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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538290

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely present in multiple environmental media even long after the phaseout, posing a health risk to the general population. Dietary intake is the major exposure route of PCBs; however, information is limited regarding PCBs in food that people directly consume. This study aims to measure personal exposure to indicator PCBs, evaluate the health risks, and identify their sources in a typical metropolitan city in China. Multi-day food samples were collected from 21 subjects in Lanzhou, Gansu Province, in two seasons using the duplicate plate method. Samples were extracted and analyzed for seven indicator PCBs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Average daily doses (ADDs) of ∑7PCBs were estimated using Monte Carlo analysis with food intake information. Results show that PCB-118 and PCB-180 were the major congeners in food samples with average concentrations of 1.42 and 1.11 ng/g, respectively. The average (± SD) ADD of ∑7PCBs was 26.47 ± 22.10 ng/kg day among adults aged 18-69 years and displayed small variation across age groups. Comparing with the chronic RfD of 7 ng/kg day, 67% of people had their ADDs exceeding this threshold. The median cancer risk was 5.52 × 10-5, and 51% of residents had risks exceeding the action level of 10-4. The principal component analysis identified waste incineration, gasoline engine production, and leakage of #1 PCBs as the major PCBs sources. In conclusion, a large portion of Lanzhou residents has high non-cancer and cancer risks from dietary exposure to PCBs, which warrants control actions targeting these major sources.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate data on water and beverage intakes are essential for assessing hydration adequacy and setting proper guidelines. The objective of this study is to identify the patterns and sociodemographic determinants of water intake and to assess the intake adequacy for children in China. METHODS: The study team recruited 41,439 children aged 6-17 years using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Daily water and beverage intakes were investigated with the standard questionnaires and measuring containers in face-to-face interviews. Each participant was assigned an adjustment weight to obtain a nationally representative sample. Sociodemographic factors influencing water intake were identified using multi-variable regressions. Water intake adequacy was evaluated by comparing with the recommended water intake (RWI). RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of total water intake (TWI) was 1603 ± 731 mL/day for boys and 1487 ± 661 mL/day for girls. Plain water, food moisture, and other beverages contributed 51%, 20%, and 29% of the TWI. Multi-variable analyses showed that TWI of children increased with age, in urban areas and day schools, and with parents' economic and educational levels. The majority (82%) of children had TWI not meeting the corresponding RWI, and the percentage increased with age except for 14-17-year-old boys. CONCLUSIONS: Plain water is still the major source of daily water intake by children in China. Unfortunately, the majority of children do not have sufficient water intake, which warrants future actions and guidelines targeting adequate hydration.

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