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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17610, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077800

RESUMO

Eight advanced durum-breeding lines were treated with 5-methyl-azacytidine to test the feasibility of generating sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. Of the 800 treated seeds, 415 germinated and were advanced up to four (M4) generations by selfing. Thirty-two of the resulting 415 M4 lines were selected following preliminary screening and were further tested for FHB resistance for three years at two field locations, and in the greenhouse. Five of the 32 M4 lines showed less than 30% disease severity, as compared to the parental lines and susceptible checks. Fusarium-damaged kernels and deoxynivalenol analyses supported the findings of the field and greenhouse disease assessments. Two of the most resistant M4 lines were crossed to a susceptible parent, advanced to third generation (BC1:F3) and were tested for stability and inheritance of the resistance. About, one third of the BC1:F3 lines showed FHB resistance similar to their M4 parents. The overall methylation levels (%) were compared using FASTmC method, which did not show a significant difference between M4 and parental lines. However, transcriptome analysis of one M4 line revealed significant number of differentially expressed genes related to biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, MAPK signaling, photosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction and plant-pathogen interaction pathways, which may have helped in improved FHB resistance.

2.
Brain Inj ; 34(9): 1229-1236, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the association between the Computed Tomography (CT) findings on admission, according to the Helsinki computed tomography CT score, and patient's Quality of Life (QoL) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Lebanon. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 49 males suffering from war induced TBI. Participants were stratified into two groups based on the date of injury. Helsinki CT score was calculated for CT scans of participants. Outcomes were assessed using QoL scales including the Project for the Epidemiological Analysis of Critical Care Patients scale (PAEEC). RESULTS: Correlation analysis showed that QoL, up to 4 years post-TBI, was significantly associated with Helsinki CT classification. Group 1 of subjects living with TBI for 1-2 years revealed a correlation coefficient r = 0.536, p-value = 0.027, whereas, group 2 including subjects who are injured since 3-4 years, had a correlation coefficient r = 0.565, p-value = 0.001. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that patients with traumatic brain injury experienced significant quality of life deterioration up to 4 years post-TBI. Our findings propose the important role of Helsinki score in predicting the quality of life among patients with TBI.

3.
Phytopathology ; 110(11): 1781-1790, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567977

RESUMO

The ascomycete fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is the causal agent of tan spot of wheat. The disease can occur on both common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and has potential to cause significant yield and quality losses. The fungal pathogen is known to produce necrotrophic effectors (NEs) that act as important virulence factors. Based on the NE production and virulence on a set of four differentials, P. tritici-repentis isolates have been classified into eight races. Race 4 produces no known NEs and is avirulent on the differentials. From a fungal collection in North Dakota, we identified several isolates that were classified as race 4. These isolates caused no or little disease on all common wheat lines including the differentials; however, they were virulent on some durum cultivars and tetraploid wheat accessions. Using two segregating tetraploid wheat populations and quantitative trait locus mapping, we identified several genomic regions significantly associated with disease caused by two of these isolates, some of which have not been previously reported. This is the first report that race 4 is virulent on tetraploid wheat, likely utilizing unidentified NEs. Our findings further highlight the insufficiency of the current race classification system for P. tritici-repentis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Triticum , Ascomicetos/genética , Humanos , North Dakota , Doenças das Plantas , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética
4.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 45(4): 547-553, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a permanent disability which negatively affects individuals' health and particularly their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of life (QoL) among Lebanese men with spinal cord injury and to compare it to a healthy control group. METHODS: A case control study was conducted. Fifty-one Lebanese patients with spinal cord injury and 51 age- sex-matched healthy persons were included in the study. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, the mean scores of eight domains of SF-36 were significantly lower in SCI group: physical functioning (PF) (26.5 vs 87; p value <0.0001), role limitations due to physical (RP) (57.8 vs 93.6; p value <0.0001), bodily pain (BP) (60.5 vs 90.7; p value, 0.0001), general health (GH) (49.5 vs 76.6; p value <0.0001), vitality (VT) (51.2 vs 71.3; p value <0.0001), social functioning (SF) (68.9 vs 91.2; p value <0.0001), role limitations due to emotional problems (RE) (71.2 vs 91.5; p value 0.003) and mental health (MH) (62.9 vs 79; p value <0.0001). Concerning PCS and MCS scores, SCI patients reported significantly lower scores than control group (p value <0.0001). CONCLUSION: Participants with SCI reported reduced QoL in comparison with normal individuals.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221826, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532783

