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1.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(6): e1108-e1115, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of 1-year maintenance intravesical chemotherapy (MIC) in reducing bladder recurrence (BR) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma compared with single intravesical instillation (SIC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2015 and May 2017, patients who underwent RNU were randomized to receive SIC (epirubicin 50 mg) or MIC (once weekly for 6 weeks plus once monthly for 1 year). The primary outcome was the rate of histologically proven BR. The secondary outcomes included chemotherapy-related toxicities and disease-specific survival (DSS). Thirty-five patients in each arm were required to achieve a power of 80%. RESULTS: A total of 38 (SIC) and 36 (MIC) patients were analyzed. In SIC, BR developed in 5 (13.2%) over a median follow-up of 3 months (range, 3-6 months) compared with 9 (25%) patients over 12 months (range, 3-28 months) in MIC (P = .08). The 6- and 12-month BR-free survivals were the same (86.8%) in SIC versus 88.9% and 83.3% in MIC, respectively (P = .2). Lymphovascular invasion was significantly associated with BR (P = .04). Post-RNU intravesical chemotherapy regimens did not alter DSS. Blood transfusion and advanced tumor stage were independent predictors for DSS. No significant medication toxicity was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Following RNU, MIC did not change the natural course of BR beyond a single instillation apart from potentially delaying its occurrence. Lymphovascular invasion and blood transfusion were associated with worse BR and DSS outcomes, respectively.

2.
Urology ; 130: 144-147, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of right testicular vein thrombosis in a child and to review the literature describing similar cases and their management. METHODS: An extensive literature review of the English language literature was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Six cases were reported previously and summarized in this article. CONCLUSION: A 14-year-old boy who suffered from spontaneous right testicular vein thrombosis was treated with right orchiectomy and oral anticoagulation. We also reviewed and summarized the previously described cases of pediatric testicular vein thrombosis.

3.
Int Urogynecol J ; 30(12): 2153-2156, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to translate and validate the 8-item overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-V8). METHODS: Utilizing a multistep process, the English version of the OAB-V8 was translated into Arabic by three urologists and one independent translator. It was validated by asking 46 patients with overactive bladder and 58 healthy individuals to complete the questionnaire. Healthy individuals were involved in establishing the discrimination validity. The scores of both groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. The reliability of the Arabic version was evaluated utilizing Cronbach's alpha test for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) was utilized to evaluate the domain structures and the inter-domain associations. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.923). There were good correlations among frequency, urgency, sudden urge to urinate, waking up at night to urinate and uncontrollable urge to urinate. There were weak or no correlations among urge, incontinence and nocturia. For discrimination validity, there were significant changes in all domain scores when comparing patients with ureteric stents and healthy individuals (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Arabic version of the OAB-V8 proved to be a reliable and valid tool, which can be easily utilized to evaluate symptoms in Arabic patients. It is feasible in evaluating quality of life in relation to this disorder, as patients are able to demonstrate their symptoms accurately with the comfort of their first language, Arabic.

4.
J Urol ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prospectively, assess the efficacy and predictors of success of oral dissolution therapy (ODT) by alkalinization for lucent renal calculi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with radiolucent renal stones were counseled ODT which entails oral potassium citrate 20 mEq three times daily, 3 liters of daily fluid intake and dietary regimen. Primary study`s endpoint was ODT-achieved 6 months stone free rate. Other end points included change in stone surface area as measured by NCCT at 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Between February 2015 and January 2016, among 212 eligible patients agreed to participate, only 182 patients were ODT compliant and included in the final analysis. Mean stone surface area at enrollment was 1.3 cm3 (range 0.16-11.84). At 3 months, 97(53.2%), 65 (35.7%) and 20 (11.1%) patients were stone free (ODT responders), partial responders and non-responders, respectively. ODT-achieved 6 months stone free rate was 83% (97 and 54 patients after 3 and 6 months ODT, respectively). On regression analysis, initial response (3 months) to ODT (p=0.001), lower stone density (p=0.03) and higher urine PH at 12 weeks after treatment (p=0.01) independently predict ODT response at 6 months. CONCLUSION: Regardless stone size, ODT is an effective treatment approach for lucent renal stones. Initial response to ODT after 3 months is the key factor in determining potential ODT response after 6 months. In addition, treatment compliance achieving targeted urine PH and low stone density has an independent role in ODT response.

