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1.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933390

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to describe the epidemiology of toxicological exposures reported to a telephonic medical toxicology service at a tertiary care center in Lebanon during a 46-months period.Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a database for a telephonic medical toxicology service at a tertiary care center in Lebanon. Clinical information from all pediatric and adult patients, presenting with intentional or unintentional toxicological exposure, was entered into the database by the medical toxicology team.Results: Four hundred and seventy-seven exposures were recorded from 1 March 2015 to 31 December 2018. Female patients were involved in 60.2% of cases. Children less than 5 years old constituted 23.5% of cases and adults aged 20-49 constituted 48.6%. Up to 51.6% of cases were intentional, with 37.7% resulting from suicidal attempts. The majority of patients displayed no effects (33.1%) or minor effects (39.2%). Almost half of patients were treated and discharged from the Emergency Department (ED) without further hospitalization, and another 18.9% of patients left the ED against medical advice. The most common pharmaceutical agents involved were sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics (14.7%), analgesics (12.6%) and antidepressants (11.3%). The most common non-pharmaceutical agents involved were household cleaning substances (8.0%), pesticides (5.2%) and bites and envenomations (3.8%).Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics, analgesics, antidepressants and household cleaning substances are the most common agents involved. Adult women and children ≤5 years old constitute a large portion of patients with toxicological exposures. Prevention strategies and policies should be implemented to mitigate these hazards.

2.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 385-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is an open-source database on terrorist incidents around the world since 1970, and it is maintained by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START; College Park, Maryland USA), a US Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence. The consortium reviews media reports to determine if an event meets eligibility to be categorized as a terrorism incident for entry into the database. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize chemical terrorism incidents reported to the GTD and understand more about the kinds of chemical agents used, the associated morbidity and mortality, the geography of incidents, and the intended targets. METHODS: Chemical terrorism incidents from 1970 through 2015 were analyzed by chemical agent category, injury and fatality, geographic region, and target. RESULTS: During the study period, 156,772 terrorism incidents were reported to the GTD, of which 292 (0.19%) met the inclusion criteria for analysis as a chemical terrorism incident. The reported chemical agent categories were: unknown chemical (30.5%); corrosives (23.3%); tear gas/mace (12.3%); unspecified gas (11.6%); cyanide (8.2%); pesticides (5.5%); metals (6.5%); and nerve gas (2.1%). On average, chemical terrorism incidents resulted in 51 injuries (mean range across agents: 2.5-1,622.0) and seven deaths (mean range across agents: 0.0-224.3) per incident. Nerve gas incidents (2.1%) had the highest mean number of injuries (n = 1,622) and fatalities (n = 224) per incident. The highest number of chemical terrorism incidents occurred in South Asia (29.5%), Western Europe (16.8%), and Middle East/North Africa (13.0%). The most common targets were private citizens (19.5%), of which groups of women (22.8%) were often the specific target. Incidents targeting educational institutions often specifically targeted female students or teachers (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Chemical terrorism incidents rarely occur; however, the use of certain chemical terrorism agents, for example nerve gas, can cause large mass-causality events that can kill or injure thousands with a single use. Certain regions of the world had higher frequency of chemical terrorism events overall, and also varied in their frequencies of the specific chemical terrorism agent used. Data suggest that morbidity and mortality vary by chemical category and by region. Results may be helpful in developing and optimizing regional chemical terrorism preparedness activities.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Terrorismo Químico/estatística & dados numéricos , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
3.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(1): 56-59, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929405

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Trazodone is an atypical antidepressant with no established safety in children. Previous case reports showed no complications at doses 50-500 mg in children. Our study objective is to characterize the clinical effects, dose-related toxicity, and establish triage dose for acute trazodone ingestions in children ≤6 years of age. METHODS: Cases with acute trazodone ingestions in children ≤6 years of age between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were analyzed for dose (mg/kg), clinical effects, management site, treatment, and outcome. Cases with coingestions, unknown outcome, or unknown dose were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 84 patients (mean age 26.7 months, 35 females, 49 males) were included. Of those, 52 (61.9%) had no clinical effects; 29 (34.5%) had minor effects (vomiting, dizziness, headache); and three (3.6%) had moderate effects (ataxia, slurred speech, priapism). No major effects or deaths were observed. Moderate effects were manifested at doses ≥6.9 mg/kg. Priapism occurred in a 2-year-old child at a dose of 6.9 mg/kg. Sixteen (19%) patients were managed at home and 68 (81%) patients were referred to a HCF. Among those referred to a HCF, three (4.4%) patients had moderate effects with ingested dose ≥6.9 mg/kg. However, 27 (39.7%) patients of those referred to a HCF had an ingested dose <6 mg/kg and none of them manifested symptoms beyond minor effects. All referred patients had uneventful recovery and no sequela. CONCLUSIONS: Children should be referred for further evaluation in acute unintentional trazodone ingestions with doses ≥6 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Trazodona/envenenamento , Triagem , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trazodona/administração & dosagem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(30): 815-818, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070980