RESUMO

The genetic gain in yield and quality are two major targets of wheat breeding programs around the world. In this study, a high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 SNP markers identified a total of 43 genomic regions associated with three quality traits, three yield traits and two agronomic traits in hard red spring wheat (HRSW). When compared with six grain shape and size traits, the quality traits showed mostly independent genetic control (~18% common loci), while the yield traits showed moderate association (~53% common loci). Association of genomic regions for grain area (GA) and thousand-grain weight (TGW), with yield suggests that targeting an increase in GA may help enhancing wheat yield through an increase in TGW. Flour extraction (FE), although has a weak positive phenotypic association with grain shape and size, they do not share any common genetic loci. A major contributor to plant height was the Rht8 locus and the reduced height allele was associated with significant increase in grains per spike (GPS) and FE, and decrease in number of spikes per square meter and test weight. Stable loci were identified for almost all the traits. However, we could not find any QTL in the region of major known genes like GPC-B1, Ha, Rht-1, and Ppd-1. Epistasis also played an important role in the genetics of majority of the traits. In addition to enhancing our knowledge about the association of wheat quality and yield with grain shape and size, this study provides novel loci, genetic information and pre-breeding material (combining positive alleles from both parents) to enhance the cultivated gene pool in wheat germplasm. These resources are valuable in facilitating molecular breeding for wheat quality and yield improvement.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epistasia Genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Front Genet ; 10: 717, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475032

RESUMO

Durum wheat [Triticum durum (Desf).] is mostly used to produce pasta, couscous, and bulgur. The quality of the grain and end-use products determine its market value. However, quality tests are highly resource intensive and almost impossible to conduct in the early generations in the breeding program. Modern genomics-based tools provide an excellent opportunity to genetically dissect complex quality traits to expedite cultivar development using molecular breeding approaches. This study used a panel of 243 cultivars and advanced breeding lines developed during the last 20 years to identify SNPs associated with 24 traits related to nutritional value and quality. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a total of 179 marker-trait associations (MTAs), located in 95 genomic regions belonging to all 14 durum wheat chromosomes. Major and stable QTLs were identified for gluten strength on chromosomes 1A and 1B, and for PPO activity on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 3A, and 3B. As a large amount of unbalance phenotypic data are generated every year on advanced lines in all the breeding programs, the applicability of such a dataset for identification of MTAs remains unclear. We observed that ∼84% of the MTAs identified using a historic unbalanced dataset (belonging to a total of 80 environments collected over a period of 16 years) were also identified in a balanced dataset. This suggests the suitability of historic unbalanced phenotypic data to identify beneficial MTAs to facilitate local-knowledge-based breeding. In addition to providing extensive knowledge about the genetics of quality traits, association mapping identified several candidate markers to assist durum wheat quality improvement through molecular breeding. The molecular markers associated with important traits could be extremely useful in the development of improved quality durum wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection (MAS).

7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(8): 2535-2547, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278174

