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1.
BJU Int ; 125(1): 144-152, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the non-inferiority of bipolar transurethral vaporization of the prostate (TUVP) compared to GreenLight laser (GL) photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for reduction of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related lower urinary tract symptoms in a randomized trial. METHODS: Eligible patients with prostate volumes of 30-80 mL were randomly allocated to GL-PVP (n = 58) or bipolar TUVP (n = 61). Non-inferiority of symptom score (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) at 24 months was evaluated. All peri-operative variables were recorded and compared. Urinary (IPSS, maximum urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine volume) and sexual (International Index of Erectile Function-15) outcome measures were evaluated at 1, 4, 12 and 24 months. Need for retreatment and complications, change in PSA level and health resources-related costs of both procedures were recorded and compared. RESULTS: Baseline and peri-operative variables were similar in the two groups. At 1, 4, 12 and 24 months, 117, 116, 99 and 96 patients, respectively, were evaluable. Regarding urinary outcome measures, there was no significant difference between the groups. The mean ± sd IPSS at 1 and 2 years was 7.1 ± 3 and 7.9 ± 2.9 (P = 0.8), respectively, after GL-PVP and 6.3 ± 3.1 and 7.2 ± 2.8, respectively, after bipolar TUVP (P = 0.31). At 24 months, the mean difference in IPSS was 0.7 (95% confidence interval -0.6 to 2.3; P = 0.6). The median (range) postoperative PSA reduction was 64.7 (25-99)% and 65.9 (50-99)% (P = 0.006) after GL-PVP, and 32.1 (28.6-89.7)% and 39.3 (68.8-90.5)% (P = 0.005) after bipolar TUVP, at 1 and 2 years, respectively. After 2 years, retreatment for recurrent bladder outlet obstruction was reported in eight (13.8%) and 10 (16.4%) patients in the GL-PVP and bipolar TUVP groups, respectively (P = 0.8). The mean estimated cost per bipolar TUVP procedure was significantly lower than per GL-PVP procedure after 24 months (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of symptom control, bipolar TUVP was not inferior to GL-PVP at 2 years. Durability of the outcome needs to be tracked. The greater cost of GL-PVP compared with bipolar TUVP is an important concern.

2.
Arab J Urol ; 17(3): 216-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489238

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) instillation in the bladder under the effect of low-energy shockwaves (LESWs) for the treatment of refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and methods: A preliminary clinical study was conducted, including 15 patients with refractory OAB, between September 2016 and July 2017. Intravesical instillation of 100 IU of BoNT-A was done followed by LESWs (3000 shocks over 10 min) exposure to the supra-pubic area. Patients were followed-up by urine analysis, urine culture, post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) at 1, 2 and 3 months. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in all OABSS domains and the total score after 1 and 2 months of treatment (P < 0.05). Whereas, only the nocturia domain remained significantly improved after 3 months (P = 0.02). There was no significant increase in PVR throughout the study period (P > 0.05) and none of the patients required clean intermittent catheterisation. Two, two and three patients developed urinary tract infections after 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. Conclusion: Intravesical instillation of BoNT-A and LESWs is safe and effective method for the treatment of refractory OAB with a durable response for 2 months. Abbreviations: BoNT-A: botulinum toxin A; CIC: clean intermittent catheterisation; DO: detrusor overactivity; LESWs: low-energy shockwaves; OAB: overactive bladder; OABSS: Overactive Bladder Symptom Score; Qmax: maximum urinary flow rate; QoL: quality of life; UUI: urgency urinary incontinence.

3.
