (146-300) with 86.4% of patients meeting criteria for ARDS. The median (IQR) follow-up was 92 (86-99) days, and the median ICU length of stay was 16 (8-25) days; 62.1% of patients were proned, 49.8% required neuromuscular blockade, and 3.4% required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The most common complications were shock (88.9%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (69.8%), secondary bacterial pneumonia (70.6%), and pressure ulcers (51.1%). As of July 8, 2020, 175 patients (74.5%) were discharged alive (61.7% to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility), 58 (24.7%) died in the hospital, and only 2 patients were still hospitalized, but out of the ICU. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), higher median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at ICU admission (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43), elevated creatine kinase of ≥1,000 U/L at hospital admission (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 1.51-29.17), and severe ARDS (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.18-23.29) independently predicted hospital mortality.Comorbidities, steroids, and hydroxychloroquine treatment did not predict mortality. CONCLUSION: We present here the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Age, acuity of disease, and severe ARDS predicted mortality rather than comorbidities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Gravidade do Paciente , Injúria Renal Aguda/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Boston/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Bacteriana/virologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Decúbito Ventral , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 93-99, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classic risk assessment tools often treat patients' risk factors as linear and additive. Clinical reality suggests that the presence of certain risk factors can alter the impact of other factors; in other words, risk modeling is not linear. We aimed to use artificial intelligence (AI) technology to design and validate a nonlinear risk calculator for trauma patients. METHODS: A novel, interpretable AI technology called Optimal Classification Trees (OCTs) was used in an 80:20 derivation/validation split of the 2010 to 2016 American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database. Demographics, emergency department vital signs, comorbidities, and injury characteristics (e.g., severity, mechanism) of all blunt and penetrating trauma patients 18 years or older were used to develop, train then validate OCT algorithms to predict in-hospital mortality and complications (e.g., acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis). A smartphone application was created as the algorithm's interactive and user-friendly interface. Performance was measured using the c-statistic methodology. RESULTS: A total of 934,053 patients were included (747,249 derivation; 186,804 validation). The median age was 51 years, 37% were women, 90.5% had blunt trauma, and the median Injury Severity Score was 11. Comprehensive OCT algorithms were developed for blunt and penetrating trauma, and the interactive smartphone application, Trauma Outcome Predictor (TOP) was created, where the answer to one question unfolds the subsequent one. Trauma Outcome Predictor accurately predicted mortality in penetrating injury (c-statistics: 0.95 derivation, 0.94 validation) and blunt injury (c-statistics: 0.89 derivation, 0.88 validation). The validation c-statistics for predicting complications ranged between 0.69 and 0.84. CONCLUSION: We suggest TOP as an AI-based, interpretable, accurate, and nonlinear risk calculator for predicting outcome in trauma patients. Trauma Outcome Predictor can prove useful for bedside counseling of critically injured trauma patients and their families, and for benchmarking the quality of trauma care.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Smartphone , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(6): 912-919.e1, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Predictive Optimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk (POTTER) tool is an artificial intelligence-based calculator for the prediction of 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing emergency operations. In this study, we sought to assess the performance of POTTER in the emergency general surgery (EGS) population in particular. METHODS: All patients who underwent EGS in the 2017 American College of Surgeons NSQIP database were included. The performance of POTTER in predicting 30-day postoperative mortality, morbidity, and 18 specific complications was assessed using the c-statistic metric. As a subgroup analysis, the performance of POTTER in predicting the outcomes of patients undergoing emergency laparotomy was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 59,955 patients were included. Median age was 50 years and 51.3% were women. POTTER predicted mortality (c-statistic = 0.93) and morbidity (c-statistic = 0.83) extremely well. Among individual complications, POTTER had the highest performance in predicting septic shock (c-statistic = 0.93), respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation for 48 hours or longer (c-statistic = 0.92), and acute renal failure (c-statistic = 0.92). Among patients undergoing emergency laparotomy, the c-statistic performances of POTTER in predicting mortality and morbidity were 0.86 and 0.77, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: POTTER is an interpretable, accurate, and user-friendly predictor of 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing EGS. POTTER could prove useful for bedside counseling of patients and their families and for benchmarking of EGS care.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Benchmarking/métodos , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Benchmarking/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Árvores de Decisões , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Surg Res ; 264: A1-A9, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743995

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has made increasing inroads in clinical medicine. In surgery, machine learning-based algorithms are being studied for use as decision aids in risk prediction and even for intraoperative applications, including image recognition and video analysis. While AI has great promise in surgery, these algorithms come with a series of potential pitfalls that cannot be ignored as hospital systems and surgeons consider implementing these technologies. The aim of this review is to discuss the progress, promise, and pitfalls of AI in surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/tendências , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(5): 671-680, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of emergency general surgery (EGS) studies that use the American College of Surgeons-National Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database is variable. We aimed to critically appraise the methodologic reporting of EGS ACS-NSQIP studies. STUDY DESIGN: We searched the PubMed ACS-NSQIP bibliography for EGS studies published from 2004 to 2019. The quality of reporting of each study was assessed according to the number of criteria fulfilled with respect to the 13-item RECORD statement and the 10-item JAMA Surgery checklist. Three criteria in each checklist were not applicable and were therefore excluded. An analysis was conducted comparing studies published in high and low impact factor (IF) journals. RESULTS: We identified a total of 99 eligible studies. Twenty-six percent of studies were published in high IF journals, and 73% of the journals had a policy requiring adherence to reporting statements. The median number of criteria fulfilled for the RECORD statement (out of 10 items) and the JAMA Surgery checklist (out of 7 items) were both equal to 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 3, 5). Sixty-three percent of studies did not explain the methodology for data cleaning, 81% of studies did not describe the population selection process, and 55% did not discuss the implications of missing variables. There were no differences in overall scores between studies published in high and low IF journals. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic reporting of EGS studies using ACS-NSQIP remains suboptimal. Future efforts should focus on improving adherence to the policies to mitigate potential sources of bias and improve the credibility of large database studies.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Bibliografias como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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