RESUMO

Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Erikss. (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn (Pgt) are serious constraints to production of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L). The objective of this study was to identify leaf rust resistance (Lr) and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes/QTL in Portuguese durum landrace PI 192051. Four Pt-isolates, representing three virulence phenotypes (BBBQJ, BBBSJ & EEEEE) and six Pgt-races TTKSK, JRCQC, TKTTF, QFCFC, TPMKC and TMLKC were used to evaluate 180 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Rusty (rust susceptible) × PI 192051-1 (rust resistant) at the seedling stage. The RILs were also phenotyped at the adult-plant stage in a stem rust nursery in Ethiopia in 2017. The RILs were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect 9K wheat SNP array. PI 192051-1 carries a previously unidentified major Sr gene designated as QSr.ace-7A on chromosome arm 7AS and Lr gene Lr.ace-4A in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4A. In addition, three minor Sr QTL QSr.ace-1A, QSr.ace-2B and QSr.ace-4A were mapped in PI 192051-1 on chromosomes 1AL, 2BL, and 4A, respectively Lr.ace-4A could be co-located or tightly linked to QSr.ace-4A Markers linked to the identified QTL/genes can be used for marker assisted selection. These findings enrich the genetic basis of rust resistance in both durum and common wheat.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
8.
World Neurosurg ; 125: e1016-e1022, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a prevalent and disabling condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Such associated negative factor warrants the use of valid and reliable psychological assessment tools among this group. One of the available assessment means is the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a short screening measure that evaluates depression status. Our aim is to test the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the PHQ-9 including validity and reliability among Lebanese individuals with SCI. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and June 2018, including 51 participants with SCI. Questionnaire and assessment measures were administered to the subjects. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and the factor structure of the PHQ-9 were evaluated in addition to the convergent validity, which was established by comparing the scale's total score with the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis revealed 3 factors accounting for 66.2% of the total variance. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.71) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88). Significant correlation was found between the PHQ-9 and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (r = 0.71) suggesting good convergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the PHQ-9 has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable measure of depression among the Lebanese individuals with SCI.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/normas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia
9.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(5): 1405-1427, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804024

RESUMO

Improving the end-use quality traits is one of the primary objectives in wheat breeding programs. In the current study, a population of 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Glenn (PI-639273) and Traverse (PI-642780) was developed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 16 end-use quality traits in wheat. The phenotyping of these 16 traits was performed in nine environments in North Dakota, USA. The genotyping for the RIL population was conducted using the wheat Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay. A high-density genetic linkage map consisting of 7,963 SNP markers identified a total of 76 additive QTL (A-QTL) and 73 digenic epistatic QTL (DE-QTL) associated with these traits. Overall, 12 stable major A-QTL and three stable DE-QTL were identified for these traits, suggesting that both A-QTL and DE-QTL played an important role in controlling end-use quality traits in wheat. The most significant A-QTL (AQ.MMLPT.ndsu.1B) was detected on chromosome 1B for mixograph middle line peak time. The AQ.MMLPT.ndsu.1B A-QTL was located very close to the position of the Glu-B1 gene encoding for a subunit of high molecular weight glutenin and explained up to 24.43% of phenotypic variation for mixograph MID line peak time. A total of 23 co-localized QTL loci were detected, suggesting the possibility of the simultaneous improvement of the end-use quality traits through selection procedures in wheat breeding programs. Overall, the information provided in this study could be used in marker-assisted selection to increase selection efficiency and to improve the end-use quality in wheat.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Endogamia , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
10.
J Bioinform Comput Biol ; 17(6): 1940012, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019414

RESUMO

Mapping short reads to a reference genome is an essential step in many next-generation sequencing (NGS) analyses. In plants with large genomes, a large fraction of the reads can align to multiple locations of the genome with equally good alignment scores. How to map these ambiguous reads to the genome is a challenging problem with big impacts on the downstream analysis. Traditionally, the default method is to assign an ambiguous read randomly to one of the many potential locations. In this study, we explore two alternative methods that are based on the hypothesis that the possibility of an ambiguous read being generated by a location is proportional to the total number of reads produced by that location: (1) the enrichment method that assigns an ambiguous read to the location that has produced the most reads among all the potential locations, (2) the probability method that assigns an ambiguous read to a location based on a probability proportional to the number of reads the location produces. We systematically compared the performance of the proposed methods with that of the default random method. Our results showed that the enrichment method produced better results than the default random method and the probability method in the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Not only did it produce more SNP markers, but it also produced SNP markers with better quality, which was demonstrated using multiple mainstay genomic analyses, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), minor allele distribution, population structure, and genomic prediction.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alinhamento de Sequência , Triticum/genética
11.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 8(3): 923-932, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352079

