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2.
Anesthesiology ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation for patients with COVID-19 is required for invasive mechanical ventilation. The authors sought to describe practice for emergency intubation, estimate success rates and complications, and determine variation in practice and outcomes between high-income and low- and middle-income countries. The authors hypothesized that successful emergency airway management in patients with COVID-19 is associated with geographical and procedural factors. METHODS: The authors performed a prospective observational cohort study between March 23, 2020, and October 24, 2020, which included 4,476 episodes of emergency tracheal intubation performed by 1,722 clinicians from 607 institutions across 32 countries in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The authors investigated associations between intubation and operator characteristics, and the primary outcome of first-attempt success. RESULTS: Successful first-attempt tracheal intubation was achieved in 4,017/4,476 (89.7%) episodes, while 23 of 4,476 (0.5%) episodes required four or more attempts. Ten emergency surgical airways were reported-an approximate incidence of 1 in 450 (10 of 4,476). Failed intubation (defined as emergency surgical airway, four or more attempts, or a supraglottic airway as the final device) occurred in approximately 1 of 120 episodes (36 of 4,476). Successful first attempt was more likely during rapid sequence induction versus non-rapid sequence induction (adjusted odds ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.49 to 2.39]; P < 0.001), when operators used powered air-purifying respirators versus nonpowered respirators (odds ratio, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.16 to 2.20]; P = 0.006), and when performed by operators with more COVID-19 intubations recorded (odds ratio, 1.03 for each additional previous intubation [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06]; P = 0.015). Intubations performed in low- or middle-income countries were less likely to be successful at first attempt than in high-income countries (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.41 to 0.79]; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The authors report rates of failed tracheal intubation and emergency surgical airway in patients with COVID-19 requiring emergency airway management, and identified factors associated with increased success. Risks of tracheal intubation failure and success should be considered when managing COVID-19.

3.
J Clin Anesth ; 72: 110305, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930796

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The novel infiltration between the popliteal artery and the capsule of the posterior knee (iPACK) has been described to relieve posterior knee pain after knee surgery. The study objective is to determine whether iPACK provides analgesia after knee surgery when compared with a control group. DESIGN: Systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. SETTING: Operating room, postoperative recovery area and ward, up to 24 postoperative hours. PATIENTS: Patients scheduled for knee surgery under general or spinal anaesthesia. INTERVENTIONS: We searched five electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing iPACK with a control group. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was rest pain score scores on a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0-10 at 12 h postoperatively, analysed according to the nature of surgery (total knee arthroplasty vs. anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction) and the use of multimodal analgesia. Secondary outcomes included rest and dynamic pain scores, intravenous morphine-equivalent consumption at 2 h and 24 h, and functional outcomes including ambulation distance and range of motion at discharge. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials involving 687 patients were included, all of which received total knee arthroplasty only. When compared with a control group, iPACK significantly reduced rest pain scores at 12 h, with a mean difference (95% CI) of -1.0 (-1.5 to -0.5), I2 = 93%, p = 0.0003, without subgroup differences for postoperative multimodal analgesia (p = 0.15). Secondary pain outcomes were inconsistently improved with iPACK. Functional outcomes were either similar between groups or had clinically unimportant differences. The overall quality of evidence was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate level evidence that iPACK might provide analgesia for posterior pain after total knee arthroplasty when compared with a control group at 12 h, but was not associated with any other meaningful benefits. Based on these results, there is currently limited evidence supporting the use of iPACK as a complement to adductor canal block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.

