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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834912

RESUMO

Increasing soil salinity due to global warming severely restricts crop growth and yield. To select and recommend salt-tolerant cultivars, extensive genotypic screening and examination of plants' morpho-physiological responses to salt stress are required. In this study, 18 prescreened maize hybrid cultivars were examined at the early growth stage under a hydroponic system using multivariate analysis to demonstrate the genotypic and phenotypic variations of the selected cultivars under salt stress. The seedlings of all maize cultivars were evaluated with two salt levels: control (without NaCl) and salt stress (12 dS m-1 simulated with NaCl) for 28 d. A total of 18 morpho-physiological and ion accumulation traits were dissected using multivariate analysis, and salt tolerance index (STI) values of the examined traits were evaluated for grouping of cultivars into salt-tolerant and -sensitive groups. Salt stress significantly declined all measured traits except root-shoot ratio (RSR), while the cultivars responded differently. The cultivars were grouped into three clusters and the cultivars in Cluster-1 such as Prabhat, UniGreen NK41, Bisco 51, UniGreen UB100, Bharati 981 and Star Beej 7Star exhibited salt tolerance to a greater extent, accounting for higher STI in comparison to other cultivars grouped in Cluster-2 and Cluster-3. The high heritability (h2bs, >60%) and genetic advance (GAM, >20%) were recorded in 13 measured traits, indicating considerable genetic variations present in these traits. Therefore, using multivariate analysis based on the measured traits, six hybrid maize cultivars were selected as salt-tolerant and some traits such as Total Fresh Weight (TFW), Total Dry Weight (TDW), Total Na+, Total K+ contents and K+-Na+ Ratio could be effectively used for the selection criteria evaluating salt-tolerant maize genotypes at the early seedling stage.

2.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 210: 112228, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839049

RESUMO

Follow up of neuronal disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases using simple, sensitive, and selective assays is urgently needed in clinical and research investigation. Here, we designed a sensitive and selective enzymeless electrochemical acetylcholine sensor that can be used in human fluid samples. The designed electrode consisted of a micro spherical construction of Cu-metal decorated by a thin layer of carbon (CuMS@C). A simple and one-pot synthesis approach was used for Cu-metal controller formation with a spherical like structures. The spherical like structure was formed with rough outer surface texture, circular build up, homogeneous formation, micrometric spheres size (0.5 -1 µm), and internal hollow structure. The formation of a thin layer of carbon materials on the surface of CuMS sustained the catalytic activity of Cu atoms and enriched negatively charge of the surface. CuMS@C acted as a highly active mediator surface that consisted of Cu metal as a highly active catalyst and carbons as protecting, charge transport, and attractive surface. Therefore, the CuMS@C surface morphology and composition played a key role in various aspects such as facilitated ACh diffusion/loading, increased the interface surface area, and enhanced the catalytic activity. The CuMS@C acted as an electroactive catalyst for ACh electrooxidation and current production, due to the losing of two electrons. The fabricated CuMS@C could be a highly sensitive and selective enzymeless sensor for detecting ACh with a detection limit of 0.1 µM and a wide linear range of 0.01 - 0.8 mM. The designed ACh sensor assay based on CuMS@C exhibited fast sensing property as well as sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reusability for detecting ACh in human serum samples. This work presents the design of a highly active electrode surface for direct detection of ACh and further clinical investigation of ACh levels.

3.
Insects ; 12(11)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821796

RESUMO

Cotton is a major crop of Pakistan, and Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of cotton. Due to the unwise and indiscriminate use of insecticides, resistance develops more readily in the whitefly. The present study was conducted to evaluate the resistance development in the whitefly against the different insecticides that are still in use. For this purpose, the whitefly population was selected with five concentrations of each insecticide, for five generations. At G1, compared with the laboratory susceptible population, a very low level of resistance was observed against bifenthrin, cypermethrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, chlorfenapyr, and buprofezin with a resistance ratio of 3-fold, 2-fold, 1-fold, 4-fold, 3-fold, 3-fold, 3-fold, and 3-fold, respectively. However, the selection for five generations increased the resistance to a very high level against buprofezin (127-fold), and to a high level against imidacloprid (86-fold) compared with the laboratory susceptible population. While, a moderate level of resistance was observed against cypermethrin (34-fold), thiamethoxam (34-fold), nitenpyram (30-fold), chlorfenapyr (29-fold), and acetamiprid (21-fold). On the other hand, the resistance was low against bifenthrin (18-fold) after selection for five generations. A very low level of resistance against the field population of B. tabaci, at G1, showed that these insecticides are still effective, and thus can be used under the field conditions for the management of B. tabaci. However, the proper rotation of insecticides among different groups can help to reduce the development of resistance against insecticides.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 227: 112921, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678626

