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1.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 910: 174494, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508754

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder with serious maternal complications. Considering the increased importance of postpartum infection in maternal morbidity and mortality, we investigated whether preeclamptic maternal programming alters cardiovascular consequences of endotoxemia in rats and the role of cardiac and brainstem neuroinflammation in this interaction. Preeclampsia was induced by oral administration of L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day) for 7 days starting from day 14 of conception. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac autonomic function caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg i.v.) were assessed in mothers at 3 weeks (weaning time) and 9 weeks postnatally. Compared with respective non-PE counterparts, LPS treatment of weaning PE mothers caused significantly greater (i) falls in blood pressure, (ii) rises in heart rate and left ventricular contractility (dP/dtmax), (iii) reductions in time and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability and shifts in cardiac sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio, LF/HF) towards parasympathetic dominance, and (iv) attenuation of reflex bradycardic responses measured by the vasoactive method. The intensified LPS effects in weaning PE rats subsided after 9 weeks of delivery. Immunohistochemical studies showed increased protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in brainstem neuronal pools of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), but not rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), in endotoxic PE weaning rats compared with non-PE rats. Cardiac NF-κB expression was increased by LPS but this was similarly noted in PE and non-PE rats. Together, preeclamptic maternal programming elicits short-term exacerbation of endotoxic cardiovascular and autonomic derangements due possibly to exaggerated NTS neuroinflammatory insult.

2.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(11): 2273-2287, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468816

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality risks are enhanced in preeclamptic (PE) mothers and their offspring. Here, we asked if sexual dimorphism exists in (i) cardiovascular and renal damage evolved in offspring of PE mothers, and (ii) offspring responsiveness to antenatal therapies. PE was induced by administering NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg/day, oral gavage) to pregnant rats for 7 days starting from gestational day 14. Three therapies were co-administered orally with L-NAME, atrasentan (endothelin ETA receptor antagonist), terutroban (thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, TXA2), or α-methyldopa (α-MD, central sympatholytic drug). Cardiovascular and renal profiles were assessed in 3-month-old offspring. Compared with offspring of non-PE rats, PE offspring exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure and proteinuria and reduced heart rate and creatinine clearance (CrCl). Apart from a greater bradycardia in male offspring, similar PE effects were noted in male and female offspring. While terutroban, atrasentan, or α-MD partially and similarly blunted the PE-evoked changes in CrCl and proteinuria, terutroban was the only drug that virtually abolished PE hypertension. Rises in cardiorenal inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα) and oxidative (isoprostane) markers were mostly and equally eliminated by all therapies in the two sexes, except for a greater dampening action of atrasentan, compared with α-MD, on tissue TNFα in female offspring only. Histopathologically, antenatal terutroban or atrasentan was more effective than α-MD in rectifying cardiac structural damage, myofiber separation, and cytoplasmic alterations, in PE offspring. The repair by antenatal terutroban or atrasentan of cardiovascular and renal anomalies in PE offspring is mostly sex-independent and surpasses the protection offered by α-MD, the conventional PE therapy.

3.
Inflamm Res ; 70(9): 981-992, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, exhibits antiinflammatory action. We tested whether exposure to montelukast plus nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) elicits better control of paw inflammation in the rat formalin test and improves associated gastric damage. MATERIALS: A total of 46 adult male rats were used in the study. TREATMENTS: We evaluated separate and combined effects of montelukast (20 mg/kg), celecoxib (COX2 inhibitor, 10 mg/kg), and diclofenac (nonselective COX1/COX2 inhibitor, 10 mg/kg) on paw and gastric damage in the rat formalin test. RESULTS: Individual pretreatments of rats with montelukast, diclofenac, or celecoxib partly reduced formalin-induced increases in (i) paw edema, fibrosis, and inflammatory cells, (iii) serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leukotrienes (LTB4 and LTD4), and (iv) paw expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX2. These effects were accentuated in rats treated with montelukast plus diclofenac or montelukast plus celecoxib. Alternatively, montelukast or celecoxib, but not diclofenac, alleviated formalin-evoked gastric damage and increments in tumor necrosis factor-α and decrements in prostaglandin-E2. These advantageous gastric influences were potentiated in rats treated with montelukast plus celecoxib. CONCLUSIONS: While montelukast equally enhances antiinflammatory action of diclofenac or celecoxib via downregulating iNOS/COX2/LTs/IL-6 signaling, its gastroprotective action is preferentially potentiated by celecoxib.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 696981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456723

