Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 178
Filtrar
1.
CJC Open ; 3(9): 1117-1124, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712938

RESUMO

Background: To explore evolving surgical techniques and outcomes for aortic arch surgery. Methods: A total of 2435 consecutive patients underwent aortic arch repair with hypothermic circulatory arrest between 2008 and 2018 in 12 institutions across Canada. Trends in patient characteristics, surgical techniques, and in-hospital outcomes, including major morbidity or mortality, were examined. Results: From 2008 to 2018, the age of patients (62.3 ± 13.2 years) and the proportion of women (30.2%) undergoing arch surgery did not change significantly. Aortic diameters at operation decreased (2008: 58 ± 13 mm; 2018: 53 ± 11 mm; P < 0.01). Surgeons performed more valve-sparing root replacements (2008: 0%; 2018: 15%; P < 0.001) and fewer Bentall procedures (2008: 27%; 2018: 20%; P < 0.01). Total arch replacement rates were similar (P = 0.18); however, elephant trunk (2008: 9.5%; 2018: 19%; P < 0.001) and frozen elephant trunk (2008: 3.1%; 2018: 15%; P < 0.001) repair rates have increased. Over time, higher nadir temperatures (2008: 18 [17-21]°C; 2018: 25 [23-28]°C; P < 0.001), and more frequent antegrade cerebral perfusion (2008: 61%; 2018: 83%; P < 0.001) were used. For elective cases, in-hospital mortality rates declined (2008: 6.8%; 2018: 1.2%; P = < 0.01), as did major morbidity or mortality (2008: 24%; 2018: 13%; P < 0.001) and transfusion rates (2008: 61%; 2018: 41%; P < 0.001), but stroke rates remained constant (2008: 6.8%; 2018: 5.3%; P = 0.12). Outcomes remained the same over time for urgent or emergent cases. Conclusions: Outcomes have improved over the past decade in Canada for elective aortic arch surgery, in the context of operating on smaller aortas, and more frequent use of moderate hypothermia and antegrade cerebral perfusion. Further research is needed to improve stroke rates and outcomes in the emergency setting.

2.
J Card Surg ; 36(12): 4789-4791, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bicuspid pulmonic valves are quite uncommon, being described in only 0.1% of donor's hearts, while pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs) are even rarer, having been found in 8 out of 109,571 autopsies. This rarity makes it difficult to characterize the relationship between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the case of a 66-year-old female who was found to have a bicuspid pulmonic valve and PAA (5.1 cm) on imaging by her cardiologist. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This case raises the question of whether the association between bicuspid semilunar valve disease and vascular wall anomalies is more genetic or hemodynamic. Even on the aortic side, despite the robust association between bicuspid aortic valves and thoracic aortic aneurysms, the mechanism still remains unclear. In our patient there was no significant gradient across the bicuspid pulmonic valve, suggesting that hemodynamics are not the primum mobile of this association.


Assuntos
Aneurisma , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Idoso , Aneurisma/complicações , Aneurisma/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Ross procedure is an excellent option for children or young adults who need aortic valve replacement because it can restore survival to that of the normal aged-matched population. However, autograft remodeling can lead to aneurysmal formation and reoperation, and the biomechanics of this process is unknown. This study investigated postoperative autograft remodeling after the Ross procedure by examining patient-specific autograft wall stresses. METHODS: Patients who have undergone the Ross procedure who had intraoperative pulmonary root and aortic specimens collected were recruited. Patient-specific models (n = 16) were developed using patient-specific material property and their corresponding geometry from cine magnetic resonance imaging at 1-year follow-up. Autograft ± Dacron for aneurysm repair and ascending aortic geometries were reconstructed to develop patient-specific finite element models, which incorporated material properties and wall thickness experimentally measured from biaxial stretching. A multiplicative approach was used to account for prestress geometry from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Pressure loading to systemic pressure (120/80) was performed using LS-DYNA software (LSTC Inc, Livermore, Calif). RESULTS: At systole, first principal stresses were 809 kPa (25%-75% interquartile range, 691-1219 kPa), 567 kPa (485-675 kPa), 637 kPa (555-755 kPa), and 382 kPa (334-413 kPa) at the autograft sinotubular junction, sinuses, annulus, and ascending aorta, respectively. Second principal stresses were 360 kPa (310-426 kPa), 355 kPa (320-394 kPa), 272 kPa (252-319 kPa), and 184 kPa (147-222 kPa) at the autograft sinotubular junction, sinuses, annulus, and ascending aorta, respectively. Mean autograft diameters were 29.9 ± 2.7 mm, 38.3 ± 5.3 mm, and 26.6 ± 4.0 mm at the sinotubular junction, sinuses, and annulus, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Peak first principal stresses were mainly located at the sinotubular junction, particularly when Dacron reinforcement was used. Patient-specific simulations lay the foundation for predicting autograft dilatation in the future after understanding biomechanical behavior during long-term follow-up.