RESUMO

Tianeptine (marketed as Coaxil or Stablon) is an atypical tricyclic drug used as an antidepressant in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In the United States, tianeptine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medical use and is an unscheduled pharmaceutical agent* (1). Animal and human studies show that tianeptine is an opioid receptor agonist (2). Several case studies have reported severe adverse effects and even death from recreational abuse of tianeptine (3-5). To characterize tianeptine exposures in the United States, CDC analyzed all exposure calls related to tianeptine reported by poison control centers to the National Poison Data System (NPDS)† during 2000-2017. Tianeptine exposure calls, including those for intentional abuse or misuse, increased across the United States during 2014-2017, suggesting a possible emerging public health risk. Most tianeptine exposures occurred among persons aged 21-40 years and resulted in moderate outcomes. Neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal signs and symptoms were the most commonly reported health effects, with some effects mimicking opioid toxicity. A substantial number of tianeptine exposure calls also reported clinical effects of withdrawal. Among 83 tianeptine exposures with noted coexposures, the most commonly reported coexposures were to phenibut, ethanol, benzodiazepines, and opioids.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Tiazepinas/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the most common diagnoses for pediatric emergency department (ED) visits at a tertiary care center in Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients (aged ≤18 years) presenting to the American University of Beirut Medical Center ED during 2010-2011 was completed. The common diagnoses among 5 age groups (<1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years) in 3 categories (all pediatric ED visits, treat and release, admitted visits) were assessed. Diagnoses were classified according to the Clinical Classifications Software. Descriptive statistics and Pearson χ test were used. RESULTS: A total of 12,637 pediatric ED visits were included. The majority (90.2%) were among the treat-and-release group. The mean age for all patients was 7.2 years, 57.1% of whom were males. The top 5 most common diagnoses for all ED visits included fever of unknown origin, external injuries, upper respiratory tract infections, open wounds, and abdominal pain. Cardiac conditions were the most common reason for admission in children younger than 1 year, intestinal infection among 1 to 4 years old, pneumonia among 5 to 9 years old, and appendicitis among 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 years. Seasonal analysis showed fever of unknown origin to be the most common diagnosis across all seasons. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to assess pediatric ED visits in a Lebanese setting. The top most common reason was communicable diseases, with fever of unknown origin being the most common reason for all visits, contrary to North America where injury and poisoning are the most common. Noncommunicable diseases (cardiac, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, and appendicitis) were common reasons for admission in different age groups.

7.
J Emerg Trauma Shock ; 11(2): 119-124, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937642

RESUMO

Background: Snakebites lead to at least 421,000 envenomations and result in more than 20,000 deaths per year worldwide. Few reports exist in the Mediterranean region. This study describes demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes of snakebites in Lebanon. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients who presented with snakebite complaint to the emergency department between January 2000 and September 2014. Results: A total of 24 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 34.6 (±16.4) years and 58.3% were males. Local manifestations were documented in 15 (62.5%) patients, systemic effects in 10 (41.7%), hematologic abnormalities in 10 (41.7%), and neurologic effects in 4 (16.7%) patients. Nine patients (37.5%) received antivenom. The median amount of antivenom administered was 40 ml or 4 vials (range: 1-8 vials). About 50% of patients were admitted to the hospital with 75% to an Intensive Care Unit and 25% to a regular bed. All were discharged home with a median hospital length of stay of 4 (interquartile range 11) days. Among those admitted, seven patients (58.3%) had at least one documented complication (compartment syndrome, fasciotomy, intubation, deep vein thrombosis, coagulopathy, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, congestive heart failure, cellulitis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and vaginal bleeding). Conclusion: Victims of snakebites in Lebanon developed local, systemic, hematologic, or neurologic manifestations. Complications from snakebites were frequent despite antivenom administration. Larger studies are needed to assess the efficacy of available antivenom and to possibly create a local antivenom for the treatment of snakebites in Lebanon.