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has no known biological function and is toxic for many living organisms. The maximum level of Cd concentration allowed in the international market for wheat grain is 0.2 mg kg-1 Because phenotyping for Cd uptake is expensive and time consuming, molecular markers associated with genes conferring low Cd uptake would expedite selection and lead to the development of durum cultivars with reduced Cd concentrations. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a novel low Cd uptake locus in the durum experimental line D041735, which has hexaploid common wheat in its pedigree. Genetic analysis revealed a single major QTL for Cd uptake on chromosome arm 5BL within a 0.3 cM interval flanked by SNP markers. Analysis of the intervening sequence revealed a gene with homology to an aluminum-induced protein as a candidate gene. Validation and allelism tests revealed that the low Cd uptake gene identified in this study is different from the closely linked Cdu1-B gene, which also resides on 5BL. This study therefore showed that the durum experimental line D041735 contains a novel low Cd uptake gene that was likely acquired from hexaploid wheat.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1829, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619402

RESUMO

Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) can serve as a bridge for the transfer of useful genes from Aegilops tauschii and tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum) into common wheat (T. aestivum). The objective of this study was to evaluate 149 SHW lines and their 74 tetraploid parents for their genetic diversity, breeding values and inter-genomic interactions for resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB). The genetic diversity analysis was performed based on the population structure established using 4,674 and 3,330 polymorphic SNP markers among the SHW lines and tetraploid parents, respectively. The results showed that all T. carthlicum and most T. dicoccum accessions formed different clusters and subpopulations, respectively, whereas all the T. durum, T. polonicum, T. turgidum, and T. turanicum accessions were clustered together, suggesting that T. durum was more closely related to T. polonicum, T. turgidum, and T. turanicum than to T. dicoccum. The genetic diversity of the SHW lines mainly reflected that of the tetraploid parents. The SHW lines and their tetraploid parents were evaluated for reactions to FHB in two greenhouse seasons and at two field nurseries for 2 years. As expected, most of the SHW lines were more resistant than their tetraploid parents in all environments. The FHB severities of the SHW lines varied greatly depending on the Ae. tauschii and tetraploid genotypes involved. Most of the SHW lines with a high level of FHB resistance were generally derived from the tetraploid accessions with a high level of FHB resistance. Among the 149 SHW lines, 140 were developed by using three Ae. tauschii accessions CIae 26, PI 268210, and RL 5286. These SHW lines showed FHB severities reduced by 21.7%, 17.3%, and 11.5%, respectively, with an average reduction of 18.3%, as compared to the tetraploid parents, suggesting that the D genome may play a major role in reducing disease severity in the SHW lines. Thirteen SHW lines consistently showed a high level of FHB resistance compared to the resistant check, Sumai 3, in each environment. These SHW lines will be useful for the development of FHB-resistant wheat germplasm and populations for discovery of novel FHB resistance genes.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 111: 55-59, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) graft showed promising outcome during early phases of its use. However, unreported adverse events and off-label use shattered its safe profile and raised concerns regarding its indication. In 2008 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration prohibited its use in anterior cervical spine procedures due to the possibility of edema, hematoma, and need to intubate. At the molecular level, BMPs act as multifactorial growth factors playing a role in cartilage, heart, and bone formation. However, its unfavorable effect on bone overgrowth or heterotopic ossification post spine surgeries has been described. Reported cases in the literature were limited to epidural bone formation. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a rare and interesting case of a 59-year-old female, in whom BMP caused intradural bone growth several years after an anterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. CONCLUSION: Caution must be exercised while using BMPs because of inadvertent complications.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/uso terapêutico , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Dura-Máter/diagnóstico por imagem , Dura-Máter/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Uso Off-Label , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Rev. Col. Méd. Cir. Guatem ; 156(2): 71-74, nov. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-995447