6.
Br Dent J ; 230(4): 207-214, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637920

RESUMO

Respiratory protection in the dental setting has become more important to protect healthcare professionals, their household members and their patients. As dental practices become increasingly independent in managing their respiratory protection requirements, the need for an in-depth understanding of the principles of respiratory protection is warranted. This article aims to enhance the awareness of dental professionals about the principles of respiratory protection and equipment, including designs, classification and levels of protection afforded to wearers. Determining the adequacy and suitability of respiratory protection, along with ensuring safe selection of appropriate equipment for protection of both wearer and patient, is described. Moreover, a detailed review of fit testing principles, procedures and governance are described. This comprehensive review should ensure that dental professionals are ideally placed to understand the implications of respiratory protection and safely apply it in their workplaces.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Local de Trabalho , Odontologia , Humanos
8.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632777

RESUMO

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a critical skill for all regional anesthesiologists and pain physicians to help diagnose relevant complications related to routine practice and guide perioperative management. In an effort to inform the regional anesthesia and pain community as well as address a need for structured education and training, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Society (ASRA) commissioned this narrative review to provide recommendations for POCUS. The recommendations were written by content and educational experts and were approved by the guidelines committee and the Board of Directors of the ASRA. In part II of this two-part series, learning goals and objectives were identified and outlined for achieving competency in the use of POCUS, specifically, airway ultrasound, lung ultrasound, gastric ultrasound, the focus assessment with sonography for trauma exam, and focused cardiac ultrasound, in the perioperative and chronic pain setting. It also discusses barriers to POCUS education and training and proposes a list of educational resources. For each POCUS section, learning goals and specific skills were presented in the Indication, Acquisition, Interpretation, and Medical decision-making framework.

9.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632778

RESUMO

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a critical skill for all regional anesthesiologists and pain physicians to help diagnose relevant complications related to routine practice and guide perioperative management. In an effort to inform the regional anesthesia and pain community as well as address a need for structured education and training, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) commissioned this narrative review to provide recommendations for POCUS. The guidelines were written by content and educational experts and approved by the Guidelines Committee and the Board of Directors of the ASRA. In part I of this two-part series, clinical indications for POCUS in the perioperative and chronic pain setting are described. The clinical review addresses airway ultrasound, lung ultrasound, gastric ultrasound, the focus assessment with sonography for trauma examination and focused cardiac ultrasound for the regional anesthesiologist and pain physician. It also provides foundational knowledge regarding ultrasound physics, discusses the impact of handheld devices and finally, offers insight into the role of POCUS in the pediatric population.

10.
Can J Anaesth ; 68(3): 387-408, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403545

RESUMO

The erector spinae plane (ESP) block is an emerging regional anesthetic technique with significant potential for clinical benefit. Nevertheless, its exact mechanism(s) of action has been much debated. We reviewed the available literature to explore the possible mechanisms of analgesia for the ESP block. These include neural blockade and central inhibition from direct spread of local anesthetic to the paravertebral or epidural space; analgesia mediated by elevated local anesthetic plasma concentrations due to systemic absorption; immunomodulatory effects of local anesthetics; and an effect mediated through the mechanosensory properties of thoracolumbar fascia. Based on evidence from clinical, human cadaveric, animal, and mechanistic laboratory studies, the most probable primary mechanism is a direct effect of local anesthetic via physical spread and diffusion to neural structures in the fascial plane deep to the erector spinae muscles and adjacent tissue compartments. Biological plausibility of this primary mechanism is confirmed by injectate spread to the ventral rami of spinal nerves (though quite variable) in most studies. There is consistent involvement of dorsal rami; epidural spread is a less commonly observed phenomenon. A systemic effect of local anesthetic is also plausible, but unlikely to be a major contributor to clinical analgesic efficacy. The evidence for significant analgesia due to other proposed mechanisms, such as fascia-mediated analgesia or lymphatic spread, are currently limited and thus remain speculative. Understanding the mechanisms of action could assist clinicians in further investigating and refining ESP block performance, with the ultimate goal of optimizing analgesic efficacy and improving postoperative patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Anestésicos Locais , Animais , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Músculos Paraespinais
11.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(2): e137-e139, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509933

RESUMO

A key controversy in the COVID-19 pandemic has been over staff safety in health and social care settings. Anaesthetists and intensivists were anticipated to be at the highest risk of work-related infection due to involvement in airway management and management of critical illness and therefore wear the highest levels of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the hospital. However, the data clearly show that those working in anaesthesia and critical care settings are at lower risk of infection, harm and death from COVID-19 than colleagues working on the wards. The observed safety of anaesthetists and intensivists and increased risk to those in other patient-facing roles has implications for transmission-based infection control precautions. The precautionary principle supports extending training in and use of airborne precaution PPE to all staff working in patient-facing roles who have close contact with coughing patients. This will both reduce their risk of contracting COVID-19, maintain services and reduce nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. The emergence of a new variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with significantly higher transmissibility creates urgency to addressing this matter.