5.
Urology ; 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the non-inferiority of Low-power Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (LP-HoLEP) to high-power (HP-HoLEP) for enucleation efficiency pertaining to the advantages of lower cost and minimal postoperative dysuria, storage symptoms, and negative sexual impact. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HoLEP was performed using 100W Versapulse, Luminis Inc., with 2J/25Hz for LP-HoLEP (61 patients) and 2J/50Hz for HP-HoLEP (60 patients). Two surgeons with different experience performed equal number of both procedures. Non-inferiority of enucleation efficiency (enucleated weight/min) was evaluated. All perioperative parameters were recorded and compared. Dysuria was assessed at 2 weeks by dysuria visual analog scale, urinary (Q.max and IPSS) and sexual (sexual health inventory for men score) outcome measures were evaluated at 1, 4, and 12 months. RESULTS: Baseline and perioperative parameters were comparable between the two groups. Mean enucleation efficiency was 1.42±0.6 vs 1.47±0.6 gm/min, P = .6 following LP-HoLEP and HP-HoLEP, respectively. Patients reported postoperative dysuria similarly in both groups as per dysuria visual analog scale. There was significant comparable improvement in IPSS (international prostate symptom score) and Q.max in both groups at different follow-up points. At one year, median IPSS and Q.max were comparable in both groups (P = .4 and .7 following LP-HoLEP and HP-HoLEP, respectively). Median postoperative reduction in prostate specific antigen was 89% (42:99) following LP-HoLEP vs 81% (62:94) after HP-HoLEP, P = .92. Both groups showed comparable perioperative and late postoperative complications. There were no statistically significant changes in the last follow-up sexual health inventory for men score in comparison to baseline score. CONCLUSION: LP-HoLEP is non-inferior to HP-HoLEP in terms of all efficiency parameters regardless level of surgeon experience.

6.
World J Urol ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766318

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of sildenafil in relieving ureteral stent symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between March 2014 and November 2016. It included adult men who underwent unilateral ureteric stent after ureteroscopy. Patients who were taking PDE5-Is, alpha-blockers or anticholinergics, had contraindication to sildenafil or developed postoperative complications were not included. Eligible patients were randomized using sealed closed envelops to one of two groups (S and C). Patients in group S received sildenafil citrate 50 mg tablet once daily. Patients in group C were the control. All patients answered the ureteral stent symptom questionnaire (USSQ) after 2 weeks of stenting. Primary outcome was the difference in total USSQ score between both groups. Secondary outcomes were tolerability of the treatment and the difference in each domain of USSQ score. RESULTS: After randomization, four patients (7.3%) in group C withdraw their consent because of severe symptoms and two patients (3.6%) in group S discontinued treatment because of headache and dizziness. Final analysis was performed for 46 and 48 patients in groups C and S, respectively. Total USSQ score and all domains (except work performance) were significantly lower in group S (P < 0.001). Dysuria and urgency were significantly more in group C (P = 0.012 and 0.007, respectively). Three patients in groups S (6.25%) experienced transient mild adverse effects (dyspepsia, flushing and rhinitis in one patient for each) but they continued sildenafil. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for relieving ureteral stent-related symptoms in men. CLINICALTRIAL. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02345980.