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. We recently developed a nano-preparation of the flavonoid quercetin (QU) in a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). The latter comprised a mixture composed of pumpkin seed oil, D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1,000 succinate and polyethylene glycol. The QU SNEDDS preparations exhibited a considerably higher bioavailability compared with the standard quercetin suspension. Here, we investigated whether the quercetin loaded SNEDDS could offer better protection compared with the standard formulation against cardiovascular complications of MetS in rats. MetS was induced by high fructose, high salt and high fat diet for 12 weeks while the nano-preparation or the standard suspension of quercetin was orally administered for the last 6 weeks. Compared to little effect for the standard quercetin suspension (MQ), the treatment of MetS rats with the quercetin loaded SNEDDS (MNQ) virtually abolished the depressant effect of MetS on contractility index (control, 114 ± 4; MetS, 92 ± 3; MQ, 100 ± 2; MNQ, 114 ± 6 1/s) and rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax) (control, 8,171 ± 274; MetS, 6,664 ± 135; MQ, 6,776 ± 108; MNQ, 7,498 ± 303 mmHg/s). Likewise, the prolongation by MetS of electrocardiographic markers of arrhythmogenesis (QTc, JT, and Tpeak-to-Tend intervals) and concomitant rises in dicrotic notch pressure were preferentially reversed by quercetin nano-preparation. On the other hand, the rises in the isovolumic relaxation constant (Tau, denotes diastolic dysfunction), blood pressure, pulse pressure, and difference between systolic and dicrotic pressure (SDP difference) were equally improved by the two preparations of quercetin. Additionally, no differences were noted in the ability of the two quercetin preparations in abrogating the elevated oxidative (MDA) and inflammatory (TNFα) markers in cardiac tissues of MetS rats. Histopathological, microscopical signs of necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and vascular congestion in MetS hearts were more markedly inhibited by the nano-preparation, compared with the standard preparation of quercetin. In conclusion, the quercetin loaded SNEDDS is evidently more advantageous than the standard preparation of the drug in alleviating functional and histopathological manifestations of cardiac damage incited by MetS.

5.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 192: 114703, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324867

RESUMO

The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is vital for the orchestration of the immune and inflammatory responses under normal and challenged conditions. Over the past two decades, peripheral and central circuits of CAP have been shown to be critically involved in dampening the inflammatory reaction in a wide array of inflammatory disorders. Additionally, emerging evidence supports a key role for CAP in the regulation of the female reproductive system during gestation as well as in the advent of serious pregnancy-related inflammatory insults such as preeclampsia (PE). Within this framework, the modulatory action of CAP encompasses the perinatal maternal and fetal adverse consequences that surface due to antenatal PE programming. Albeit, a considerable gap still exists in our knowledge of the precise cellular and molecular underpinnings of PE/CAP interaction, which hampered global efforts in safeguarding effective preventive or therapeutic measures against PE complications. Here, we summarize reports in the literature regarding the roles of peripheral and reflex cholinergic neuroinflammatory pathways of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in reprogramming PE complications in mothers and their progenies. The possible contributions of α7-nAChRs, cholinesterases, immune cells, adhesion molecules, angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction to the interaction have also been reviewed.