RESUMO

In recent years, improving plants' resistance towards abiotic stresses with exogenous application of plant growth regulators and nutrients has emerged as a matter of great interest. The present study assessed the potential roles of kinetin (Kn, 0.2 mM) and calcium (Ca, 2 mM) in mitigating the salt (200 mM NaCl) induced inhibitory effects on seed germination and growth of choysum seedlings. The results indicated that NaCl stress significantly reduced the seed germination percentage (42.6%), germination potential (42.0%), germination index (52.1%), seedling vigor index (65.2%), and declined the fresh weight (43.8%), dry weight (52.2%), radicle length (37.2%), and plumule length (41.2%) of germinated seeds, compared to control treatment. The delayed germination and decrease in seedling growth were positively correlated with salinity-induced hormonal imbalance, ion toxicity, and oxidative stress. However, Kn and Ca pretreatment partially mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl stress, evident by early germination and enhanced seedling growth. Kn and Ca effectively increased the accumulation of proline, soluble protein, and soluble sugars, and upregulated the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase that significantly reduced the production of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anions in germinating seeds, thereby minimizing the NaCl-induced oxidative damages. Moreover, Kn and Ca pretreatment counteracted the NaCl-induced ionic toxicity by decreasing Na+ and increasing K+ contents and maintained a balanced Na+/K+ ratio in radicles and plumules of choysum seeds. Additionally, Kn and Ca under NaCl stress enhanced hormonal regulation by decreasing the ABA levels with a concomitant increase of GAs (especially GA4) levels and promoted early germination. Remarkably, the co-application of Kn and Ca was most effective by completely counteracting the inhibitory effects of NaCl and maintaining seed germination kinetics, seedling growth, and biochemical parameters almost similar to that in the stress-free control treatment. These results demonstrate that supplementation of Kn and Ca on choysum seeds is an effective chemical strategy regulating the various physiological and biochemical responses that would result in better germination and growth of seeds under stress conditions.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa , Plântula , Antioxidantes , Cálcio , Germinação , Cinetina/farmacologia , Sementes , Cloreto de Sódio
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 670369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484254

RESUMO

In the era of rapid climate change, abiotic stresses are the primary cause for yield gap in major agricultural crops. Among them, salinity is considered a calamitous stress due to its global distribution and consequences. Salinity affects plant processes and growth by imposing osmotic stress and destroys ionic and redox signaling. It also affects phytohormone homeostasis, which leads to oxidative stress and eventually imbalances metabolic activity. In this situation, signaling compound crosstalk such as gasotransmitters [nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium (Ca), reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and plant growth regulators (auxin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid) have a decisive role in regulating plant stress signaling and administer unfavorable circumstances including salinity stress. Moreover, recent significant progress in omics techniques (transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have helped to reinforce the deep understanding of molecular insight in multiple stress tolerance. Currently, there is very little information on gasotransmitters and plant growth regulator crosstalk and inadequacy of information regarding the integration of multi-omics technology during salinity stress. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the crucial cell signaling crosstalk mechanisms and integrative multi-omics techniques to provide a more direct approach for salinity stress tolerance. To address the above-mentioned words, this review covers the common mechanisms of signaling compounds and role of different signaling crosstalk under salinity stress tolerance. Thereafter, we mention the integration of different omics technology and compile recent information with respect to salinity stress tolerance.