7.
World J Urol ; 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of three chemoprophylaxis approaches in prevention of post-transrectal biopsy infectious complications (TBICs). METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 3 days 500 mg B.I.D 3 days starting the night prior to biopsy (standard prophylaxis), augmented prophylaxis using ciprofloxacin and single preprocedure shot of 160 mg gentamicin IM (augmented prophylaxis) and rectal swab culture-based prophylaxis (targeted prophylaxis). Patients were assessed 2 weeks prior to biopsy, at biopsy and 2 weeks after. Primary end point was occurrence of post-TBICs that included simple UTI, febrile UTI or sepsis. Secondary end points were post-biopsy change in the inflammatory markers (TLC, ESR and CRP), unplanned visits, hospitalization and occurrence of fluoroquinolones resistance (FQ-R; bacterial growth on MacConkey agar plate with 10 µg/ml ciprofloxacin) in the fecal carriage of screened men. RESULTS: Between April/2015 and January/2017, standard, augmented and targeted prophylaxes were given to 163, 166 and 167 patients, respectively. Post-TBICs were reported in 43 (26%), 13 (7.8%) and 34 (20.3%) patients following standard, augmented and targeted prophylaxes protocols, respectively (P = 0.000). Post-TBICs included UTI in 23 (4.6%), febrile UTI in 41 (8.2%) and sepsis in 26 (5.2%) patients. Significantly lower number of post-biopsy positive urine culture was depicted in the augmented group (P = 0.000). The number of biopsy cores was statistically different in the three groups (P = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, augmented prophylaxis had independently lower post-TBICs (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4, P = 0.000) when compared with the other two groups regardless of the number of biopsy cores taken (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.95-1.17, P = 0.229). Post-biopsy hospitalization was needed in four (2%), one (0.6%) and ten (6%) patients following standard, augmented and targeted prophylaxes, respectively (P = 0.014). However, sepsis-related hospitalization was not statistically different. Post-biopsy changes in the inflammatory markers were significantly less in augmented prophylaxis (P < 0.05). FQ-R was depicted in 139 (83.2%) of the screened men. CONCLUSION: Augmented prophylaxis with single-dose gentamicin is an effective and practical approach. Targeted prophylaxis might be reserved for cases with contraindication to gentamicin.

8.
Urolithiasis ; 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700572

RESUMO

To evaluate the long-term changes of selective renal function after anatrophic nephrolithotomy (ANL). A retrospective study was conducted for patients who underwent ANL between January 1995 and December 2016. Inclusion criteria were availability of preoperative and follow-up (1 year or more) radio-isotopic renal scans. Stone-free status was evaluated after 1 month with KUB and ultrasonography or NCCT. Renal isotope scans using 99mTc MAG3 were performed to measure the changes in selective function of the affected kidney (GFR%). Eligible patients were classified into two groups, group 1 patients with stable or improved function and group 2 patients with deteriorated function (> 5% decrease in GFR%). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine risk factors for deterioration of renal function. The cutoff value for any significant variable was determined using ROC curve. The study included 50 patients with mean age 43.8 + 13.9 years. Complications developed in 26 patients (52%), and stone-free status was documented in 42 patients (84%). After a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range 1-11), mean GFR% of all cases significantly decreased from preoperative value of 52.7% + SD 20 to 45.4% + SD 25% during follow-up (P < 0.001). Deterioration of GFR% was documented in 21 kidneys (42%). Cold ischemia time with a cutoff value 50 min was the independent risk factor (RR 3.986, 95% CI 1.069-14.869, P 0.039). The results of this study support limiting ANL to a selected group of patients and taking all the possible efforts to minimize cold ischemia time below 50 min.

