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1.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415649

RESUMO

Increased prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been observed among high-risk populations such as healthcare workers (HCWs). The results may depend on the method of LTBI assessment, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and/or tuberculin skin test (TST). Here, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LTBI assessed by both IGRAs and TST in HCWs living in Morocco, a country with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and high BCG vaccination coverage. HCWs were recruited in two Moroccan hospitals, Rabat and Meknes. All the participants underwent testing for LTBI by both IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, QFT-GIT) and TST. Different combinations of IGRA and TST results defined the LTBI status. Risk factors associated with LTBI were investigated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model. The prevalence of LTBI among 631 HCWs (age range 18-60 years) varied from 40.7% (95%CI 36.9-44.5%) with QFT-GIT to 52% (95%CI 48.2-56.0%) with TST using a 10 mm cut-off. The highest agreement between QFT-GIT and TST (κ = 0.50; 95%CI 0.43-0.56) was observed with the 10 mm cut-off for a positive TST. For a definition of LTBI status using a double positive result for both QFT-GIT and TST, significant associations were found with the following risk factors: being male (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.40-3.49; p = 0.0007), belonging to age groups 35-44 years (OR = 2.43; 95%CI 1.45-4.06; p = 0.0007) and even more 45-60 years (OR = 4.81; 95%CI 2.72-8.52; p = 7.10-8), having a family history of TB (OR = 6.62; 95%CI 2.59-16.94; p = 8.10-5), and working at a pulmonology unit (OR = 3.64; 95%CI 1.44-9.23; p = 0.006). Smoking was associated with LTBI status when defined by a positive QFT-GIT result (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.12-3.21; p = 0.02). A high prevalence of LTBI was observed among HCWs in two Moroccan hospitals. Male gender, increased age, family history of TB, and working at a pulmonology unit were consistent risk factors associated with LTBI.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(1): 232-241, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline heterozygous mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) can cause loss of function (LOF), as in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases, or gain of function (GOF), as in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. LOF and GOF mutations are equally rare and can affect the same domains of STAT1, especially the coiled-coil domain (CCD) and DNA-binding domain (DBD). Moreover, 6% of patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with a GOF STAT1 mutation have mycobacterial disease, obscuring the functional significance of the identified STAT1 mutations. Current computational approaches, such as combined annotation-dependent depletion, do not distinguish LOF and GOF variants. OBJECTIVE: We estimated variations in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. METHODS: We mutagenized 342 individual wild-type amino acids in the CCD/DBD (45.6% of full-length STAT1) to alanine and tested the mutants for STAT1 transcriptional activity. RESULTS: Of these 342 mutants, 201 were neutral, 30 were LOF, and 111 were GOF mutations in a luciferase assay. This assay system correctly estimated all previously reported LOF mutations (100%) and slightly fewer GOF mutations (78.1%) in the CCD/DBD of STAT1. We found that GOF alanine mutants occurred at the interface of the antiparallel STAT1 dimer, suggesting that they destabilize this dimer. This assay also precisely predicted the effect of 2 hypomorphic and dominant negative mutations, E157K and G250E, in the CCD of STAT1 that we found in 2 unrelated patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. CONCLUSION: The systematic alanine-scanning assay is a useful tool to estimate the GOF or LOF status and the effect of heterozygous missense mutations in STAT1 identified in patients with severe infectious diseases, including mycobacterial and fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Alanina/genética , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Bioensaio , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutagênese , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos
3.
J Exp Med ; 213(8): 1589-608, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401342

RESUMO

Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro. IL12Rß1/TYK2 and IFN-γR/STAT1 function in a feed-forward loop to induce Th1 cells, whereas IL-21/IL-21R/STAT3 signaling is required for Th17, Tfh, and IL-10-secreting cells. IL12Rß1/TYK2 and NEMO are also required for Th17 induction. Strikingly, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations recapitulated the impact of dominant-negative STAT3 mutations on Tfh and Th17 cells, revealing a putative inhibitory effect of hypermorphic STAT1 over STAT3. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the requirements for human T cell effector function, and explain clinical manifestations of these immunodeficient conditions. Furthermore, they identify molecules that could be targeted to modulate CD4(+) T cell effector function in the settings of infection, vaccination, or immune dysregulation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(24): 6713-8, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247391