Scand J Urol ; 51(2): 165-169, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the incidence, severity, outcome and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in solitary kidneys. METHODS: The study included consecutive adult patients who underwent PNL for treatment of calculi in a solitary kidney between May 2012 and July 2015. Patients with congenital renal anomalies or with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) were excluded. Serum creatinine levels were measured the day before PNL, daily after PNL for 2-5 days and after 3 months. AKI was depicted according to changes in early postoperative serum creatinine levels and its severity was determined based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. The outcome of AKI was evaluated after 3 months by changes in the stage of CKD. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for developing AKI. RESULTS: The study included 100 patients (62 males) with a mean ± SD age of 50 ± 11.7 years. Complications were reported for 27 patients. AKI developed in 25 patients; at the 3 month follow-up, 23 of them (92%) had completely recovered from AKI and two (8%) had developed stage 4 CKD. Independent risk factors for developing AKI were multiple PNL tracts and postoperative ureteric obstruction (relative risks were 14 and 22, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AKI was 25% after PNL for a solitary kidney. The likelihood of renal function recovery was 92%. Multiple PNL tracts and postoperative ureteric obstruction were risk factors for developing AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
6.
BJU Int ; 118(2): 307-12, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26779990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare high-power holmium laser lithotripsy (HP-HLL) and ultrasonic lithotripsy (US-L) for disintegration of staghorn stones during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A non-inferiority randomised controlled trial was conducted between August 2011 and September 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients' aged >18 years who had complete staghorn stones (branching to the three major calyces), without contraindications to PCNL. Eligible patients were randomised between two groups: HP-HLL and US- . A standard PCNL in the prone position was performed for all patients. The only difference between the treatment groups was the method of stone disintegration. In the first group (HP-HLL), a laser power of 40-60 W (2 J, 20-30 Hz) was used to pulverise the staghorn stone into very small fragments, which could pass through the Amplatz sheath with the irrigation fluid. US-L,with suction of the fragments, was used in the second group. The primary outcome (stone-free rate) was evaluated with non-contrast computed tomography after 3 months. Secondary outcomes of complications, blood transfusion, operative time, and haemoglobin deficit were compared. The outcome assessor was 'blinded' to the treatment arm. RESULTS: The study included 70 patients (35 in each group). The baseline characteristics (age, sex, body mass index, side, stone volume, and density) and operative technique (number, size of tracts, and need for second PCNL session) were comparable for both groups. Operative time was significantly shorter in US-L group, at a mean (SD) of 130 (34) vs 148.7 (35) min (P = 0.028). The haemoglobin deficit was significantly more with in the US-L group, at a mean (SD) of 1.7 (0.9) vs 1.3 (0.6) g/dL (P = 0.037). The differences in blood transfusion (17% for US-L vs 11% for HP-HLL) and the complication rates (34% for US-L vs 23% for HP-HLL) were not significant (P = 0.495 and P = 0.290, respectively). The stone-free rates at 3 months were comparable (60% for US-L and 66% for HPL-L; P = 0.621). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with US-L for intracorporeal lithotripsy of staghorn stones during PCNL, HP-HLL showed comparable safety and efficacy with a lower haemoglobin deficit but longer operative time.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Litotripsia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Cálculos Coraliformes/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego
7.
Arab J Urol ; 13(3): 212-6, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26413350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, safety and cost of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treating a 20-30 mm single renal pelvic stone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The computerised records of patients who underwent PNL or ESWL for a 20-30 mm single renal pelvic stone between January 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients aged <18 years who had a branched stone, advanced hydronephrosis, a solitary kidney, anatomical renal abnormality, or had a surgical intervention within the past 6 months were excluded. The study included 337 patients with a mean (SD, range) age of 49.3 (12.2, 20-81) years. The patients' criteria (age, sex, body mass index) and the stone characteristics (side, stone length, surface area, attenuation value and skin-to-stone distance) were compared between the groups. The re-treatment rate, the need for secondary procedures, success rate, complications and the total costs were calculated and compared. RESULTS: In all, 167 patients were treated by ESWL and 170 by PNL. The re-treatment rate (75% vs. 5%), the need for secondary procedures (25% vs. 4.7%) and total number of procedures (three vs. one) were significantly higher in the ESWL group (P < 0.001). The success rate was significantly higher in the PNL group (95% vs. 75%, P < 0.001), as was the complication rate (13% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.050). The total costs of primary and secondary procedures were significantly higher for PNL (US$ 1120 vs. 490; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PNL was more effective than ESWL for treating a single renal pelvic stone of 20-30 mm. However, ESWL was associated with fewer complications and a lower cost.