Assuntos
Anestesistas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , /prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias
12.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Total knee arthroplasty is associated with significant pain, and effective analgesia is beneficial to patient satisfaction and functional outcomes. Studies have demonstrated that dexamethasone may have a facilitatory role on the action of local anesthesia, but this effect, when added to a local infiltration analgesia (LIA) mixture for patients having knee arthroplasty, is underexplored. Our hypothesis was that the addition of dexamethasone to local anesthetic infiltration would improve analgesic outcomes following total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of 140 patients undergoing elective, unilateral, total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2 mL of saline 0.9% or 2 mL of dexamethasone 4 mg/mL added to a LIA mixture. Our primary outcome was 24 hours of oral morphine equivalent consumption. Our secondary outcomes included short-term and long-term analgesic and functional outcomes and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were included in the saline group and 68 were included in the dexamethasone group. We found comparable 24 hours of morphine consumption between saline and dexamethasone groups, with a median of 60 (IQR 40-105 (range 16-230)) mg and 56 (IQR 41-75 (range 0-300)) mg, respectively (p=0.096). Dexamethasone was associated with a statistically significant reduction in total inpatient opioid consumption, incidence of requiring rescue patient-controlled analgesia, length of hospital stay, and postoperative nausea, compared with saline. Patients in the dexamethasone group had a greater range of joint movement and distance walked on postoperative day 1 than the saline group. There were no differences in rest or active pain scores, timed up and go or 3-month outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone 8 mg was associated with no improvements in 24 hours of morphine consumption but was associated with modest improvements in short-term analgesia, short-term function, length of stay and postoperative nausea. There were no long-term benefits in the use of dexamethasone in LIA for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02760043.

14.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(11): e0279, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225305

RESUMO

Objectives: To propose the optimal timing to consider tracheostomy insertion for weaning of mechanically ventilated patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. We investigated the relationship between duration of mechanical ventilation prior to tracheostomy insertion and in-hospital mortality. In addition, we present a machine learning approach to facilitate decision-making. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Patients: Consecutive patients admitted with acute respiratory failure secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 requiring mechanical ventilation between March 3, 2020, and May 5, 2020. Interventions: Baseline characteristics and temporal trends in markers of disease severity were prospectively recorded. Tracheostomy was performed for anticipated prolonged ventilatory wean when levels of respiratory support were favorable. Decision tree was constructed using C4.5 algorithm, and its classification performance has been evaluated by a leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Measurements and Main Results: One-hundred seventy-six patients required mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure, of which 87 patients (49.4%) underwent tracheostomy. We identified that optimal timing for tracheostomy insertion is between day 13 and day 17. Presence of fibrosis on CT scan (odds ratio, 13.26; 95% CI [3.61-48.91]; p ≤ 0.0001) and Pao2:Fio2 ratio (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI [0.95-0.99]; p = 0.008) were independently associated with tracheostomy insertion. Cox multiple regression analysis showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio, 6.56; 95% CI [1.04-41.59]; p = 0.046), ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI [1.19-17.87]; p = 0.027), positive end-expiratory pressure (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI [1.02-1.57]; p = 0.034), Pao2:Fio2 ratio (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI [0.97-0.99]; p = 0.003), and C-reactive protein (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI [1-1.01]; p = 0.005) were independent late predictors of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: We propose that the optimal window for consideration of tracheostomy for ventilatory weaning is between day 13 and 17. Late predictors of mortality may serve as adverse factors when considering tracheostomy, and our decision tree provides a degree of decision support for clinicians.