6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 426: 115615, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102242

RESUMO

Current therapies for preeclampsia (PE) and its complications are limited and defective. Considering the importance of endothelin (ET) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling in PE pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal blockade of endothelin ETA or thromboxane TXA2 receptors favorably reprograms preeclamptic cardiovascular and renal insults. PE was induced by daily oral administration of L-NAME (50 mg/kg) to pregnant rats for 7 consecutive days starting from gestational day 14. The effects of co-exposure to atrasentan (ETA receptor blocker, 10 mg/kg/day) or terutroban (TXA2 receptor blocker, 10 mg/kg/day) on cardiovascular and renal anomalies induced by PE were assessed on gestational day 20 (GD20) and at weaning time and compared with those evoked by the sympatholytic drug α-methyldopa (α-MD, 100 mg/kg/day), a prototypic therapy for PE management. Among all drugs, terutroban was basically the most potent in ameliorating PE-evoked increments in blood pressure and decrements in creatinine clearance. Cardiorenal tissues of PE rats exhibited significant increases in ETA and TXA2 receptor expressions and these effects disappeared after treatment with atrasentan and to a lesser extent by terutroban or α-MD. Atrasentan was also the most effective in reversing the reduced ETB receptor expression in renal tissues of PE rats. Signs of histopathological damage in cardiac and renal tissues of PE rats were mostly improved by all therapies. Together, pharmacologic elimination of ETA or TXA2 receptors offers a relatively better prospect than α-MD in controlling perinatal cardiorenal irregularities sparked by PE.


Assuntos
Atrasentana/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Propionatos/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Tromboxano A2 e Prostaglandina H2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Atrasentana/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiopatias/genética , Cardiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/genética , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Propionatos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor de Endotelina A/genética , Receptores de Tromboxano A2 e Prostaglandina H2/genética
7.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 48(9): 1261-1270, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042216

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that immunosuppressant therapies protect against harmful effects of endotoxaemia. In this study, we tested whether calcineurin-dependent (cyclosporine/tacrolimus) and -independent (sirolimus) immunosuppressants variably influence nephrotoxicity induced by endotoxaemia and whether this interaction is modulated by testosterone. We investigated the effects of immunosuppressants on renal histopathological, biochemical and inflammatory profiles in endotoxic male rats and the role of androgenic state in the interaction. Six-hour treatment of rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3 mg/kg) increased (i) serum urea/creatinine, (ii) width of proximal/distal tubules, (iii) tubular degeneration and vacuolation, (iv) Western protein expressions of renal toll-like receptor 4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and NADPH oxidase-2, and (v) serum tumour necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase. These endotoxic manifestations were intensified and eliminated upon concurrent exposure to cyclosporine and sirolimus, respectively. The cyclosporine actions appear to be a class rather than a drug effect because similar exacerbation of LPS nephrotoxicity was observed in rats treated with tacrolimus, another calcineurin inhibitor (CNI). Moreover, the deteriorated renal outcomes in LPS/tacrolimus-treated rats were reduced after castration or androgen receptor blockade by flutamide. The data suggest opposite effects for calcineurin-dependent (exaggeration) and -independent immunosuppressants (amelioration) on renal defects of endotoxaemia and implicate androgenic pathways in the worsened endotoxic renal profile induced by CNIs.

8.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 77(5): 632-641, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852527

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Inconsistent reports are available on the role of testosterone in end-organ damage caused by endotoxemia. Here, pharmacologic, surgical, and molecular studies were employed to assess the testosterone modulation of cardiovascular, autonomic, and peripheral and central inflammatory derangements caused by endotoxemia. Studies were performed in conscious male rats preinstrumented with femoral indwelling catheters for the measurement of blood pressure and subjected to castration or pharmacologic interventions that interrupt the biosynthetic cascade of testosterone. Compared with the effects of lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg intravenously) in sham operated rats, 2-week castration reduced the lipopolysaccharide-evoked (1) falls in blood pressure, (2) decreases in time- and frequency-domain indices of heart rate variability, (3) shifts in spectral measures of cardiac sympathovagal balance toward parasympathetic dominance, and (4) increases in protein expressions of toll-like receptor-4 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in heart and medullary neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius and rostral ventrolateral medulla. While the ameliorating actions of castration on endotoxic cardiovascular manifestations were maintained after testosterone replacement, the concomitant inflammatory signals were restored to near-sham levels. The favorable influences of castration on inflammatory and cardiovascular abnormalities of endotoxemia were replicated in intact rats pretreated with degarelix (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor blocker) or finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor) but not formestane (aromatase inhibitor). The data signifies the importance of androgens and its biosynthetic enzymes in cardiovascular and autonomic insults induced by the endotoxic inflammatory response. Clinically, the interruption of testosterone biosynthesis could offer a potential strategy for endotoxemia management.