9.
Scand J Urol ; 48(5): 460-5, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24694181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to report the diagnosis, treatment and functional consequences of postcaesarean section vesicouterine fistula (VUF), and to investigate the need for hysterectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 22 cases with VUF after caesarean section (mean age 30.5 years) between 1999 and September 2012. Total urinary incontinence was found in seven women, occasional incontinence in 15 and cyclic haematuria in 17. VUF was diagnosed by ascending cystography in 14 patients and by computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in six. Cystoscopy revealed VUF in all women. VUF repair was conducted by a transabdominal approach. The bladder was opened, the fistula was defined, a circumferential bladder incision was made around the fistula and the fistulous tract was excised. The uterine rent and bladder were closed with omentum interposition. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 2.8 years (range 0.5-7 years). The repair was successful in all women. Hysterectomy was needed in only one case with dysfunctional uterine bleeding and an enlarged uterus. The incontinence disappeared in all cases. The menstrual cycle became regular after a mean of 5 months in all women who retained their uterus. Five women became pregnant and had a successful delivery after 2-3 years. All women were able to have sexual intercourse after 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Cystoscopy was the mainstay of diagnosis of VUF in the current study. Imaging was not able to show very small fistulae. Unless otherwise indicated, there is no need to remove the uterus even if the fistula is large. Although the repair is challenging, it was successful in all cases and pregnancy is possible after repair.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Fístula/diagnóstico , Fístula/cirurgia , Histerectomia , Fístula da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Fístula da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico , Doenças Uterinas/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Fístula/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fístula da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Doenças Uterinas/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Urology ; 83(5): 1011-5, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24612617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term functional outcome of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for calculi in solitary kidneys and to determine factors leading to renal function deterioration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The computerized files of patients with solitary kidneys who underwent PNL between January 2002 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with follow-up <2 years were excluded. Complications, secondary procedures, and stone-free rates were recorded. Changes in the renal function were judged by comparing preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rates. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors that may affect renal function were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses to define risk factors for deterioration of renal function on long-term follow-up. RESULTS: The study included 200 patients (133 men [66.5%] and 67 women [33.5%] with mean age 52.3 ± 11.7 years). Complications were reported in 34 patients (17%). Severe bleeding was noticed in 10 patients (5%). The overall stone-free rate was 89.5%. After a mean follow-up of 3 ± 1.4 years (range, 2-8), there was significant improvement of the estimated glomerular filtration rate from 57 to 64 mL/min (P <.001). Thirty-one patients (15.5%) showed deterioration of the renal function. Multiple punctures and postoperative bleeding were independent risk factors for renal function deterioration (odds ratio was 3.7 and 4.5, respectively). CONCLUSION: PNL for calculi in solitary kidneys provided significant improvement in renal function at long-term follow-up. Multiple punctures and severe bleeding are independent risk factors for deterioration of the kidney function.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Rim/anormalidades , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 44(6): 1721-5, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22965379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate diagnostic value of routine frozen section analysis (FSA) of urethral margin for male patients undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive male patients were subjected to radical cystectomy for bladder cancer with routine FSA obtained from distal prostatic urethral margin. Definitive pathological condition of the specimens was reviewed to diagnose urethral±prostatic malignant involvement. The diagnostic value of FSA was identified and compared with different clinical and pathological predictors. Patients with false-negative results were followed for 5 years. RESULTS: Six patients showed evidence of malignancy by FSA of the prostatic urethral margin (one patient was false positive), and all were managed by urethrectomy. Prostatic ± urethral involvement was diagnosed in 15 patients by definitive histopathology (15%). Sensitivity and specificity of urethral margin frozen section were 33.3 and 98.8%, respectively, with overall accuracy of 89% while positive and negative predictive values were 83.3 and 89.4%, respectively. There was no significant correlation identified between tumor site or morphology, clinical staging, clinically suspicious prostate, cystoscopic involvement of bladder neck, tumor grade, and associated carcinoma in situ or nodal involvement with prostatic malignant involvement. Positive intraoperative FSA was the only predictor significantly associated with malignant urothelial involvement of the prostate. None of the 10 patients with false-negative results developed late urethral recurrence at 5 years. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative urethral frozen section shows high predictive diagnostic value of malignant prostatic involvement. Nevertheless, its impact in preventing late urethral recurrence is doubtful.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Secções Congeladas , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Uretra/patologia , Neoplasias Uretrais/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uretrais/patologia
12.