6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(9): 5268-5274, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466105

RESUMO

Ginger is used as one of the important ingredients in traditional as well as modern medicine besides as a spice. It boosts immunity and is a rich source of many biologically active substances and minerals. Although it is a medicinally important crop, its productivity is, however, affected due to poor nutrient management and therefore it requires an adequate supply of nutrients in the form of inorganic fertilizers or organic manuring, or a mixture of both. In this context, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of mineral fertilizers on the content of mineral elements in the ginger rhizome, on soil enzyme activity, and soil properties. Lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology, Kibray, Tashkent region, Uzbekistan. The experiment comprised of four treatments T1 - Control, T2 - N75P50K50 kg/ha, T3 - and T4 - N100P75K75 + B3Zn6Fe6 kg/ha. The results showed that the application of N125P100K100 kg/ha increased rhizome K content by 49%, P content by 20%, and Na content by 58% as compared to control without fertilizer. While the application of N100P75K75 + B3Zn6Fe6 kg/ha showed a significant enhancement in rhizome K, Ca, P, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mo, and Si contents over the control. This treatment also improved active P content by 29%, total P content by 80%, total K content 16%, and N content by 33% content, and the activities of urease, invertase, and catalase activities as compared to control of without mineral fertilizer and control respectively. Thus the application of NPK + BZnFe at the rate of 100:75:75:3:6:6 kg/ha helps in improving macroelements and microelements in the ginger rhizome and activities of soil enzymes that helps in mineral nutrition of the rhizome.

7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199536

RESUMO

Accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) by ornamental plants (OPs) from contaminated agriculture soils is a unique technique that can efficiently reduce the metal load in the food chain. Amaranthus tricolor L. has attractive characteristics acquiring a higher growth rate and large biomass when grown at heavy metal contaminated soils. Site-specific detailed information is not available on the use of A. tricolor plant in metal phytoremediation from the polluted sites. The study aimed to enhance the uptake of HMs (Pb, Zn, and Cu) via amending poultry litter extract (PLE), vinasse sugarcane (VSC), and humic acid (HA) as natural mobilized organic materials compared to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), as a common mobilized chemical agent by A. tricolor plant. The studied soils collected from Helwan, El-Gabal El-Asfar (Cairo Governorate), Arab El-Madabeg (Assiut Governorate), Egypt, and study have been conducted under pot condition. Our results revealed all organic materials in all studied soils, except EDTA in EL-Gabal El-Asfar soil, significantly increased the dry weight of the A. tricolor plant compared to the control treatment. The uptake of Pb and Zn significantly (p > 0.05) increased due to applying all organic materials to the studied soils. HA application caused the highest uptake as shown in Pb concentration by more than 5 times in Helwan soil and EDTA by 65% in El-Gabal El-Asfar soil while VSC increased it by 110% in El-Madabeg soil. Also, an increase in Zn concentration due to EDTA application was 58, 42, and 56% for Helwan, El-Gabal El-Asfar, and El-Madabeg soil, respectively. In all studied soils, the application of organic materials increased the remediation factor (RF) than the control. El-Madabeg soil treated with vinasse sugarcane gave the highest RF values; 6.40, 3.26, and 4.02% for Pb, Zn, and Cu, respectively, than the control. Thus, we identified A. tricolor as a successful ornamental candidate that, along with organic mobilization amendments, most efficiently develop soil health, reduce metal toxicity, and recommend remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. Additionally, long-term application of organic mobilization amendments and continued growth of A. tricolor under field conditions could be recommended for future directions to confirm the results.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Amaranthus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Ácido Edético/química , Egito , Substâncias Húmicas/análise
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic mulches are widely used in crop production systems. Due to their benefits in improving soil fertility, retention of soil moisture and weed control. Field experiments were conducted during wheat growing seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 to evaluate the effects of Jatropha leaves mulch on the growth of wheat varieties 'Wadan-17' (rainfed) and 'Pirsabaq-2013' (irrigated) under well irrigated and water stress conditions (non-irrigated maintaining 40% soil field capacity). Jatropha mulch was applied to the soil surface at 0, 1, 3 and 5 Mg ha-1 before sowing grains in the field. Under conditions of water stress, Jatropha mulch significantly maintained the soil moisture content necessary for normal plant growth. RESULTS: We noted a decrease in plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area, leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll, and carotenoid content due to water stress. However, water stress caused an increase in leaf and root phenolics content, leaf soluble sugars and electrolytes leakage. We observed that Jatropha mulch maintained LRWC, plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content under water stress. Moreover, water stress adverse effects on leaf soluble sugar content and electrolyte leakage were reversed to normal by Jatropha mulch. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it may be concluded that Jatropha leaves mulch will minimize water stress adverse effects on wheat by maintaining soil moisture and plant water status.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Jatropha , Folhas de Planta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070241