9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 898: 173996, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684450

RESUMO

Angiogenesis accelerates tissue regeneration in a variety of ischemic conditions including myocardial infarction (MI). Here we tested the hypothesis that angiogenesis induced by α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) mitigates histopathological, electrocardiographic, and molecular consequences of MI in rats. These profiles were evaluated in the isoprenaline (85 mg/kg/day i. p. For 2 days) MI rat model treated with or without nicotine or PHA-543613 (PHA, selective α7-nAChR agonist). Isoprenaline-insulted rats showed (i) ECG signs of MI such as significant ST-segment elevations and prolonged QT-intervals, (ii) deteriorated left ventricular histopathological scoring and elevated inflammatory cell infiltration, (iii) reduced immunohistochemical expression of cardiac CD34, a surrogate marker of capillary density, (iv) decreased cardiac expression of iNOS and α7-nAChRs, and (v) adaptive increases in cardiac HO-1 expression and plasma angiogenic markers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO). These effects of isoprenaline, except cardiac iNOS and α7-nAChRs downregulation, were ameliorated in rats treated with a low dose (20 µg/kg/day s. c. For 16 days) of nicotine or PHA. We also show that concurrent α7-nAChR blockade by methyllycaconitine (MLA, 40 µg/kg/day, for 16 days) reversed the ECG, histopathological, and capillary density effects of nicotine, thereby reinforcing the advantageous cardioprotective and anti-ischemic roles of α7-nAChRs in this setting. The observed results showed promising effects on isoprenaline induced myocardial damage. In conclusion, the activation of α7-nAChRs by doses of nicotine or PHA in the microgram scale promotes neovascularization and offers a promising therapeutic strategy for MI. CATEGORY: Cardiovascular Pharmacology.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/agonistas , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Isoproterenol , Masculino , Densidade Microvascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
10.
Brain Res ; 1756: 147330, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539800

RESUMO

Autonomic neuropathy contributes to cardiovascular derangements induced by endotoxemia. In this communication, we tested the hypothesis that androgenic hormones improve arterial baroreflex dysfunction and predisposing neuroinflammatory response caused by endotoxemia in male rats. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate to increases or decreases in blood pressure evoked by phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious sham-operated, castrated, and testosterone-replaced castrated rats treated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg i.v.). Slopes of baroreflex curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). In sham rats, LPS significantly reduced reflex bradycardia (BRSPE) and tachycardia (BRSSNP) and increased immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in heart and brainstem neurons of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). The baroreflex depressant effect of LPS was maintained in castrated rats despite the remarkably attenuated inflammatory response. Testosterone replacement of castrated rats counteracted LPS-evoked BRSPE, but not BRSSNP, depression and increased cardiac, but not neuronal, NFκB expression. We also evaluated whether LPS responses could be affected following pharmacologic inhibition of androgenic biosynthetic pathways. Whereas none of LPS effects were altered in rats pretreated with formestane (aromatase inhibitor) or finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor), the LPS-evoked BRSPE, but not BRSSNP, depression and cardiac and neuronal inflammation disappeared in rats pretreated with degarelix (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor blocker). Overall, despite the seemingly provocative role for the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the neuroinflammatory and baroreflex depressant effects of LPS, testosterone appears to distinctly modulate the two LPS effects.