9.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 56(11): 1159-1161, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623731

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Across the world, tobacco is used in a variety of forms, including being smoked or added to a "quid" that is then chewed. We report a case of lead poisoning in a child from tobacco imported from Thailand. CASE DETAILS: A 12-year-old Thai immigrant boy had a blood lead level (BLL) of 6 mcg/dL on routine testing upon arrival to the United States, but which increased to 72 mcg/dL six months after his arrival. He was asymptomatic with unremarkable workup. At this time his father, mother and two siblings were also found to have elevated BLLs of 53, 16, 22, and 11 mcg/dL, respectively. Water, paint, food and cookware sources tested negative for lead, whereas samples of the father's dried tobacco leaves imported from Thailand contained 36.12 ppm (mcg/g) of lead. The mother admitted that both she and the patient used the tobacco as well. The child was chelated with oral succimer and his BLL decreased. DISCUSSION: In our case, the source of the lead exposure was from the tobacco that the patient was chewing. Tobacco is often overlooked as a source of lead exposure, though it has been reported in the literature, both from direct smoking and from chewing, as well as through secondhand smoke. Toxicologists and health care professionals should consider cultural practices when evaluating patients with elevated BLLs.


Assuntos
Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Chumbo/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etnologia , Chumbo/sangue , Succímero/uso terapêutico , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/química , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/etnologia
10.
J Emerg Trauma Shock ; 11(1): 4-9, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628662

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) is an essential tool for evaluating trauma patients in the hospital setting. Many previous in-hospital studies have been extrapolated to out of hospital setting to improve diagnostic accuracy in prehospital and austere environments. This review article presents the role of prehospital US in blunt and penetrating trauma management with emphasis on its current clinical applications, challenges, and future implications of such use.

11.
Emerg Med Int ; 2014: 438737, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25140255

RESUMO

Background. Thrombolytic therapy (rt-PA) is approved for ischemic stroke presenting within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset. The rate of utilization of rt-PA is not well described in developing countries. Objectives. Our study examined patient characteristics and outcomes in addition to barriers to rt-PA utilization in a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods. A retrospective chart review of all adult patients admitted to the emergency department during a one-year period (June 1st, 2009, to June 1st, 2010) with a final discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke was completed. Descriptive analysis was done followed by a comparison of two groups (IV rt-PA and no IV rt-PA). Results. During the study period, 87 patients met the inclusion criteria and thus were included in the study. The mean age was found to be 71.9 years (SD = 11.8). Most patients arrived by private transport (85.1%). Weakness and loss of speech were the most common presenting signs (56.3%). Thirty-three patients (37.9%) presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Nine patients (10.3%, 95% CI (5.5-18.5)) received rt-PA. The two groups (rt-PA versus non rt-PA) had similar outcomes (mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, modified Rankin scale scores, and residual deficit at hospital discharge). Conclusion. In our setting, rt-PA utilization was higher than expected. Delayed presentation was the main barrier to rt-PA administration. Public education regarding stroke is needed to decrease time from symptoms onset to ED presentation and potentially improve outcomes further.

12.
Skeletal Radiol ; 42(2): 297-301, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22936338

RESUMO

Closed flexor tendon rupture is an unusual condition that has been described in association with distinct underlying disease processes. Several theories have been implicated in the pathogenesis, including labor-associated forceful usage, gender, and age. The effect of diabetes on the native tendon tissue is not yet fully understood; however, the metabolic perturbations of diabetes have been shown to result in detrimental changes to the musculoskeletal system. We report an unusual case of bilateral spontaneous rupture of the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus in a 58-year-old woman with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The clinical course, radiographic findings, and the biomechanical factors and mechanisms through which diabetes may affect the native tendon are presented.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Traumatismos dos Dedos/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Ruptura Espontânea/patologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Traumatismos dos Dedos/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Ruptura Espontânea/complicações , Traumatismos dos Tendões/complicações
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