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar los conocimientos y actitudes sobre violencia sexual que poseen los adolescentes de Centros Educativos Públicos en el departamento de Chimaltenango en febrero y marzo 2017. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en una muestra aleatoria de 386 sujetos, mediante un cuestionario auto aplicable posterior a consentimiento y asentimiento informado. Resultados: De los sujetos de estudio, 214 (55%) correspondían al sexo femenino, en promedio tenían 12.6 años de edad, 184 (48%) profesaban religión evangélica, 349 (90%) provenían de familias integradas, 292 (76%) pertenecían a la etnia Kaqchiquel. Conocimientos: 132 (34%) refirieron que la violencia sexual se define únicamente como el contacto físico de las partes íntima de otra persona, 116 (30%) identificaron al machismo y el consumo de drogas como factores de riesgo para violencia sexual, 83 (22%) consideraron adecuado el embarazo en menores de edad, 191 (50%) indicaron que en la mayoría de los casos los agresores son personas desconocidas de la víctima; 145 (38%) y 49 (13%) identificaron la calle y el hogar, respectivamente, como los principales lugares en los que se da este fenómeno. Actitudes: 304 (79%) no denunciarían si un compañero/a estuviera sufriendo violencia sexual, 218 (56%) están en desacuerdo con que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad con sus hijos, 202 (52%) no consideran importante que se imparta educación sexual en los centros educativos. Conclusiones: dos terceras partes desconocen conceptos básicos sobre el tema. Se evidencia una marcada indiferencia ante la necesidad de aprender del mismo y apoyar la denuncia de casos de compañeros que sufran algún tipo de violencia sexual.


Objective: To identify the knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual violence of adolescents in public schools of Chimaltenango, between February and March of 2017. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study conducted in a random sample of 386 subjects, based in a self-applicable questionnaire after student assent and parental consent (from parents or legal guardians). Results: 214 of 386 were female; with an average age of 12.6 years; 184 (48%) profess evangelical religion; 349 (90%) belonged to an integrated household; 292 (76%) belonged to the Kaqchiquel ethnic group. Knowledge: 132 (34%) reported that sexual violence is defined only as physical contact in intimate parts; 116 (30%) identified male chauvinist and drug abuse as risk factors for sexual violence; 83 (22%) considered pregnancy in underage teenagers as adequate; 191 (50%) indicated that in most cases the aggressors are unknown by the victims; students identify the street with 145 (38%) and the house with 49 (13%) as the main places where sexual violence occurs. Attitudes: 304 (79%) of the students would not report if a schoolmate is suffering from sexual violence, 218 (56%) disagree that parents should talk about sexuality with their children, 202 (52%) don't consider important to provide sex education in schools. Conclusions: Two thirds of the students are not aware of basic concepts regarding sexual violence, there is a considerable indifference to the need of learning of this topic and do not support the reporting of cases of classmates who suffer any type of sexual violence.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Educação Sexual/tendências , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Violência de Gênero/tendências , Opinião Pública , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemiologia Descritiva
15.
Clin Nephrol ; 88(11): 248-253, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shifting from a short-term catheter to a long-term one is done either by removing the old catheter and placing a new long-term one via fresh new puncture site, or by replacing the old catheter with a long-term one over a guidewire. AIM: We aimed to describe our technique in changing a temporary line to a long-term catheter (LTC) over a guidewire and to determine the incidence of line-related infections following this procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective pilot study was conducted between 2005 and 2010 at the American University of Beirut Hospital. We compared the first group (A), which consisted of 20 patients who underwent exchange of a short-term dialysis catheter with a tunneled one over a guidewire using our technique, to a second group (B) of 60 patients who underwent de-novo LTC placement. The two groups were matched by age, with a follow-up of at least 1 month. RESULTS: The technical success rate of the catheter-conversion procedure was 100%. Our results revealed no significant difference of catheter duration between the two groups, with median duration of 6.5 vs. 4.0 days for group A and group B, respectively (p = 0.21). Moreover, there was also no significant mean time difference between any infection and long term catheter (LTC) insertion among the two groups (p = 0.31). Furthermore, there was no difference of catheter infection between the two groups (p = 0.1). CONCLUSION: We concluded that there was no difference in terms of side effects or risk of infection in the guidewire group when compared to standard technique.
.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cateterismo , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 7(10): 3481-3490, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855282