Urology ; 79(6): 1236-41, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22465085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. METHODS: The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. RESULTS: The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). CONCLUSION: Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores de Risco
13.
Arab J Urol ; 10(2): 192-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of replacing a relatively long segment of the canine urethra by a tube of cell-seeded acellular collagen bladder matrix. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 14 female mongrel dogs in which a 3-cm segment of the whole urethral circumference was excised and replaced by a tube of acellular matrix seeded with autologous urothelial cells. The acellular matrix was obtained from the excised bladder of female donor dogs that were not included in the study. Autologous cells were obtained from the study dogs by open bladder biopsy, with subsequent in vitro expansion and cultivation. Urethroplasty was performed over a 16 F urethral catheter that was kept for 4 weeks. The dogs were killed humanely (one every week for 4 weeks and then one monthly for 10 months). After stent removal, retrograde urethrography was used each month in the living dogs. If retention occurred a urethrogram was taken and then the dog was killed humanely. All grafts from dogs were harvested and sent for histopathological examination. RESULTS: Exploration at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks showed progressive shrinkage in length, together with relative narrowing of the lumen. Three dogs developed retention within a week after stent removal and the other seven developed retention within 4 months. Retrograde urethrograms showed evidence of stricture and/or fistula at the graft site in all dogs. On exploration, grafts showed marked shrinkage (0.6-1.2 cm in length) with complete obliteration of their lumens. Histopathological examination showed extensive fibrosis of the matrix with no evident urothelial architecture. CONCLUSION: Cell-seeded acellular matrix tube is insufficient to replace a 3-cm circumferential urethral defect in dogs.

14.
Arab J Urol ; 10(3): 324-9, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for treating staghorn stones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A database was compiled from the computerised files of patients who underwent PCNL for staghorn stones between 1999 and 2009. The study included 238 patients (128 males and 110 females) with a mean (SD) age of 48.9 (14) years, who underwent 242 PCNLs, and included staghorn stones that were present in the renal pelvis and branched into two or more major calyces. PCNL was performed or supervised by an experienced endourologist. All perioperative complications were recorded. The stone-free status was evaluated after PCNL and again after 3 months. RESULTS: Multiple tracts were needed in 35.5% of the procedures, and several sessions of PCNL were needed in 30% of patients. There were perioperative complications in 54 procedures (22%); blood transfusion was needed in 34 patients (14%). The stone-free rate for PCNL monotherapy was 56.6% (137 patients). Secondary procedures were required for 51 patients (21%), and included shock-wave lithotripsy for 49 and ureteroscopy for two. The 3-month stone-free rate was 72.7% (176 patients). Multiple tracts resulted in an insignificantly higher overall complication rate than with a single tract (P = 0.219), but the reduction in the haemoglobin level was statistically significant with multiple tracts (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PCNL for staghorn stones must be done by an experienced endourologist in a specialised centre with all the facilities for stone management and treatment of possible complications. The patients must be informed about the range of stone-free and complication rates, and the possibility of multiple sessions or secondary procedures.

15.