10.
Urolithiasis ; 46(3): 291-296, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555349

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine risk factors of hospital admission for treatment of complications after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). The electronic files and images of all patients who underwent SWL for treatment of renal stones between January 2011 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent SWL with the same electromagnetic lithotripter (Dornier Lithotripot S). The data of those who needed hospital admission for treatment of complications within 30 days after SWL were compared with patients who did not require hospital admission. Compared data included patients' demographics (age, gender, BMI, ASA score, and pre-SWL stenting), renal characters (side, hydronephrosis, and solitary kidney), and stone characters (site, length, density, and previous treatment). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to identify risk factors. The study included 1179 patients. Complications that required hospital admission were observed in 108 patients (9.2%). They included obstructing steinstrasse in 91 (7.7%), peri-renal hematoma in 3 (0.25%), and fever (>38.0 °C) in 14 (1.2%). Independent risk factors on multivariate analysis were solitary kidney (OR 2.855, P = 0.017), pre-SWL stenting (RR 2.03, P = 0.044), ASA II (OR 1.965, P = 0.007), hydronephrosis (RR 1.639, P = 0.024), and stone length (RR 1.083, P < 0.001). Patients with medical co-morbidities, pre-SWL ureteral stents, large stones and those with obstructed and/or solitary renal unit are more liable to post-SWL complications that need hospital admission. The probability of hospital admission has to be explained to patients with these risk factors.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Hidronefrose/epidemiologia , Hidronefrose/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Litotripsia/instrumentação , Litotripsia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Rim Único/epidemiologia , Rim Único/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Scand J Urol ; 52(1): 76-80, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of antimicrobial [silver sulfadiazine (SSD)]-coated ureteral stents with non-coated stents in the prevention of stent-related bacteriuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2014 and September 2016 after approval from the local ethics committee. Inclusion criteria were adults who underwent unilateral double-J ureteral stent placement after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. All patients underwent placement of the same stent type (Carbothan® with hydrophilic surface) and dimensions (6 F, 26 cm). In the test group, stents were coated with SSD. Patients who used antibiotics during the stenting period or underwent stent removal elsewhere were excluded from the study. Urine and stent cultures were obtained on the day of stent removal. All patients answered the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ). RESULTS: The study included 126 patients. The mean ± SD stent duration was 3.1 ± 1.2 weeks. There were no significant differences between groups in the incidence of bacteriuria and USSQ scores. However, two stents (3.2%) in the SSD group had significant bacterial growth, compared to eight stents (12.5%) in the control group (p = 0.054). The incidence of newly diagnosed bacteriuria was higher in the control group (11%) than the antimicrobial group (6.5%), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.372). CONCLUSIONS: This study could not justify the use of antimicrobial (SSD)-coated stents for short stenting periods. The trend towards decreasing stent colonization in the antimicrobial group was not translated to a significantly lower incidence of stent-related bacteriuria or improvement in patients' quality of life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem , Stents/efeitos adversos , Ureter/cirurgia , Adulto , Bacteriúria/epidemiologia , Bacteriúria/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Stents/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ureter/microbiologia , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Urina/microbiologia
12.
Urology ; 110: 98-103, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare recovery outcomes between laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) and open donor nephrectomy within a specified enhanced recovery program (ERP) for left kidney donations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A phase III randomized trial was conducted between January 2013 and June 2015; eligible left-side donors were randomized to laparoscopic or open donor nephrectomy in a 1:1 ratio with recovery optimized within a standardized ERP. The primary outcome was patient-reported measure of physical fatigue, as measured by the physical fatigue domain of the translated Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory 20. Secondary outcomes included other donor recovery outcomes, postoperative pain scores, hospital stay, perioperative complications, and graft outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 224 donors (laparoscopy, n = 113; open surgery, n = 111) were randomly allocated. Six weeks postoperatively, physical fatigue domain scores in Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory 20 were significantly lower in the LDN group (mean: laparoscopy, 8.2 ± 3.2 vs open surgery, 13.05 ± 2.9) (P = .007). Median total hospital stay was also significantly shorter in the LDN group (median: laparoscopy, 2; interquartile range, 1-5 vs open surgery, 4; interquartile range, 2-9 days) (P = .002). LDN was associated with less pain scores and less non-opioid analgesic requirements. Warm ischemia times were not significantly different in both groups (mean: laparoscopy, 2.5 ± 0.8 vs open surgery, 2.2 ± 0.6) (P = .431). CONCLUSION: Even when optimized within an ERP, LDN was associated with less general and physical fatigue and better physical function at 6 weeks postoperatively when compared with open surgery for left kidney donations.