11.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(18): 2099-2111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480335

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally. Several lines of evidence are supportive of the contributory role of vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis. Diverse immune cell types, including monocytes/macrophages, T-cells and neutrophils, as well as specialized proresolving lipid mediators, have been successfully characterized as key players in vascular inflammation. The increased prevalence of atherosclerotic CVD in men in comparison to age-matched premenopausal women and the abolition of sex differences in prevalence during menopause strongly suggest a pivotal role of sex hormones in the development of CVD. Indeed, many animal and human studies conclusively implicate sex hormones as a crucial component in driving the immune response. This is further corroborated by the effective identification of sex hormone receptors in vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and immune cells. Collectively, these findings suggest a cellular communication between sex hormones and vascular or immune cells underlying the vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of vascular inflammation as a causal cue underlying atherosclerotic CVDs within the context of the modulatory effects of sex hormones. Moreover, the cellular and molecular signaling pathways underlying the sex hormones- immune system interactions as potential culprits for vascular inflammation are highlighted with detailed and critical discussion. Finally, the review concludes by speculations on the potential sex-related efficacy of currently available immunotherapies in mitigating vascular inflammation. Conceivably, a deeper understanding of the immunoregulatory influence of sex hormones on vascular inflammation-mediated atherosclerosis permits sex-based management of atherosclerosis-related CVDs.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Células Endoteliais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 335: 28-36, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091562

RESUMO

Endotoxic manifestations are diminished in female populations due to immune boosting actions of sex steroids. Considering that tobacco constituents including nicotine inhibit estrogen synthesis, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure unveils cardiovascular anomalies of endotoxemia in female rats. Studies were undertaken in conscious female rats treated with i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) in absence and presence of nicotine. In contrast to no effects for LPS when used alone, dose-related decreases in blood pressure (BP) and serum estrogen were noted in endotoxic rats treated consequently with nicotine (25, 50, or 100 µg/kg i.v.). Signs of cardiac autonomic dysfunction appeared in LPS/nicotine-treated rats such as (i) decreased time-domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV), e.g. standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences in R-R interval durations (rMSSD), and (ii) reduced total power of the frequency spectrum and shifted cardiac sympathovagal balance toward sympathetic dominance. Nicotine reversed the LPS-evoked modest rises in serum TNFα and IL-1ß while had no effect on associated arterial baroreflex dysfunction, inferring no roles for inflammation or baroreflexes in LPS-nicotine interaction. Estrogen or aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor), but not pentoxifylline (TNFα inhibitor), abolished LPS/nicotine hypotension. Together, nicotine acts probably via reducing estrogen availability to uncover nitric oxide-dependent hypotension and autonomic dysregulation in endotoxic female rats.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Estrogênios/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/imunologia , Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Feminino , Coração/inervação , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
13.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 373(2): 325-336, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094295

RESUMO

Pre-eclampsia (PE)-induced fetal programming predisposes offspring to health hazards in adult life. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pre-eclamptic fetal programming elicits sexually dimorphic inflammatory and cardiovascular complications to endotoxemia in adult rat offspring. PE was induced by oral administration of L-NAME (50 mg/kg per day for seven consecutive days) starting from day 14 of conception. Cardiovascular studies were performed in conscious adult male and female offspring preinstrumented with femoral indwelling catheters. Compared with non-PE male counterparts, intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg) to PE male offspring caused significantly greater 1) falls in blood pressure, 2) increases in heart rate, 3) rises in arterial dP/dtmax, a correlate of left ventricular contractility, and 4) decreases in time- and frequency-domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV). By contrast, the hypotensive and tachycardic actions of LPS in female offspring were independent of the pre-eclamptic state and no clear changes in HRV or dP/dtmax were noted. Measurement of arterial baroreflex activity by vasoactive method revealed no sex specificity in baroreflex dysfunction induced by LPS. Immunohistochemical studies showed increased protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 in heart as well as in brainstem neuronal pools of the nucleus of solitary tract and rostral ventrolateral medulla in endotoxic PE male, but not female, offspring. Enhanced myocardial, but not neuronal, expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was also demonstrated in LPS-treated male offspring. Together, pre-eclamptic fetal programming aggravates endotoxic manifestations of hypotension and autonomic dysfunction in male offspring via exacerbating myocardial and neuromedullary inflammatory pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Current molecular and neuroanatomical evidence highlights a key role for pre-eclamptic fetal programming in offspring predisposition to health hazards induced by endotoxemia in adult life. Pre-eclampsia accentuates endotoxic manifestations of hypotension, tachycardia, and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in male offspring via exacerbating myocardial and central inflammatory pathways. The absence of such detrimental effects in female littermates suggests sexual dimorphism in the interaction of pre-eclamptic fetal programming with endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Endotoxemia/complicações , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 393: 114928, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092384