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA), homozygosity rate estimations, and linkage studies in humans are classically conducted through genome-wide single-nucleotide variant arrays (GWSA). We compared whole-exome sequencing (WES) and GWSA for this purpose. We analyzed 110 subjects originating from different regions of the world, including North Africa and the Middle East, which are poorly covered by public databases and have high consanguinity rates. We tested and applied a number of quality control (QC) filters. Compared with GWSA, we found that WES provided an accurate prediction of population substructure using variants with a minor allele frequency > 2% (correlation = 0.89 with the PCA coordinates obtained by GWSA). WES also yielded highly reliable estimates of homozygosity rates using runs of homozygosity with a 1,000-kb window (correlation = 0.94 with the estimates provided by GWSA). Finally, homozygosity mapping analyses in 15 families including a single offspring with high homozygosity rates showed that WES provided 51% less genome-wide linkage information than GWSA overall but 97% more information for the coding regions. At the genome-wide scale, 76.3% of linked regions were found by both GWSA and WES, 17.7% were found by GWSA only, and 6.0% were found by WES only. For coding regions, the corresponding percentages were 83.5%, 7.4%, and 9.1%, respectively. With appropriate QC filters, WES can be used for PCA and adjustment for population substructure, estimating homozygosity rates in individuals, and powerful linkage analyses, particularly in coding regions.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homozigoto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , América do Norte
5.
J Exp Med ; 212(10): 1641-62, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304966

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive, complete TYK2 deficiency was previously described in a patient (P1) with intracellular bacterial and viral infections and features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), including atopic dermatitis, high serum IgE levels, and staphylococcal abscesses. We identified seven other TYK2-deficient patients from five families and four different ethnic groups. These patients were homozygous for one of five null mutations, different from that seen in P1. They displayed mycobacterial and/or viral infections, but no HIES. All eight TYK2-deficient patients displayed impaired but not abolished cellular responses to (a) IL-12 and IFN-α/ß, accounting for mycobacterial and viral infections, respectively; (b) IL-23, with normal proportions of circulating IL-17(+) T cells, accounting for their apparent lack of mucocutaneous candidiasis; and (c) IL-10, with no overt clinical consequences, including a lack of inflammatory bowel disease. Cellular responses to IL-21, IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-28/29 (IFN-λ), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were normal. The leukocytes and fibroblasts of all seven newly identified TYK2-deficient patients, unlike those of P1, responded normally to IL-6, possibly accounting for the lack of HIES in these patients. The expression of exogenous wild-type TYK2 or the silencing of endogenous TYK2 did not rescue IL-6 hyporesponsiveness, suggesting that this phenotype was not a consequence of the TYK2 genotype. The core clinical phenotype of TYK2 deficiency is mycobacterial and/or viral infections, caused by impaired responses to IL-12 and IFN-α/ß. Moreover, impaired IL-6 responses and HIES do not appear to be intrinsic features of TYK2 deficiency in humans.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Job/etiologia , TYK2 Quinase/deficiência , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/genética , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/etiologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo , Viroses/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(4): 993-1006.e1, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follicular helper T (TFH) cells underpin T cell-dependent humoral immunity and the success of most vaccines. TFH cells also contribute to human immune disorders, such as autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and malignancy. Understanding the molecular requirements for the generation and function of TFH cells will provide strategies for targeting these cells to modulate their behavior in the setting of these immunologic abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the signaling pathways and cellular interactions required for the development and function of TFH cells in human subjects. METHODS: Human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) resulting from monogenic mutations provide a unique opportunity to assess the requirement for particular molecules in regulating human lymphocyte function. Circulating follicular helper T (cTFH) cell subsets, memory B cells, and serum immunoglobulin levels were quantified and functionally assessed in healthy control subjects, as well as in patients with PIDs resulting from mutations in STAT3, STAT1, TYK2, IL21, IL21R, IL10R, IFNGR1/2, IL12RB1, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK. RESULTS: Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in STAT3, IL10R, CD40LG, NEMO, ICOS, or BTK reduced cTFH cell frequencies. STAT3 and IL21/R LOF and STAT1 gain-of-function mutations skewed cTFH cell differentiation toward a phenotype characterized by overexpression of IFN-γ and programmed death 1. IFN-γ inhibited cTFH cell function in vitro and in vivo, as corroborated by hypergammaglobulinemia in patients with IFNGR1/2, STAT1, and IL12RB1 LOF mutations. CONCLUSION: Specific mutations affect the quantity and quality of cTFH cells, highlighting the need to assess TFH cells in patients by using multiple criteria, including phenotype and function. Furthermore, IFN-γ functions in vivo to restrain TFH cell-induced B-cell differentiation. These findings shed new light on TFH cell biology and the integrated signaling pathways required for their generation, maintenance, and effector function and explain the compromised humoral immunity seen in patients with some PIDs.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Ligante de CD40/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Memória Imunológica , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
7.
Dis Markers ; 2015: 194293, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25814778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. METHODS: To establish the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. RESULTS: Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of BC was present in 388 (71%) patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T>G, c.5095C>T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Mutação , África do Norte , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Oriente Médio
8.
Immunol Rev ; 264(1): 103-20, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703555