13.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 49(10): 1741-1749, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess how much Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is detrimental on men sexuality. METHODS: Between January and December 2013, all patients presented for BPH surgery were assessed using IIEF-15 (international index of erectile function-15) and Ej-MSHQ (ejaculatory domain-male sexual health questionnaire). Changes in men's sexuality following HoLEP in relation to control procedure were prospectively assessed. Intervention group included legible consecutive patients treated by HoLEP. Control group included legible patients presented for diagnostic cystoscopy. Changes in IIEF-15, its subdomains and Ej-MSHQ scores were compared between HoLEP group and control. RESULTS: At one year 80 and 70 subjects were included for final analysis following HoLEP and control groups, respectively. Regardless of the baseline erectile function (EF/IIEF) score, there was an increase in EF score similar to control following HoLEP (P = 0.6). However, among subjects with normal preoperative EF (score >25), in comparison with control, there was similar decline in EF score following HoLEP (P = 0.07). Regarding the orgasm domain, there was a significant reduction in orgasm perception following HoLEP in relation to control (P = 0.01). Patients reported desire changes, intercourse satisfaction and overall satisfaction scores similar to control following HoLEP. Using Ej-MSHQ score, there was no statistically significant difference between HoLEP and control groups in percentage of subjects reporting ejaculatory dysfunction at baseline. However, at 12 months, there was statistically significant more ejaculatory dysfunction reporting following HoLEP. The most common ejaculatory abnormality was volume abnormality. Orgasm perception was significantly decreased among subjects with newly reported ejaculatory dysfunction (5.3 ± 1.4 vs. 8.6 ± 1.3, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Controlled short-term assessment of HoLEP showed potential negative impact on EF in patients with normal preoperative EF. Apart from orgasm perception, sexual function changes following HoLEP were similar to control. High prevalence of postoperative ejaculatory dysfunction following HoLEP remained notable finding.