RESUMO

The female gender is protected against immunological complications of endotoxemia. Here we investigated whether gonadal hormone depletion by ovariectomy (OVX) uncovers inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of endotoxemia and whether these effects are reversed by hormone replacement therapies. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure (BP), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac autonomic activity caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in conscious female rats with different hormonal states were determined. In contrast to no effects in sham-operated females, treatment of OVX rats with LPS (i) decreased BP, (ii) increased spectral low-frequency/high-frequency ratio of HRV, denoting enhanced cardiac sympathetic dominance, (iii) attenuated reflex tachycardic responses to sodium nitroprusside, and (iv) increased systolic contractility (dP/dtmax). The developed hypotension was (i) fully eliminated in estrogen (E2)-pretreated OVX rats, (ii) partially counteracted after selective activation of estrogen receptor-α (PPT) or ß (DPN). All estrogenic compounds abrogated LPS enhancement of cardiac sympathetic drive. However, PPT was more successful than E2 or DPN in compromising LPS depression in baroreflex activity and elevation in dP/dtmax. Molecular studies showed that PPT was most effective in attenuating the upregulated myocardial expressions of NF-κB and iNOS in endotoxic OVX rats. Myocardial expression of the defensive HSP70 was comparably increased by all estrogenic products. Except for improved cardiac spectral activity, none of these functional or molecular entities was affected by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Overall, our data suggest diverse therapeutic advantages for gonadal hormones in the worsened endotoxic complications in rats with surgical menopause, with probably more favorable role for ERα agonism within this context.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Endotoxemia/complicações , Endotoxemia/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea , Citocinas , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Inflamm Res ; 69(2): 217-231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that nicotine guards against endotoxemia-associated renal inflammation and vasoconstrictor dysfunction via the activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) cascade. MATERIALS: 91 male and female rats were included in the study. TREATMENTS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg kg-1), nicotine (0.5-2 mg kg-1), pentoxifylline (PTX, TNFα inhibitor, 3 mg kg-1), methyllycaconitine (MLA, α7-nAChR blocker), zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, HO-1 inhibitor), hemin (HO-1 inducer), tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, CORM-2) or bilirubin was administered before LPS. METHODS: Isolated perfused kidney was used to evaluate renal vasoconstriction and immunohistochemistry to assess inflammatory cytokines. RESULTS: LPS reduced renal vasoconstrictions induced by phenylephrine or vasopressin in perfused kidneys of male, but not female, rats. Higher elevations in serum interleukin-1ß and renal expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were observed in LPS-treated male rats, whereas greater HO-1 expression was evident in endotoxic female rats. LPS effects were reversed by nicotine or PTX. Further, the favorable nicotine actions were (i) diminished by MLA or ZnPP and (ii) replicated by hemin or CORM-2, but not bilirubin, and (iii) associated with exaggerated and MLA-sensitive increases in HO-1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: α7-nAChR/HO-1/CO signaling mediates nicotine protection against renal inflammation and vasoconstrictor hyporeactivity in endotoxic male rats.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Endotoxemia/genética , Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Perfusão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 315, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941978