RESUMO

Lipoic acid (LA) and melatonin (MT) are pleiotropic molecules participating in plant stress resistance by modulating cellular biochemical changes, ion homeostasis, and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the combined role of these two molecules in counteracting the detrimental impacts of salinity stress is still unknown. In the present study, we determined the effects of exogenous LA (0.5 µM), MT (1 µM) and their combination (LA + MT) on growth performance and biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, and ions homeostatic in canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings under salinity stress (0, 100 mM) for 40 days. The results indicate that exogenous application of LA + MT improved the phenotypic growth (by 25 to 45%), root thickness (by 68%), number of later lateral roots (by 52%), root viability (by 44%), and root length (by 50%) under salinity stress. Moreover, total soluble protein, chlorophyll pigments, the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase peroxidase (CAT), and ascorbic peroxidase (ASA) increased with the presence of salt concentration into the growth media and then decreased with the addition of LA + MT to saline solution. Leaf protein contents and the degradation of photosynthetic pigments were lower when LA + MT treatments were added into NaCl media. The proline and phenol contents decreased in the exogenous application of LA + MT treatments more than individual LA or MT treatments under the salinity stress. The incorporation of LA or MT or a combination of LA + MT to saline solution decreased salinity-induced malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage. In conclusion, the alteration of metabolic pathways, redox modulation, and ions homeostasis in plant tissues by the combined LA and MT application are helpful towards the adaptation of Brassica napus L. seedlings in a saline environment. The results of this study provide, for the first time, conclusive evidence about the protective role of exogenous LA + MT in canola seedlings under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072397

RESUMO

The formation of new scaffolds to enhance healing magnitude is necessarily required in biomedical applications. Granulation tissue formation is a crucial stage of wound healing in which granulation tissue grows on the surface of a wound by the formation of connective tissue and blood vessels. In the present study, porous hydrogels were synthesized using chitosan incorporating latex of the Calotropis procera plant by using a freeze-thaw cycle to stimulate the formation of granulation tissue and angiogenesis in wound healing applications. Structural analysis through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the interaction between chitosan and Calotropis procera. Latex extract containing hydrogel showed slightly higher absorption than the control during water absorption analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis showed high thermal stability of the 60:40 combination of chitosan (CS) and Calotropis procera as compared to all other treatments and controls. A fabricated scaffold application on a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) showed that all hydrogels containing latex extract resulted in a significant formation of blood vessels and regeneration of cells. Overall, the formation of connective tissues and blood capillaries and healing magnitude decreased in ascending order of concentration of extract.


Assuntos
Calotropis/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Hidrogéis/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Cicatrização , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/metabolismo , Congelamento , Látex/química , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polímeros/química , Regeneração , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073848

RESUMO

Genome-editing (GE) is having a tremendous influence around the globe in the life science community. Among its versatile uses, the desired modifications of genes, and more importantly the transgene (DNA)-free approach to develop genetically modified organism (GMO), are of special interest. The recent and rapid developments in genome-editing technology have given rise to hopes to achieve global food security in a sustainable manner. We here discuss recent developments in CRISPR-based genome-editing tools for crop improvement concerning adaptation, opportunities, and challenges. Some of the notable advances highlighted here include the development of transgene (DNA)-free genome plants, the availability of compatible nucleases, and the development of safe and effective CRISPR delivery vehicles for plant genome editing, multi-gene targeting and complex genome editing, base editing and prime editing to achieve more complex genetic engineering. Additionally, new avenues that facilitate fine-tuning plant gene regulation have also been addressed. In spite of the tremendous potential of CRISPR and other gene editing tools, major challenges remain. Some of the challenges are related to the practical advances required for the efficient delivery of CRISPR reagents and for precision genome editing, while others come from government policies and public acceptance. This review will therefore be helpful to gain insights into technological advances, its applications, and future challenges for crop improvement.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9445, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941790