Scand J Urol Nephrol ; 45(2): 97-101, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21082875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors affecting the success of bilateral same-session ureteroscopy (BSU) in the treatment of ureteral calculi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2008, BSU was carried out in 89 patients (178 renal units). A successful outcome was considered when both ureters were free of stones without intraoperative complications. Stone-free rate was evaluated with a kidney-ureter-bladder plain X-ray or non-contrast computed tomography. Factors interfering with successful completion of BSU were tested using univariate (chi-squared test and t test) and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses. Data on unilateral ureteroscopy for the treatment of multiple ureteral calculi carried out in 105 patients during the same period were compared with BSU. RESULTS: Intraoperative complications were recorded in 11 procedures (6.2%) in the form of ureteral perforation in three and mucosal injury in eight. After BSU, 153 renal units were stone free (86%) as 17 had residual fragments, stones migrated to the kidney in six and failure was encountered in two. A successful outcome was observed in 62 patients (70%). Stone impaction, stones located in the proximal ureter and stone surface area were the significant risk factors for unsuccessful BSU (relative risks 3.6, 3.3 and 1.47, respectively). Compared with unilateral ureteroscopy, no difference were found with regard to complication rate (6.7%, p = 0.5) or stone-free rate (80%, p = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral same-session ureteroscopy is a safe and effective procedure in the management of bilateral ureteral stones. Proximal ureteral calculi, large and impacted stones carry the highest risk of unsuccessful results.


Assuntos
Cálculos Ureterais/cirurgia , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/lesões , Adulto Jovem
16.
BJU Int ; 108(5): 750-4, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21166763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: • To study long-term results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • The records of patients who underwent PNL for staghorn stones between January 1998 and January 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. • Patients who completed follow-up for one year or more were included. Follow-up with KUB and renal ultrasonography were performed every 3-6 months. • Renal radioisotopic scan was performed for patients who had already undergone this study before doing PNL. RESULTS: • The study included 122 patients (69 male and 53 female) with mean age 47.6 ± 14.5 years (5-74). They underwent 126 PNL. • Perioperative complications were encountered in 28 procedures (22%). The mean period of follow-up was 3.5 ± 2.3 years (1-11.3). Among 71 stone-free kidneys, 18 (25%) developed stone recurrence. Of 55 kidneys with residuals at the start of follow-up, 36 (65%) showed growth of these residuals. • Preoperative and postoperative renograms were performed for 71 patients. • At the last follow-up, differential GFR was stable in 53 (74.5%), improved in 12 (17%) and deteriorated in 6 (8.5%). Among patients with deteriorated renal function, 3 had undergone embolization to control severe bleeding, one developed secondary UPJO, and one had recurrent stone obstructing the kidney. CONCLUSION: • Long-term functional results of PNL for staghorn stones are satisfactory as 91.5% of kidneys showed stable or improved GFR. Long-term follow-up is mandatory especially for patients with residual stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 42(3): 667-71, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19902377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since introduction of Contemporary Epstein criteria, it has been studied and validated in many countries and nations. However, they were not validated in Middle East patients up till now. AIM OF THE WORK: To validate the Contemporary Epstein criteria in Middle East patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On past 8 years, 70 cases underwent radical prostatectomy for T1c prostate cancer. Contemporary Epstein criteria were applied retrospectively on prostatic biopsies. Among our patients, 35 cases met the criteria for clinically insignificant prostate cancer. Pathological revision of the prostatic biopsies, definitive prostatectomy specimens and re-staging were done by single pathologist. Assessment of recurrence rate was done. Up and down grading of the Gleason scoring was studied. RESULTS: The preoperative data and biopsy results using the Contemporary Epstein criteria were fulfilled on 35 cases. On definitive pathology; 16 cases (45.7%) had Gleason score >6, while 8.6% of cases are non-organ confined (2 cases and 1 case with extra- capsular and Seminal vesicles infiltrations, respectively). Both lobes were involved in 20 cases. Moreover, 40% (14 cases) showed upgrading of the score. Lymphatic permeation could be recognized in four cases. Mean follow-up time 88.1 months, 8.6% cases develop metastasis. CONCLUSION: Whenever Epstein criteria are applied in Middle East patients, the decision of active surveillance based for clinically insignificant prostate cancer (who met the Epstein criteria) will miss nearly 46% of unfavorable prostate cancer. As well as a risk of later metastasis could be in 8.6% of them.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
18.