Assuntos
Ejaculação , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Orgasmo , Ereção Peniana , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sexualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Scand J Urol ; 51(2): 165-169, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the incidence, severity, outcome and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in solitary kidneys. METHODS: The study included consecutive adult patients who underwent PNL for treatment of calculi in a solitary kidney between May 2012 and July 2015. Patients with congenital renal anomalies or with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) were excluded. Serum creatinine levels were measured the day before PNL, daily after PNL for 2-5 days and after 3 months. AKI was depicted according to changes in early postoperative serum creatinine levels and its severity was determined based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. The outcome of AKI was evaluated after 3 months by changes in the stage of CKD. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for developing AKI. RESULTS: The study included 100 patients (62 males) with a mean ± SD age of 50 ± 11.7 years. Complications were reported for 27 patients. AKI developed in 25 patients; at the 3 month follow-up, 23 of them (92%) had completely recovered from AKI and two (8%) had developed stage 4 CKD. Independent risk factors for developing AKI were multiple PNL tracts and postoperative ureteric obstruction (relative risks were 14 and 22, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AKI was 25% after PNL for a solitary kidney. The likelihood of renal function recovery was 92%. Multiple PNL tracts and postoperative ureteric obstruction were risk factors for developing AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
BJU Int ; 119(1): 142-147, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of selenium with vitamins A, C and E (selenium ACE, i.e. antioxidants), verapamil (calcium channel blocker), and losartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) against extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted between August 2012 and February 2015. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with a single renal stone (<2 cm) suitable for ESWL. Patients with diabetes, hypertension, congenital renal anomalies, moderate or marked hydronephrosis, or preoperative albuminuria (>300 mg/L) were excluded. ESWL was performed using the electromagnetic DoLiS lithotripter. Eligible patients were randomised into one of four groups using sealed closed envelopes: Group1, control; Group 2, selenium ACE; Group 3, losartan; and Group 4, verapamil. Albuminuria and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) were estimated after 2-4 h and 1 week after ESWL. The primary outcome was differences between albuminuria and uNGAL. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed before ESWL, and at 2-4 h and 1 week after ESWL to compare changes in renal perfusion. RESULTS: Of 329 patients assessed for eligibility, the final analysis comprised 160 patients (40 in each group). Losartan was the only medication that showed significantly lower levels of albuminuria after 1 week (P < 0.001). For perfusion changes, there was a statistically significant decrease in the renal perfusion in patients with obstructed kidneys in comparison to before ESWL (P = 0.003). These significant changes were present in the control or antioxidant group, whilst in the losartan and verapamil groups renal perfusion was not significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan was found to protect the kidney against ESWL-induced renal injury by significantly decreasing post-ESWL albuminuria. Verapamil and losartan maintained renal perfusion in patients with post-ESWL renal obstruction.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Rim/lesões , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Verapamil/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
16.
World J Urol ; 35(8): 1241-1246, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28013344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the intraoperative surgeon perspective for detection of residual fragments (RFs) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with postoperative NCCT. METHODS: A prospective study of adult patients who underwent PNL between March and September 2014 was conducted. Stone complexity was evaluated using the Guy's stone score (GSS). All patients were evaluated by pre- and postoperative NCCT. After the procedure, the surgeon had been asked whether there were residual stones or not. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were tested against postoperative NCCT. Predictors of accurate intraoperative assessment were determined using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS: The study included 306 consecutive patients. The surgeons reported no residual stones in 236 procedures; of whom 170 (72%) were reported stone-free by NCCT. On the other hand, 65 out of 70 procedures (93%) reported with residual stones by the surgeons were true by NCCT. The sensitivity was 50% and the NPV was 72%, while the specificity was 97% and the PPV was 93%. On multivariate analysis, only lower GSS (p < 0.001) was independently associated with true negative surgeon opinion. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a high surgeon ability to detect post-PNL residual stones, postoperative imaging is mandatory because of the high false negative rates and low NPV. The surgeon opinions can be judged only in stones with lower GSS. The NPV could be enhanced if a consistent definition of clinically significant RFs is introduced.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Urol ; 197(4): 1099-1107, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27825972

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite being endorsed in most guidelines, wide adoption of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is hindered by learning difficulties. We prospectively assessed the learning curve using a multidimensional approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively report all perioperative safety and efficacy outcome measures as well as the need for reoperation and continence status. Case difficulty and learning curve characterization variables were considered, looking for predictors of different outcome measures. Our analysis included the first 313 procedures done by a total of 3 surgeons. RESULTS: Prostate volume and the number of previously performed cases independently predicted operative and enucleation efficiency (mean ± SD 0.76 ± 0.36 and 1.2 ± 0.6 gm per minute, respectively). Both measures plateaued only after the first 40 procedures. The mean percent reduction in postoperative prostate specific antigen was 80% ± 19%. A significantly lower decrease was independently predicted by the transrectal ultrasound depiction of a grossly multinodular prostate (p = 0.000, R2 = 0.59). Perioperative safety measures showed significant improvement after the first and second 20 procedures apart from hospital stay and catheter time. Urinary incontinence was reported in 89 (28.5%), 26 (8.3%) and 7 cases (2.2%) at 1, 4 and 12 months, respectively. Only the number of previously performed cases predicted urinary incontinence at 1 month, which was significantly reduced following the first 20 procedures (plateau) (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.999, p = 0.03). The I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) preoperative storage subdomain (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-0.9, p = 0.04), case density (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.6, p = 0.01) and number of previously performed cases (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.98-0.999, p = 0.02) predicted urinary incontinence at 4 months, which was significantly reduced after the first and second 20 procedures. Persistent urinary incontinence at 12 months was significantly associated with fewer previously performed cases (median 60, range 0 to 211 vs 20, range 0 to 99, p = 0.04) with no plateauing through the curve. CONCLUSIONS: Plateauing through the learning curve of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is a moving target. Looking at different outcome measures, different levels of experience are needed to reach the plateau. Preoperative prostate volume, the number of previously performed cases and case density are the main influential factors in the curve. Urinary incontinence is the most relevant clinical outcome that was significantly affected by learning, although its transient nature is assuring.