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 369(1645): 20130428, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24821915

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop clinical tuberculosis (TB). Over the past century, epidemiological studies have shown that human genetic factors contribute significantly to this interindividual variability, and molecular progress has been made over the past decade for at least two of the three key TB-related phenotypes: (i) a major locus controlling resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis has been identified, and (ii) proof of principle that severe TB of childhood can result from single-gene inborn errors of interferon-γ immunity has been provided; genetic association studies with pulmonary TB in adulthood have met with more limited success. Future genetic studies of these three phenotypes could consider subgroups of subjects defined on the basis of individual (e.g. age at TB onset) or environmental (e.g. pathogen strain) factors. Progress may also be facilitated by further methodological advances in human genetics. Identification of the human genetic variants controlling the various stages and forms of TB is critical for understanding TB pathogenesis. These findings should have major implications for TB control, in the definition of improved prevention strategies, the optimization of vaccines and clinical trials and the development of novel treatments aiming to restore deficient immune responses.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/genética , Humanos , Tuberculose/fisiopatologia
10.
J Infect Dis ; 210(4): 611-8, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24610875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a minority of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop clinical tuberculosis. Genetic epidemiological evidence suggests that pulmonary tuberculosis has a strong human genetic component. Previous genetic findings in Mendelian predisposition to more severe mycobacterial infections, including by M. tuberculosis, underlined the importance of the interleukin 12 (IL-12)/interferon γ (IFN-γ) circuit in antimycobacterial immunity. METHODS: We conducted an association study in Morocco between pulmonary tuberculosis and a panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 14 core IL-12/IFN-γ circuit genes. The analyses were performed in a discovery family-based sample followed by replication in a case-control population. RESULTS: Out of 228 SNPs tested in the family-based sample, 6 STAT4 SNPs were associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (P = .0013-.01). We replicated the same direction of association for 1 cluster of 3 SNPs encompassing the promoter region of STAT4. In the combined sample, the association was stronger among younger subjects (pulmonary tuberculosis onset <25 years) with an odds ratio of developing pulmonary tuberculosis at rs897200 for GG vs AG/AA subjects of 1.47 (1.06-2.04). Previous functional experiments showed that the G allele of rs897200 was associated with lower STAT4 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our present findings in a Moroccan population support an association of pulmonary tuberculosis with STAT4 promoter-region polymorphisms that may impact STAT4 expression.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT4/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco , Fator de Transcrição STAT4/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(3): 407-14, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23415668