RESUMO

Bacterial spot, caused by a group of Xanthomonads (Xanthomonas spp.), is a devastating disease. It can adversely affect the Capsicum annum productivity. Scientists are working on the role of antioxidants to meet this challenge. However, research is lacking on the role of antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the non-compatible pathogen and host plant interaction and resistance mechanisms in capsicum varieties. The present study was conducted to ascertain the defensive role of antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in chilli varieties Hybrid, Desi, Serrano, Padron, and Shehzadi against bacterial spot disease-induced Xanthomonas sp. The seedlings were inoculated with bacterial pathogen @ 107 CFU/mL, and samples were harvested after regular intervals of 24 h for 4 days followed by inoculation. Total plant proteins were extracted in phosphate buffer and quantified through Bradford assay. The crude protein extracts were analyzed through quantitative enzymatic assays in order to document activity levels of various antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT), Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, the profiles appearance of these enzymes and their isoforms were determined using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. These enzymes exhibited maximum activity in Hybrid (HiR) cultivar followed by Desi (R), Serrano (S), Padron, and Shehzadi (HS). Both the number of isoforms and expression levels were higher in highly resistant cultivars compared to susceptible and highly susceptible cultivars. The induction of POD, CAT, and SOD occurs at the early stages of growth in resistant Capsicum cultivars. At the same time, APX seems to make the second line of antioxidant defense mechanisms. We found that modulating antioxidant enzymes and isoforms activity at the seedling stage was an important mechanism for mitigating plant growth inhibition in the resistant ones.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Capsicum/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catalase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
13.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803724

RESUMO

Drought poses a serious threat to oilseed crops by lowering yield and crop failures under prolonged spells. A multi-year field investigation was conducted to enhance the drought tolerance in four genotypes of Camelina and canola by selenium (Se) application. The principal aim of the research was to optimize the crop yield by eliciting the physio-biochemical attributes by alleviating the adverse effects of drought stress. Both crops were cultivated under control (normal irrigation) and drought stress (skipping irrigation at stages i.e., vegetative and reproductive) conditions. Four different treatments of Se viz., seed priming with Se (75 µM), foliar application of Se (7.06 µM), foliar application of Se + Seed priming with Se (7.06 µM and 75 µM, respectively) and control (without Se), were implemented at the vegetative and reproductive stages of both crops. Sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), an inorganic compound was used as Se sources for both seed priming and foliar application. Data regarding physiochemical, antioxidants, and yield components were recorded as response variables at crop maturity. Results indicated that WP, OP, TP, proline, TSS, TFAA, TPr, TS, total chlorophyll contents, osmoprotectant (GB, anthocyanin, TPC, and flavonoids), antioxidants (APX, SOD, POD, and CAT), and yield components (number of branches per plant, thousand seed weight, seed, and biological yields were significantly improved by foliar Se + priming Se in both crops under drought stress. Moreover, this treatment was also helpful in boosting yield attributes under irrigated (non-stress) conditions. Camelina genotypes responded better to Se application as seed priming and foliar spray than canola for both years. It has concluded that Se application (either foliar or priming) can potentially alleviate adverse effects of drought stress in camelina and canola by eliciting various physio-biochemicals attributes under drought stress. Furthermore, Se application was also helpful for crop health under irrigated condition.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/análise , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Osmorregulação , Paquistão , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802758

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) toxicity represents a global problem depending on the soil environment's geochemical forms. Biochar addition safely reduces HMs mobile forms, thus, reducing their toxicity to plants. While several studies have shown that biochar could significantly stabilize HMs in contaminated soils, the study of the relationship of soil properties to potential mechanisms still needs further clarification; hence the importance of assessing a naturally contaminated soil amended, in this case with Paulownia biochar (PB) and Bamboo biochar (BB) to fractionate Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu using short sequential fractionation plans. The relationship of soil pH and organic matter and its effect on the redistribution of these metals were estimated. The results indicated that the acid-soluble metals decreased while the fraction bound to organic matter increased compared to untreated pots. The increase in the organic matter metal-bound was mostly at the expense of the decrease in the acid extractable and Fe/Mn bound ones. The highest application of PB increased the organically bound fraction of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu (62, 61, 34, and 61%, respectively), while the BB increased them (61, 49, 42, and 22%, respectively) over the control. Meanwhile, Fe/Mn oxides bound represents the large portion associated with zinc and copper. Concerning soil organic matter (SOM) and soil pH, as potential tools to reduce the risk of the target metals, a significant positive correlation was observed with acid-soluble extractable metal, while a negative correlation was obtained with organic matter-bound metal. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the total variance represents 89.7% for the TCPL-extractable and HMs forms and their relation to pH and SOM, which confirms the positive effect of the pH and SOM under PB and BB treatments on reducing the risk of the studied metals. The mobility and bioavailability of these metals and their geochemical forms widely varied according to pH, soil organic matter, biochar types, and application rates. As an environmentally friendly and economical material, biochar emphasizes its importance as a tool that makes the soil more suitable for safe cultivation in the short term and its long-term sustainability. This study proves that it reduces the mobility of HMs, their environmental risks and contributes to food safety. It also confirms that performing more controlled experiments, such as a pot, is a disciplined and effective way to assess the suitability of different types of biochar as soil modifications to restore HMs contaminated soil via controlling the mobilization of these minerals.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Metais Pesados/química , Solo/química , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/isolamento & purificação , Cobre/química , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Cobre/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lamiales/química , Chumbo/química , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Chumbo/metabolismo , Compostos de Manganês/química , Compostos de Manganês/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Sasa/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Zinco/química , Zinco/isolamento & purificação , Zinco/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925107