RESUMO

Vascular dysfunction predisposes to cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The current study investigated the mechanism(s) of curcumin's (CUR) protective effect against vascular reactivity irregularities in MetS. MetS was induced by feeding rats on high fructose high salt diet. Tension studies were undertaken in aortic rings to assess the influence of CUR on vasoconstrictor or vasorelaxant responses. The effect on advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) was studied by incubating aortic tissues with methylglyoxal, the AGEs precursor, in the absence and presence of CUR. In addition, CUR effects on in-vitro generation of AGEs and diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals were studied. The incubation with CUR for 1 hr produced significant and concentration-dependent alleviation of the exaggerated vasoconstriction observed in aortas isolated from MetS, however failed to improve the concomitant attenuation of vasodilatory responses to ACh in PE-precontracted aortas. By contrast, CUR caused direct concentration-dependent vasodilations of precontracted aortas, effects that were blunted after nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-NAME. Similar to its effects in MetS aortas, CUR alleviated exaggerated PE vasoconstriction but did not affect impaired ACh vasodilations in AGEs-exposed aortas. In addition, CUR showed significant dose-dependent DPPH free radicals scavenging activity and inhibited both MG and fructose induced AGEs formation at the level of protein oxidation step as evident from the effect on dityrosine and N-formylkyramine. CUR alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in MetS through interfering with AGEs formation and AGEs-induced vascular injury. Free radical scavenging and direct vasodilatory activities could also participate in the advantageous vascular actions of CUR.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(1): 127-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933528

RESUMO

Widely different exposure times to endotoxic insults have been employed in reported studies. The current experimental study systematically evaluated the time-course and sex influences of endotoxic insult on survivability and cardiovascular and renal functions. Rats received i.p. lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg) once or twice (over 2 successive days). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), biomarkers of renal function and inflammation, and vasodilator responsiveness of isolated perfused kidneys to acetylcholine (ACh) or N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) were evaluated 6 hr after first LPS injection or 1, 2, or 6 days later. A single 6-hr LPS challenge caused (i) sex-unrelated elevations in serum urea and creatinine and reductions in NECA, but not ACh, vasodilations, (ii) more increases in renal NF-κB/iNOS expressions in male than in female rats, and (iii) hypotension and tachycardia only in male rats. These parameters, except for hemodynamic changes, were restored to near-control levels 1 day after single LPS dosing. The 2-days dosing with LPS had no effects on renal function biomarkers, but caused hypotension, tachycardia, and increases in renal NF-κB/iNOS expression and NECA and ACh vasodilations in both rat sexes. None of these parameters were different from control values when measured 6 days after the endotoxic insult. Alternatively, the rat mortality was observed during first 2 days of the study and was notably higher in male than in female rats. Our data suggest that the frequency and time elapsed after LPS exposure as well as rat sex are important determinants of the magnitude and direction of detrimental effects of endotoxemia.

18.
Shock ; 53(4): 503-513, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135706

RESUMO

The nicotinic/cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway protects against acute kidney injury and other end-organ damages induced by endotoxemia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that functional α7-nAChRs/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is imperative for the nicotine counteraction of hemodynamic and renovascular dysfunction caused by acute endotoxemia in rats. Renal vasodilations were induced by cumulative bolus injections of acetylcholine (ACh, 0.01 nmol-7.29 nmol) or ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, adenosine receptor agonist, 1.6 nmol-100 nmol) in isolated phenylephrine-preconstricted perfused kidneys. The data showed that 6-h treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg i.p.) decreased systolic blood pressure and renal vasodilations caused by NECA but not Ach. The endotoxic insult also increased the mortality rate and elevated serum urea and creatinine. These LPS effects were sex-unrelated, except hypotension, and enhanced mortality which were more evident in male rodents, and abrogated after co-administration of nicotine (0.5, 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion. The advantageous effects of nicotine on NECA vasodilations, survivability, and kidney biomarkers in endotoxic male rats disappeared upon concurrent exposure to methyllycaconitine citrate (α7-nAChR blocker) or zinc protoporphyrin (HO-1 inhibitor) and were reproduced after treatment with bilirubin, but not hemin (HO-1 inducer) or tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (carbon monoxide-releasing molecule). Together, current biochemical and pharmacological evidence suggests key roles for α7-nAChRs and the bilirubin byproduct of the HO-1 signaling in the nicotine counteraction of renal dysfunction and reduced adenosinergic renal vasodilator capacity in endotoxic rats.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/complicações , Heme Oxigenase-1/fisiologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Circulação Renal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1193: 1-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368095