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop clinical tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. Genetic epidemiological evidence suggests a genetic determinism of pulmonary TB (PTB), but the molecular basis of genetic predisposition to PTB remains largely unknown. We used a positional-cloning approach to carry out ultrafine linkage-disequilibrium mapping of a previously identified susceptibility locus in chromosomal region 8q12-13 by genotyping 3,216 SNPs in a family-based Moroccan sample including 286 offspring with PTB. We observed 44 PTB-associated SNPs (p < 0.01), which were genotyped in an independent set of 317 cases and 650 controls from Morocco. A single signal, consisting of two correlated SNPs close to TOX, rs1568952 and rs2726600 (combined p = 1.1 × 10(-5) and 9.2 × 10(-5), respectively), was replicated. Stronger evidence of association was found in individuals who developed PTB before the age of 25 years (combined p for rs1568952 = 4.4 × 10(-8); odds ratio of PTB for AA versus AG/GG = 3.09 [1.99-4.78]). The association with rs2726600 (p = 0.04) was subsequently replicated in PTB-affected subjects under 25 years in a study of 243 nuclear families from Madagascar. Stronger evidence of replication in Madagascar was obtained for additional SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium with the two initial SNPs (p = 0.003 for rs2726597), further confirming the signal. We thus identified around rs1568952 and rs2726600 a cluster of SNPs strongly associated with early-onset PTB in Morocco and Madagascar. SNP rs2726600 is located in a transcription-factor binding site in the 3' region of TOX, and further functional explorations will focus on CD4 T lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Ligação Genética , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Madagáscar , Masculino , Marrocos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
12.
Int J Med Sci ; 10(1): 60-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23289006

RESUMO

Worldwide variation in the distribution of BRCA mutations is well recognised, and for the Moroccan population no comprehensive studies about BRCA mutation spectra or frequencies have been published. We therefore performed mutation analysis of the BRCA1 gene in 121 Moroccan women diagnosed with breast cancer. All cases completed epidemiology and family history questionnaires and provided a DNA sample for BRCA testing. Mutation analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the BRCA1 gene. 31.6 % (6/19) of familial cases and 1 % (1/102) of early-onset sporadic (< 45 years)were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. The pathogenic mutations included two frame-shift mutations (c.798_799delTT, c.1016dupA), one missense mutation (c.5095C>T),and one nonsense mutation (c.4942A>T). The c.798_799delTT mutation was also observed in Algerian and Tunisian BC families, suggesting the first non-Jewish founder mutation to be described in Northern Africa. In addition, ten different unclassified variants were detected in BRCA1, none of which were predicted to affect splicing. Most unclassified variants were placed in Align-GVGD classes suggesting neutrality. c.5117G>C involves a highly conserved amino acid suggestive of interfering with function (Align-GVGD class C55), but has been observed in conjunction with a deleterious mutation in a Tunisian family. These findings reflect the genetic heterogeneity of the Moroccan population and are relevant to genetic counselling and clinical management. The role of BRCA2 in BC is also under study.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Idade de Início , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
13.
PLoS One ; 6(4): e18524, 2011 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21533230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the last decade, autosomal recessive IL-12Rß1 deficiency has been diagnosed in four children with severe tuberculosis from three unrelated families from Morocco, Spain, and Turkey, providing proof-of-principle that tuberculosis in otherwise healthy children may result from single-gene inborn errors of immunity. We aimed to estimate the fraction of children developing severe tuberculosis due to IL-12Rß1 deficiency in areas endemic for tuberculosis and where parental consanguinity is common. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched for IL12RB1 mutations in a series of 50 children from Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. All children had established severe pulmonary and/or disseminated tuberculosis requiring hospitalization and were otherwise normally resistant to weakly virulent BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. In one child from Iran and another from Morocco, homozygosity for loss-of-function IL12RB1 alleles was documented, resulting in complete IL-12Rß1 deficiency. Despite the small sample studied, our findings suggest that IL-12Rß1 deficiency is not a very rare cause of pediatric tuberculosis in these countries, where it should be considered in selected children with severe disease. SIGNIFICANCE: This finding may have important medical implications, as recombinant IFN-γ is an effective treatment for mycobacterial infections in IL-12Rß1-deficient patients. It also provides additional support for the view that severe tuberculosis in childhood may result from a collection of single-gene inborn errors of immunity.