RESUMO

Soil salinity disrupts the physiological and biochemical processes of crop plants and ultimately leads to compromising future food security. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a contributor to nitric oxide (NO), holds the potential to alleviate abiotic stress effects and boost tolerance in plants, whereas less information is available on its role in salt-stressed lentils. We examined the effect of exogenously applied SNP on salt-stressed lentil plants by monitoring plant growth and yield-related attributes, biochemistry of enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD)) amassing of leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Salinity stress was induced by NaCl application at concentrations of 50 mM (moderate salinity) and 100 mM (severe salinity), while it was alleviated by SNP application at concentrations of 50 µM and 100 µM. Salinity stress severely inhibited the length of roots and shoots, the relative water content, and the chlorophyll content of the leaves, the number of branches, pods, seeds, seed yield, and biomass per plant. In addition, MDA, H2O2 as well as SOD, CAT, and POD activities were increased with increasing salinity levels. Plants supplemented with SNP (100 µM) showed a significant improvement in the growth- and yield-contributing parameters, especially in plants grown under moderate salinity (50 mM NaCl). Essentially, the application of 100 µM SNP remained effective to rescue lentil plants under moderate salinity by regulating plant growth and biochemical pathways. Thus, the exogenous application of SNP could be developed as a useful strategy for improving the performance of lentil plants in salinity-prone environments.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Lens (Planta)/fisiologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lens (Planta)/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 767150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975951

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the decisive environmental factors that is projected to increase by 1. 5°C over the next two decades due to climate change that may affect various agronomic characteristics, such as biomass production, phenology and physiology, and yield-contributing traits in oilseed crops. Oilseed crops such as soybean, sunflower, canola, peanut, cottonseed, coconut, palm oil, sesame, safflower, olive etc., are widely grown. Specific importance is the vulnerability of oil synthesis in these crops against the rise in climatic temperature, threatening the stability of yield and quality. The natural defense system in these crops cannot withstand the harmful impacts of heat stress, thus causing a considerable loss in seed and oil yield. Therefore, a proper understanding of underlying mechanisms of genotype-environment interactions that could affect oil synthesis pathways is a prime requirement in developing stable cultivars. Heat stress tolerance is a complex quantitative trait controlled by many genes and is challenging to study and characterize. However, heat tolerance studies to date have pointed to several sophisticated mechanisms to deal with the stress of high temperatures, including hormonal signaling pathways for sensing heat stimuli and acquiring tolerance to heat stress, maintaining membrane integrity, production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assembly of antioxidants, accumulation of compatible solutes, modified gene expression to enable changes, intelligent agricultural technologies, and several other agronomic techniques for thriving and surviving. Manipulation of multiple genes responsible for thermo-tolerance and exploring their high expressions greatly impacts their potential application using CRISPR/Cas genome editing and OMICS technology. This review highlights the latest outcomes on the response and tolerance to heat stress at the cellular, organelle, and whole plant levels describing numerous approaches applied to enhance thermos-tolerance in oilseed crops. We are attempting to critically analyze the scattered existing approaches to temperature tolerance used in oilseeds as a whole, work toward extending studies into the field, and provide researchers and related parties with useful information to streamline their breeding programs so that they can seek new avenues and develop guidelines that will greatly enhance ongoing efforts to establish heat stress tolerance in oilseeds.