RESUMO

Several review articles have been published on the neurobehavioral actions of acetaldehyde and other ethanol metabolites as well as in major alcohol-related disorders such as cancer and liver and lung disease. However, very few reviews dealt with the role of alcohol metabolism in the adverse cardiac and autonomic effects of alcohol and their potential underlying mechanisms, particularly in vulnerable populations. In this chapter, following a brief overview of the dose-related favorable and adverse cardiovascular effects of alcohol, we discuss the role of ethanol metabolism in its adverse effects in the brainstem and heart. Notably, current knowledge dismisses a major role for acetaldehyde in the adverse autonomic and cardiac effects of alcohol because of its low tissue level in vivo. Contrary to these findings in men and male rodents, women and hypertensive individuals are more sensitive to the adverse cardiac effects of similar amounts of alcohol. To understand this discrepancy, we discuss the autonomic and cardiac effects of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde in a model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and female rats. We present evidence that enhanced catalase activity, which contributes to cardioprotection in hypertension (compensatory) and in the presence of estrogen (inherent), becomes detrimental due to catalase catalysis of alcohol metabolism to acetaldehyde. Noteworthy, studies in SHRs and in estrogen deprived or replete normotensive rats implicate acetaldehyde in triggering oxidative stress in autonomic nuclei and the heart via (i) the Akt/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/nitric oxide synthase (NOS) cascade and (ii) estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) mediation of the higher catalase activity, which generates higher ethanol-derived acetaldehyde in female heart. The latter is supported by the ability of ERα blockade or catalase inhibition to attenuate alcohol-evoked myocardial oxidative stress and dysfunction. More mechanistic studies are needed to further understand the mechanisms of this public health problem.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/farmacologia , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/farmacologia , Etanol/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Miocárdio , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
20.
Pharmacol Rep ; 71(5): 782-793, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine alleviates renal inflammation and injury induced by endotoxemia. This study investigated (i) the nicotine modulation of hemodynamic and renal vasodilatory responses to endotoxemia in rats, and (ii) roles of α7 or α4ß2-nAChRs and related HSP70/TNFα/iNOS signaling in the interaction. METHODS: Endotoxemia was induced by ip lipopolysaccharide (5 mg/kg/day, for 2 days) and changes in systolic blood pressure and vasodilator responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to acetylcholine or 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, adenosine receptor agonist) were evaluated. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide had no effect on serum creatinine, reduced blood pressure, and increased renal vasodilations induced by acetylcholine or NECA in male and female preparations. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that lipopolysaccharide reduced renal HSP70 expression, but increased α7-nAChRs, α4ß2-nAChRs and iNOS expressions. The co-administration of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor), pentoxifylline (TNFα inhibitor), or nicotine attenuated lipopolysaccharide mediation of renal vasodilations and elevations in α7/α4ß2-nAChR and iNOS expressions. Nicotine also reversed the downregulating effect of lipopolysaccharide on HSP70 expression. α7-nAChRs (methyllycaconitine citrate, MLA) or α4ß2-nAChRs (dihydro-ß-erythroidine, DHßE) blockade potentiated the lipopolysaccharide enhancement of renal vasodilations, and abolished the depressant effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide responses. A similar abolition of nicotine effects was seen after HSP70 inhibition by quercetin. Alternatively, lipopolysaccharide hypotension was eliminated in rats treated with DHßE/nicotine or quercetin/nicotine regimen in contrast to no effect for nicotine alone or combined with MLA. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish that nicotine offsets lipopolysaccharide facilitation of renal vasodilations possibly through a crosstalk between HSP70 and nAChRs of the α7 and α4ß2 types.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/fisiopatologia , Endotoxinas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Nicotina/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo , Animais , Creatinina/sangue , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Endotoxemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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