4.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(4): 433-443, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422555

RESUMO

Prosthetic aortic valve replacements have long been the mainstay of valvular surgery due to their favorable outcomes and low operative complexity. Yet, mechanical valves require lifelong anticoagulation, whereas bioprosthetic valves increase the risk for earlier and more frequent reoperation. Alternative reconstructive techniques have been proposed to address these challenges. These include valve-sparing root replacement procedures if the native aortic valve can be salvaged, and the Ross procedure, which nearly eliminates prosthetic valve-related thromboembolism, anticoagulation-related hemorrhage and endocarditis. Both procedures are technically more complex and thus subject to surgeons' volume and expertise compared to conventional aortic valve replacements. However, they are associated with more favorable outcomes compared to aortic valve replacements if performed by experienced surgeons, especially in younger patients. Nevertheless, despite the growing high-quality literature supporting both procedures, existing multi-society guidelines fail to acknowledge the strength of evidence in support of valve-sparing root replacement procedures and the Ross procedure. In this review, we summarize the existing long-term evidence for the use of each procedure, describe the current guidelines for the treatment of aortic valve pathology, and propose the reevaluation of guidelines based on the available clinical evidence.

5.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(4): 476-484, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422559

RESUMO

Background: Repair failure remains one of the most important complications of aortic valve reconstruction. Young patients might benefit from a Ross procedure in such a scenario, provided it can be performed safely and with adequate durability. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and clinical outcomes of a Ross operation following a failed repair. Methods: Between 1996 and 2019, 80 patients (male, 76%; mean age, 31±13 years) underwent a Ross procedure after a median of 6.6 (1.7-15.9) years following an initial aortic valve repair. The previous valve repair was performed for unicuspid (53%), bicuspid (39%), tricuspid (7%), and quadricuspid morphology (1%). Median follow-up after the Ross operation was 2.8 (0.964-13.25) years, mean 5±5 years (92% complete). Results: Median cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 144 [106-154] minutes and 98 [79-113] minutes, respectively. Thirty-two patients (40%) required a concomitant procedure, most commonly, an ascending aortic replacement (n=23). There were no peri-operative deaths, myocardial infarctions, or neurological complications. There was one late death from a non-cardiac cause. At 10 years, overall survival was 99%±1%, similar to that of an age- and gender-matched population. Nine patients required re-intervention after their Ross procedure (five on the autograft and four on the pulmonary conduit). The autograft re-interventions were valve-sparing procedures in all patients. The cumulative incidence of re-intervention on the autograft at 8 years was 5.1%±3.1%. Conclusions: The stepwise strategy of an initial valve repair followed by Ross operation represents a safe and valid option for failed aortic valve repair. It is associated with low peri-operative morbidity. Mid-term survival is excellent, similar to that of a matched general population. The probability of re-intervention after the Ross procedure appears similar to that of a primary Ross operation, deeming it a warranted consideration in cases of failed aortic valve repair.

6.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(4): 463-475, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422558

RESUMO

The Ross procedure is the best operation to treat aortic stenosis (AS) in young and middle-aged adults. However, its role in non-repairable aortic regurgitation (AR) remains debated since many historical series have reported an increased risk of pulmonary autograft dilatation and subsequent need for reintervention in these patients. Some have attributed these findings to an unrecognized and poorly characterized inherited genetic defect that prevents adaptive remodelling of the pulmonary autograft. Herein, we review the contemporary evidence surrounding the use of the Ross procedure in young adults with AR and put forth the argument that with proper technical refinements, the Ross procedure may still be the best operation to treat these patients. We believe that by tailoring the operation to the patient's anatomy and ensuring strict postoperative blood pressure control, one can achieve excellent results with the Ross procedure, including in this challenging patient population.