16.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(6): 760-767, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027077

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite peripheral nerve blockade offering analgesic benefits and improving patient satisfaction, it has not been well adopted in ambulatory anesthesia. In this review, we aim to summarize the evidence underlying peripheral nerve blockade, local anesthetic adjuncts, continuous peripheral nerve blockade and novel analgesic modalities, with the objective to provide recommendations on postoperative analgesia optimization after peripheral nerve blockade in an ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Barriers to the widespread use of peripheral nerve blockade in ambulatory anesthesia could include lack of education and training, and increased anesthetic induction time. Strategies that have demonstrated promise to increase duration of action and attenuate rebound pain phenomenon after peripheral nerve blockade include multimodal analgesia, local anesthetic adjuncts and continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Dexamethasone has been demonstrated to be the most effective local anesthetic adjunct. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is a reasonable alternative but at the expense of additional costs and logistical reorganization. There is currently insufficient data to promote the ambulatory use of liposomal bupivacaine, cryoanalgesia and percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation. SUMMARY: Educational programs and parallel processing may promote peripheral nerve blockade in an ambulatory setting, improving the patient experience in the postoperative period. Intravenous dexamethasone should be considered wherever appropriate as part of a multimodal analgesic strategy to optimize postoperative pain control.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia por Condução , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(11): 924-933, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caudal block is a well-established technique for providing perioperative analgesia in pediatric genitourinary surgery, but abdominal wall blocks such as ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (II-IH) and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are increasingly being used. METHODS: Our protocol for this meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020163497). Central, CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, LILACS, MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from inception to 11 December 2019 for randomized controlled trials that included pediatric patients having genitourinary surgery with II-IH or TAP block as the intervention and caudal analgesia as the comparator. For continuous and dichotomous outcomes, respectively, we calculated the mean difference using the inverse-variance method and the risk ratio with the Mantel-Haenzel method. RESULTS: In all, 23 trials with 1399 patients were included. II-IH and TAP block were similar to caudal analgesia in the coprimary outcomes of the postoperative pain score at 0-2 hours (high-quality evidence) and the need for in-hospital rescue analgesia (moderate-quality evidence consequent to downgrading by publication bias). No subgroup differences in regard to the type of abdominal wall block or the method of block localization were demonstrated for these primary outcomes. Relative to caudal analgesia, II-IH and TAP block reduced the incidence of postoperative motor blockade and the time to micturition. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis was limited by unclear risk of selection and performance biases and significant heterogeneity. In summary, II-IH and TAP block are a non-invasive and reasonable alternative to caudal analgesia in pediatric genitourinary surgery.

20.
Can J Anaesth ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Because of the anticipated surge in cases requiring intensive care unit admission, the high aerosol-generating risk of tracheal intubation, and the specific requirements in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients, a dedicated Mobile Endotracheal Rapid Intubation Team (MERIT) was formed to ensure that a highly skilled team would be deployed to manage the airways of this cohort of patients. Here, we report our intubation team experience and activity as well as patient outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The MERIT members followed a protocolized early tracheal intubation model. Over a seven-week period during the peak of the pandemic, prospective data were collected on MERIT activity, COVID-19 symptoms or diagnosis in the team members, and demographic, procedural, and clinical outcomes of patients. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 150 primary tracheal intubation episodes, with 101 (67.3%) of those occurring in men, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 55.7 (13.8) yr. Black, Asian, and minority ethnic groups accounted for 55.7% of patients. 91.3% of tracheal intubations were performed with videolaryngoscopy, and the first pass success rate was 88.0%. The 30-day survival was 69.2%, and the median [interquartile range] length of critical care stay was 11 [6-20] days and of hospital stay was 12 [7-22] days. Seven (11.1%) MERIT healthcare professionals self-isolated because of COVID-19 symptoms, with a total 41 days of clinical work lost. There was one reported incident of a breach of personal protective equipment and multiple anecdotal reports of doffing breaches. CONCLUSION: We have shown that a highly skilled designated intubation team, following a protocolized, early tracheal intubation model may be beneficial in improving patient and staff safety, and could be considered by other institutions in future pandemic surges.

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