RESUMO

Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24 However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines, and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13 The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Basidiomycota/genética , Fenótipo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/microbiologia
17.
Phytopathology ; 107(12): 1496-1506, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28745102

RESUMO

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage. The Lr and Sr genes were mapped in five populations using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and bulked segregant analysis. Five leaf-rust-resistant genotypes carried single dominant Lr genes whereas, in the remaining accessions, there was deviation from the expected segregation ratio of a single dominant Lr gene. Seven genotypes carried Lr genes different from those previously characterized in durum. The single dominant Lr genes in PI 209274, PI 244061, PI387263, and PI 313096 were mapped to chromosome arms 6BS, 2BS, 6BL, and 6BS, respectively. The Sr gene in PI 534304 mapped to 6AL and is most likely Sr13, while the Sr gene in PI 192051 could be uncharacterized in durum.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/imunologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia
18.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724063

RESUMO

The USDA-ARS National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) maintains germplasm representing global diversity of small grains and their wild relatives. To evaluate the utility of the NSGC durum wheat ( L. ssp. ) accessions, we assessed genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in a durum core subset containing 429 lines with spring growth habit originating from 64 countries worldwide. Genetic diversity estimated using wheat single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers showed considerable diversity captured in this collection. Average LD decayed over a genetic distance to within 3 cM at = 0.2, with a fast LD decay for markers linked at >5 cM. We evaluated accessions for resistance to wheat stem rust, caused by a fungal pathogen, Pers. Pers. f. sp. Eriks. and E. Henn (), using races from both eastern Africa and North America, at seedling and adult plant stages. Five accessions were identified as resistant to all stem rust pathogen races evaluated. Genome-wide association analysis detected 17 significant associations at the seedling stage with nine likely corresponding to , , and and the remaining potentially being novel genes located on six chromosomes. A higher frequency of resistant accessions was found at the adult plant stage than at the seedling stage. However, few significant associations were detected possibly a result of strong G × E interactions not properly accounted for in the mixed model. Nonetheless, the resistant accessions identified in this study should provide wheat breeders with valuable resources for improving stem rust resistance.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triticum/imunologia
19.
Plant Genome ; 10(3)2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293807

RESUMO

Grain yield and semolina quality traits are essential selection criteria in durum wheat breeding. However, high phenotypic screening costs limit selection to relatively few breeding lines in late generations. This selection paradigm confers relatively low selection efficiency due to the advancement of undesirable lines into expensive yield trials for grain yield and quality trait testing. Marker-aided selection can enhance selection efficiency, especially for traits that are difficult or costly to phenotype. The aim of this study was to identify major quality trait quantitative trait loci (QTL) for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and to explore potential application of genomic selection (GS) in a durum wheat breeding program. In this study, genome-wide association mapping was conducted for five quality traits using 1184 lines from the North Dakota State University (NDSU) durum wheat breeding program. Several QTL associated with test weight, semolina color, and gluten strength were identified. Genomic selection models were developed and forward prediction accuracies of 0.27 to 0.66 were obtained for the five quality traits. Our results show the potential for grain and semolina quality traits to be selected more efficiently through MAS and GS with further refinement. Considerable opportunity exists to extend these techniques to other traits such as grain yield and agronomic characteristics, further improving breeding efficiency in durum cultivar development.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Cor , Genótipo , Glutens/química , Haplótipos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/química
20.
J Neurosurg Sci ; 61(6): 677-679, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159549

RESUMO

Migrating intra-spinal lesions are quite rare, and are most of the reported cases are schwannomas. Several theories have been proposed to explain the changing location of an intra-spinal tumor. We present a very rare case of migrating lumbar intra-spinal intra-dural lesion at the conus level, the pathology of which was an ependymoma, and review the possible etiologies of such a unique occurrence in view of the reported literature. We hypothesize loose connection to the tissue of origin, likely the filum, as the cause in our case. We thus highlight the importance of repeated imaging and careful planning before surgical intervention of intra-spinal intra-dural lesions, to avoid complications and wrong level surgery, especially when the lesions are in the cauda-equina area.


Assuntos
Ependimoma/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino
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