7.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(4): 546-548, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422573
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine intermediate-term survival and reinterventions in unselected patients, stratified according to indication, who received a Freestyle (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) bioprosthesis as a full aortic root replacement. METHODS: Data from medical records were retrospectively collected for patients who had aortic root replacement using Freestyle bioprostheses between 1999 and 2018 at 6 North-Atlantic centers. Survival status was extracted from national registries and results stratified according to indication for surgery. RESULTS: We included 1030 implantations in 1008 patients with elective indications for surgery: aneurysm (39.8%), small root (8.3%), and other (13.8%), and urgent/emergent indications: endocarditis (26.7%) and Stanford type A aortic dissection (11.4%). Across indications, 46.3% were nonelective cases and 34.0% were reoperations. Median age was 66.0 (interquartile range, 58.0-71.8) years and median follow-up was 5.0 (interquartile range, 2.6-7.9) years. Thirty-day mortality varied from 2.9% to 27.4% depending on indication. Intermediate survival for 90-day survivors with elective indications were not different from the general population standardized for age and sex (P = .95, .83, and .16 for aneurysms, small roots, and other, respectively). In contrast, patients with endocarditis and type A dissection had excess mortality (P < .001). Freedom from valve reinterventions was 95.0% and 94.4% at 5 and 8 years, respectively. In all, 52 patients (5.2%) underwent reinterventions, most because of endocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: At intermediate term follow-up this retrospective study provides further support for the use of the Freestyle bioprosthesis in the real-world setting of diverse, complex, and often high-risk aortic root replacement and suggests that outcome is determined by patient and disease, rather than by prosthesis, characteristics.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089828

RESUMO

To examine the perioperative outcomes following aortic arch repair using frozen elephant trunk (FET) vs conventional elephant trunk (ET) techniques. Between 2002 and 2018, 390 patients underwent aortic repair with elephant trunk reconstruction at 9 centers: 172 patients received a FET (mean age: 65+/-13 years, 30% female, 37% aortic dissection) and 218 patients received an ET (mean age: 63+/-13 years, 37% female, 43% aortic dissection). Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality; stroke; and spinal cord injury (SCI). In-hospital mortality rate was 11% (n = 43) overall, 9% (n = 15) for FET and 13% (n = 28) for ET. Post-operative stroke occurred in 13% (n = 49) overall, 13% (n = 22) for FET and 12% (n = 27) for ET. The rate of post-operative SCI was 3% (n = 13) overall, 5.0% (n = 9) for FET and 2.0% (n = 4) for ET. When compared to ET, the propensity score analysis confirmed FET to be associated with lower mortality (adjusted risk difference -7.0% (95% CI -13.0 to -1.0), P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the propensity score-adjusted risk difference for stroke between FET and ET (-0.7%, 95% CI -7.4% to 6.1%, P = 0.85), nor for SCI (3.3%, 95% CI -0.4% to 7.0%, P = 0.085) On multivariable analysis, FET was associated with lower odds of mortality (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.95, P = 0.04), and had similar odds of stroke (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.41-1.70, P = 0.62) and SCI (OR 2.83, 95% CI 0.83-9.60, P = 0.1). FET repair is associated with lower in-hospital mortality as compared to conventional ET, and results in similar risk of stroke and spinal cord injury. Further investigation is warranted.

13.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1635-1638, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090977

RESUMO

In an effort to further improve surgical outcomes in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (ATAD), the Canadian Thoracic Aortic Collaborative (CTAC), with the support of the Canadian Society of Cardiac Surgeons (CSCS), endeavoured to develop quality indicators (QIs) for the management of patients with ATAD. After 2 successive consultations with the CTAC membership, 11 QIs were selected and separated into 5 broad categories: preoperative (time from presentation to diagnosis, time from presentation to the operating room), intraoperative (use of hypothermic circulatory arrest and antegrade cerebral perfusion), 30-day outcomes (30-day rates of all-cause mortality, 30-day rates of new postoperative stroke), 1-year outcomes (1-year rates of follow-up imaging, 1-year rates of all-cause mortality, and 1-year rates of surgical reintervention), and institutional (institutional surgical volumes, individual surgical volumes, and presence of institutional aortic disease teams). The purpose of this article is to describe the process by which QIs for the management of ATAD were developed and the feasibility by which they may be collected using existing clinical and administrative data sources. Furthermore, we demonstrate how they may be used to evaluate success following surgery for repair of ATAD and ultimately improve clinical outcomes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In complex and high-risk aortic root disease, the porcine Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, Minn) is an important surgical treatment option. We aimed to determine prevalence and clinical effect of structural and functional abnormalities after full-root Freestyle implantation. METHODS: Our cross-sectional 2-center study combined with clinical follow-up included 253 patients with full-root Freestyle bioprostheses implanted from 1999 to 2017. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and contrast-enhanced, electrocardiogram-gated 4-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (4DCT) at median age 70 (interquartile range, 62-75) years. After 4DCT, clinical follow-up continued throughout 2018. Median follow-up was 3.3 years before 4DCT and 1.4 years after. RESULTS: We identified abnormalities in 46% of patients, including pseudoaneurysms (n = 32; 13%), moderate or severe coronary ostial stenosis (n = 54; 21%), and moderate-severe leaflet thickening or reduced leaflet motion (n = 51; 20%). TTE only identified 1 patient with pseudoaneurysm. After 4DCT, the unadjusted hazard ratio for surgical reintervention among patients with abnormal 4DCT was 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-15.3), in all, 10% required a reintervention. 4DCT abnormalities were associated with a statistically nonsignificant increased risk of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction (hazard ratio obtained using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-7.6). In all, 4.0% died, 3.6% had a myocardial infarction, and 2.0% had a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Structural and functional abnormalities of the aortic root are frequent after Freestyle implantation and TTE appears to be insufficient for follow-up. Abnormalities might be associated with increased risk of reintervention and potentially adverse clinical outcomes. Longer follow-up and larger study populations are needed to further clarify the clinical implications of abnormalities identified with 4DCT.

