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1.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128193, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297158

RESUMO

The interfacial tracer test (ITT) conducted via aqueous miscible-displacement column experiments is one of a few methods available to measure air-water interfacial areas for porous media. The primary objective of this study was to examine the robustness of air-water interfacial area measurements obtained with interfacial tracer tests, and to examine the overall validity of the method. The potential occurrence and impact of surfactant-induced flow was investigated, as was measurement replication. The column and the effluent samples were weighed during the tests to monitor for potential changes in water saturation and flux. Minimal changes in water saturation and flux were observed for experiments wherein steady flow conditions were maintained using a vacuum-chamber system. The air-water interfacial areas measured with the miscible-displacement method completely matched interfacial areas measured with methods that are not influenced by surfactant-induced flow. This successful benchmarking was observed for all three media tested, and over a range of saturations. A mathematical model explicitly accounting for nonlinear and rate-limited adsorption of surfactant at the solid-water and air-water interfaces as well as the influence of changes in surface tension on matric potentials and flow was used to simulate the tracer tests. The independently-predicted simulations provided excellent matches to the measured data, and revealed that the use of the vacuum system minimized the occurrence of surfactant-induced flow and its associated effects. These results in total unequivocally demonstrate that the miscible-displacement ITT method produced accurate and robust measurements of air-water interfacial area under the extant conditions.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Água , Modelos Teóricos , Porosidade , Tensão Superficial
2.
Chemosphere ; 2632021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184521

RESUMO

The interfacial tracer test (ITT) conducted via aqueous miscible-displacement column experiments is one of a few methods available to measure air-water interfacial areas for porous media. The primary objective of this study was to examine the robustness of air-water interfacial area measurements obtained with interfacial tracer tests, and to examine the overall validity of the method. The potential occurrence and impact of surfactant-induced flow was investigated, as was measurement replication. The column and the effluent samples were weighed during the tests to monitor for potential changes in water saturation and flux. Minimal changes in water saturation and flux were observed for experiments wherein steady flow conditions were maintained using a vacuum-chamber system. The air-water interfacial areas measured with the miscible-displacement method completely matched interfacial areas measured with methods that are not influenced by surfactant-induced flow. This successful benchmarking was observed for all three media tested, and over a range of saturations. A mathematical model explicitly accounting for nonlinear and rate-limited adsorption of surfactant at the solid-water and air-water interfaces as well as the influence of changes in surface tension on matric potentials and flow was used to simulate the tracer tests. The independently-predicted simulations provided excellent matches to the measured data, and revealed that the use of the vacuum system minimized the occurrence of surfactant-induced flow and its associated effects. These results in total unequivocally demonstrate that the miscible-displacement ITT method produced accurate and robust measurements of air-water interfacial area under the extant conditions.


Assuntos
Ar/análise , Água/química , Adsorção , Benchmarking , Modelos Teóricos , Fenômenos Físicos , Porosidade , Tensão Superficial , Tensoativos/química
3.
Chemosphere ; 127: 208-13, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25732632

RESUMO

Interfacial partitioning tracer tests (IPTT) are used to measure air-water interfacial area for unsaturated porous media. The standard IPTT method involves conducting tests wherein an aqueous surfactant solution is introduced into a packed column under unsaturated flow conditions. Surfactant-induced drainage has been observed to occur for this method in some cases, which can complicate data analysis and impart uncertainty to the measured values. Two novel alternative approaches for conducting IPTTs are presented herein that are designed in part to prevent surfactant-induced drainage. The two methods are termed the dual-surfactant IPTT (IPTT-DS) and the residual-air IPTT (IPTT-RA). The two methods were used to measure air-water interfacial areas for two natural porous media. System monitoring during the tests revealed no measurable surfactant-induced drainage. The measured interfacial areas compared well to those obtained with the standard IPTT method conducted in such a manner that surfactant-induced drainage was prevented.


Assuntos
Ar , Modelos Teóricos , Quartzo/química , Solo/química , Tensoativos/química , Água/química , Porosidade , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície , Movimentos da Água
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