Assuntos
Subunidade beta 1 de Receptor de Interleucina-12/genética , Tuberculose/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Marrocos , Linhagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Turquia
14.
Science ; 332(6025): 65-8, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21350122

RESUMO

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida albicans and, to a lesser extent, Staphylococcus aureus, in patients with no other infectious or autoimmune manifestations. We report two genetic etiologies of CMCD: autosomal recessive deficiency in the cytokine receptor, interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), and autosomal dominant deficiency of the cytokine interleukin-17F (IL-17F). IL-17RA deficiency is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. By contrast, IL-17F deficiency is partial, with mutant IL-17F-containing homo- and heterodimers displaying impaired, but not abolished, activity. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17A and IL-17F are essential for mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans, but otherwise largely redundant.


Assuntos
Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Candida albicans , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Linhagem , Receptores de Interleucina-17/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células Th17/imunologia
15.
Clin Immunol ; 135(2): 204-9, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20236864

RESUMO

The vast majority of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) predispose affected individuals to recurrent or chronic infectious diseases, because they affect protective immunity to both primary and secondary or latent infections. We discuss here three recently described groups of PIDs that seem to impair immunity to primary infections without compromising immunity to secondary and latent infections. Patients with mutations in IL12B or IL12RB1 typically present mycobacterial disease in childhood with a favorable progression thereafter. Cross-protection between mycobacterial infections has even been observed. Patients with mutations in IRAK4 or MYD88 suffer from pyogenic bacterial diseases, including invasive pneumococcal diseases in particular. These diseases often recur, although not always with the same serotype, but the frequency of these recurrences tails off, with no further infections observed from adolescence onwards. Finally, mutations in UNC93B1 and TLR3 are associated with childhood herpes simplex encephalitis, which strikes only once in most patients, with almost no recorded cases of more than two bouts of this disease. Unlike infections in patients with other PIDs, the clinical course of which typically deteriorates with age even if appropriate treatment is given, the prognosis of patients with these three newly described PIDs tends to improve spontaneously with age, provided, of course, that the initial infection is properly managed. In other words, although life-threatening in early childhood, these new PIDs are associated with a favorable outcome in adulthood. They provide proof-of-principle that infectious diseases of childhood striking only once may result from single-gene inborn errors of immunity.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Infecção/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Infecção/genética
16.
J Infect Dis ; 190(3): 580-7, 2004 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15243935

RESUMO

Five disease-causing genes, including the IL12RB1 gene that encodes the beta 1 chain of the receptor for interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12R beta 1), are known to be associated with the syndrome of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Some IL-12R beta 1-deficient patients present with tuberculosis as the only clinical phenotype. A comprehensive genetic study of IL12RB1 was conducted among 101 Moroccan families, including 157 offspring (age, >15 years) who had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The promoter, exons, and flanking intron regions of IL12RB1 in 40 randomly selected patients with PTB were entirely sequenced, leading to the detection of 19 variants (including 10 novel mutations). Blood cells obtained from individuals who were homozygous for any of the 13 most common variants responded to IL-12, indicating that these polymorphisms were not loss-of-function mutations. By use of a family-based study, 2 promoter polymorphisms that were in strong linkage disequilibrium were found to be associated with PTB, especially -2C-->T (odds ratio for CT or TT vs. CC, 2.69 [95% confidence interval, 1.19-6.09]). This result suggests that IL12RB1 polymorphisms might influence the risk of development of PTB in adults.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Família , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Marrocos , Mutação , Receptores de Interleucina-12
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 42(1): 461-6, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14715806

RESUMO

Although lower-resource countries have by far the highest burden of tuberculosis, knowledge of Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and genetic diversity in these regions remains almost nonexistent. In this paper, 150 Moroccan M. tuberculosis isolates circulating in Casablanca were genotyped by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using 10 different primers and by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats typing at 12 loci. The population genetic tests revealed a basically clonal structure for this population, without excluding rare genetic exchanges. Genetic analysis also showed a notable genetic polymorphism for the species M. tuberculosis, a weak cluster individualization, and an unexpected genetic diversity for a population in such a high-incidence community. Phylogenetic analyses of this Moroccan sample also supported that these isolates are genetically heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
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