18.
Arab J Urol ; 14(2): 108-14, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27489737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of stone fragmentation on late stone recurrence by comparing the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and non-fragmenting percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and to investigate factors contributing to recurrent calculi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated stone recurrence in 647 patients who initially achieved a stone-free status after ESWL and compared the outcomes to 137 stone-free patients treated with PCNL without stone fragmentation. Patients were evaluated every 3 months during the first year and every 6 months thereafter to censorship or time of first new stone formation. Stone recurrence rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The effects of demographics, stone characteristics, and intervention on the recurrence rate were studied using the log-rank test and the Cox-regression analysis. RESULTS: For ESWL the recurrence rates were 0.8%, 35.8% and 60.1% after 1, 5 and 10 years, which were comparable to the 1.5%, 35.5% and 74.9%, respectively found in the PCNL group (P = 0.57). Stone burden (>8 mm) and a previous history of stone disease were significantly associated with higher recurrence rates regardless of the method of stone intervention (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). In the ESWL group, a stone length of >8 mm showed a higher recurrence rate (P = 0.007). In both the ESWL and PCNL groups, there was a significant shift from baseline stone location, with an increased tendency for most new stones to recur in the calyces as opposed to the pelvis. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with PCNL, ESWL does not increase long-term stone recurrence in patients who become stone-free. The stone burden appears to be the primary factor in predicting stone recurrence after ESWL.

19.
Arab J Urol ; 14(2): 147-55, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27489742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review non-morcellation approaches for tissue retrieval after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and whether these approaches demolish the advantages of the HoLEP procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed our prospectively maintained laser prostate database for HoLEP procedures where non-morcellation approaches were used for retrieval of the enucleated adenoma. Non-morcellation approaches were adopted in cases of morcellator malfunction or whenever concomitant pathology indicated laparotomy. Patients were stratified into the laparotomy group (Group I) or the transurethral resection (TUR) group (Group II). Safety and efficacy of each approach were assessed and compared. RESULTS: Between August 2012 and July 2015, of 392 HoLEP procedures non-morcellation approaches were used for tissue retrieval in 37 (9.4%). In 19 procedures a laparotomy approach was adopted (17 mini-laparotomies and two conventional laparotomies for concomitant diverticulectomy). TUR of the enucleated adenoma was adopted in 18 patients. Baseline demographic data and indications for surgery were comparable between the groups. However, significantly larger prostates were treated in Group I. There were no significant differences between the groups for tissue retrieval time, histopathological findings of retrieved tissue, and peri-procedure biochemical changes. However, significantly more tissue was retrieved (median tissue weight 115 vs 38 g) and at a faster rate (4.6 vs 1.09 g/min) in Group I. The median hospital stay was similar in both groups, but the median time to catheter removal was longer in Group I (5 vs 2 days). Minimal and similar peri-procedure complications were reported in both groups and in both groups there was a significant and comparable improvement in all urinary outcome measures. CONCLUSION: In the absence or malfunction of a tissue morcellator, or whenever concomitant pathology indicates laparotomy, non-morcellation tissue retrieval approaches are feasible options for endourologists practicing transurethral enucleation of prostate adenoma. These approaches are valid alternatives retaining most of the advantages of the transurethral prostate enucleation procedure.

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