19.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 60(3): 623-630, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of an aortic root replacement or sinus repair on mortality and morbidity during aortic arch repair. METHODS: A total of 2472 patients underwent proximal or total aortic arch repair with hypothermic circulatory arrest between 2002 and 2018 at 12 centres. Multivariable logistic regressions (MV) and propensity score (PS) with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1099 (44.5%) patients had additional aortic root replacement (n = 934) or sinus repair (n = 165). Those with aortic root interventions were younger (61 ± 13 vs 64 ± 13 years, P < 0.001) and had less females (23% vs 35%, P < 0.001), less dissection (31% vs 36%, P = 0.004), less urgent cases (35% vs 39%, P = 0.047), more connective tissue disease (7% vs 3%, P < 0.001) and less total arch replacements (14% vs 22%, P < 0.001). On adjusted analyses, the addition of aortic root procedure was associated with increased mortality [MV: odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.92; PS-IPTW: risk increased by 3.7%, 95% CI 1.2-6.3%, P = 0.004]. Reoperation for bleeding was also increased with the addition of aortic root intervention (MV: OR 1.48, 95% 1.10-1.99; PS-IPTW: risk increased by 3.2%, 95% CI 0.8-5.6%, P = 0.009). The risks of stroke and dialysis-dependent renal failure were similar. When looking only at non-elective cases, the increased risk of mortality was more pronounced (MV: OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.11-2.32, P = 0.013; PS-IPTW: risk increased by 6.8%, 95 CI 1.7-11.8%, P = 0.008, and a number need to harm of 15 patients to cause 1 additional death). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of aortic root replacement or sinus repair during proximal or total aortic arch repair seems to increase postoperative mortality only in non-elective cases.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(5): 539-548, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656518

RESUMO

Importance: There is no ideal valve substitute for young adults requiring aortic valve replacement. Multicenter data supporting use of the Ross procedure with respect to long-term postoperative valve-related mortality and reintervention, as well as function of the autograft and pulmonary homograft, are needed. Objective: To determine the long-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes in young and middle-aged patients undergoing the Ross procedure. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective multicenter international cohort study with a median follow-up period of 9.2 years was conducted in 5 experienced centers regularly performing the Ross procedure. Consecutive patients aged 18 to 65 years were included by each center between 1991 and 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival and autograft-related and homograft-related reintervention. Serial echocardiographic measurements of valve function were analyzed using mixed-effects modeling. Results: During the study period, 1431 patients (74.3% men; n = 1063) were operated on at a median age of 48.5 years (mean [SD], 47.7 [9.5]; range, 18.1-65; interquartile range, 42.7-54.0). Implantation techniques were root inclusion in 355 (24.9%), root replacement in 485 (34.0%), and subcoronary implantation in 587 (41.1%). Right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction was performed with homografts in 98.6% (n = 1189) and bioprostheses in 1.4% (n = 17). Ten patients (0.7%) died before discharge. Median follow-up was 9.2 years (13 015 total patient-years). Survival after 10 and 15 years was 95.1% (95% CI, 93.8%-96.5%) and 88.5% (95% CI, 85.9%-91.1%), respectively. Freedom from autograft and homograft reintervention after 15 years was 92.0% and 97.2%, respectively. Late events were autograft endocarditis in 14 patients (0.11% per patient-year), homograft endocarditis in 11 patients (0.08% per patient-year), and stroke in 37 patients (0.3% per patient-year). Conclusions and Relevance: Given its excellent short-term and long-term outcome in young and middle-aged adults in this study, the Ross procedure should be considered in young and middle-aged adults who require aortic valve replacement. Patients should be referred to an experienced center with a program dedicated to the Ross procedure.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...