17.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374424

RESUMO

Drought is the most challenging abiotic stress for rice production in the world. Thus, developing new rice genotype tolerance to water scarcity is one of the best strategies to achieve and maximize high yield potential with water savings. The study aims to characterize 16 rice genotypes for grain and agronomic parameters under normal and drought stress conditions, and genetic differentiation, by determining specific DNA markers related to drought tolerance using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers and grouping cultivars, establishing their genetic relationship for different traits. The experiment was conducted under irrigated (normal) and water stress conditions. Mean squares due to genotype × environment interactions were highly significant for major traits. For the number of panicles/plants, the genotypes Giza179, IET1444, Hybrid1, and Hybrid2 showed the maximum mean values. The required sterility percentage values were produced by genotypes IET1444, Giza178, Hybrid2, and Giza179, while, Sakha101, Giza179, Hybrid1, and Hybrid2 achieved the highest values of grain yield/plant. The genotypes Giza178, Giza179, Hybrid1, and Hybrid2, produced maximum values for water use efficiency. The effective number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.20 alleles to 3.0 alleles with an average of 1.28 alleles, and the He values for all SSR markers used varied from 0.94 to 1.00 with an average of 0.98. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values for the SSR were varied from 0.83 to 0.99, with an average of 0.95 along with a highly significant correlation between PIC values and the number of amplified alleles detected per locus. The highest similarity coefficient between Giza181 and Giza182 (Indica type) was observed and are susceptible to drought stress. High similarity percentage between the genotypes (japonica type; Sakha104 with Sakha102 and Sakha106 (0.45), Sakha101 with Sakha102 and Sakha106 (0.40), Sakha105 with Hybrid1 (0.40), Hybrid1 with Giza178 (0.40) and GZ1368-S-5-4 with Giza181 (0.40)) was also observed, which are also susceptible to drought stress. All genotypes are grouped into two major clusters in the dendrogram at 66% similarity based on Jaccard's similarity index. The first cluster (A) was divided into two minor groups A1 and A2, in which A1 had two groups A1-1 and A1-2, containing drought-tolerant genotypes like IET1444, GZ1386-S-5-4 and Hybrid1. On the other hand, the A1-2 cluster divided into A1-2-1 containing Hybrid2 genotype and A1-2-2 containing Giza179 and Giza178 at coefficient 0.91, showing moderate tolerance to drought stress. The genotypes GZ1368-S-5-4, IET1444, Giza 178, and Giza179, could be included as appropriate materials for developing a drought-tolerant variety breeding program. Genetic diversity to grow new rice cultivars that combine drought tolerance with high grain yields is essential to maintaining food security.

18.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114440

RESUMO

Declining rate of productivity and environmental sustainability is forcing growers to use organic manures as a source of nutrient supplement in maize farming. However, weed is a major constraint to maize production. A field study was carried out over two seasons to evaluate various integrated nutrient and weed management practices in hybrid maize. The treatment combinations comprised of supplementation of inorganic fertilizer (25% nitrogen) through bulky (Farmyard manure and vermicompost) and concentrated (Brassicaceous seed meal (BSM) and neem cake (NC)) organic manures and different mode of weed management practices like chemical (atrazine 1000 g ha-1) and integrated approach (atrazine 1000 g ha-1 followed by mechanical weeding). Repeated supplementation of nitrogen through concentrated organic manures reduced the density and biomass accumulation of most dominant weed species, Anagalis arvensis by releasing allelochemicals into the soil. But organic manures had no significant impact on restricting the growth of bold seeded weeds like Vicia hirsuta and weed propagated through tubers i.e., Cyperus rotundus in maize. By restricting the weed growth and nutrient removal by most dominating weeds, application of BSM enhanced the growth and yield of maize crop. Repeated addition of organic manures (BSM) enhanced the maize grain yield by 19% over sole chemical fertilizer in the second year of study. Application of atrazine as pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide significantly reduced the density of A. arvensis, whereas integration of mechanical weeding following herbicide controlled those weeds which were not usually controlled with the application of atrazine. As a result, atrazine at PRE followed by mechanical weeding produced the highest maize grain yield 6.81 and 7.10 t/ha in the first year and second year of study, respectively.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Esterco , Nutrientes/química , Plantas Daninhas/química , Zea mays/química , Atrazina/química , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Geografia , Herbicidas/química , Nitrogênio/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo
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