Urology ; 73(6): 1184-7, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19362338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use a matched-pair analysis design to compare the safety and efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopy (URS). Controversy still exists regarding whether SWL or URS is the best management of upper ureteral calculi. METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients with a single radiopaque upper ureteral stone treated by URS or SWL from January 2003 to December 2005. SWL was performed as an outpatient procedure using the electromagnetic lithotripter (Dornier Lithotripter S). URS was performed using an 8F or 8.5F semirigid ureteroscope. Intracorporeal lithotripsy with pneumatic or holmium laser energy was used when needed. A matched-pair analysis was performed using 3 parameters (sex, stone size, and degree of hydronephrosis). The success rates, retreatment rates, auxiliary procedures, and complications were compared in each group. RESULTS: A total of 427 patients were treated for upper ureteral stones. Forty-three matched pairs were identified and compared. The success rate was 83.7% for SWL vs 88.4% for URS (P = .8). The retreatment rate was significantly greater in the SWL group than in the URS group (65% vs 2.3%, respectively; P < .001). The need for auxiliary procedures was equal in both groups (16.3%). The complication rate was 14% in the URS group and 4.7% in the SWL group (P = .1). CONCLUSIONS: SWL and semirigid URS are highly effective in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones <20 mm. The results of our study showed that SWL was safer and less invasive, but that URS was more effective and resulted in a lower retreatment rate.


Assuntos
Litotripsia , Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Ureteroscopia , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cálculos Ureterais/patologia , Ureteroscópios
19.
J Urol ; 181(3): 1158-62, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19152940

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the factors predicting unfavorable results of semirigid ureteroscopy for ureteral calculi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computerized files of 841 patients who underwent a total of 908 ureteroscopic procedures for ureteral stones from January 2003 through December 2006. A semirigid 6/7.5Fr ureteroscope was used in pediatric patients and an 8/10Fr or 8.5/11.5Fr ureteroscope was used in adults. Patients with favorable results were those who became stone-free after a single ureteroscopic procedure without any complications. They were compared with patients who had unfavorable results using univariate (chi-square and t tests) and multivariate (logistic regression) statistical tests to identify risk factors for unfavorable results. RESULTS: The study included 567 males and 274 females with a mean age of 48.5 years (range 2 to 81). The complication rate was 6.7% (61 procedures). The stone-free rate after a single ureteroscopic intervention was 87% (791 procedures). Favorable results were documented in 751 procedures (82.7%). Significant factors for unfavorable results were proximal ureteral stones, ureteroscopy done by surgeons other than experienced endourologists, stone impaction and stone width (relative risk 4, 2.5, 1.8 and 1.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Semirigid ureteroscopy is a safe and highly effective treatment modality for ureteral stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Ureterais/terapia , Ureteroscópios , Ureteroscopia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Urol ; 179(1): 198-200; discussion 200, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18001795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We addressed the impact of stone density and size on the role of computerized tomography for diagnosing residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 100 renal units that underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The study included 55 opaque and 45 lucent or faint stones. Patients were examined after the procedure by plain x-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder, linear tomography, ultrasound and spiral computerized tomography. Minute residual stones were defined as 1 or 2 caliceal stones less than 5 mm, as measured by computerized tomography. RESULTS: Stone-free status was achieved in 38 renal units. Minute and significant residual stones were detected in 26 and 36 renal units, respectively. For faint and lucent stones sensitivity for overall stone detection was 100% for computerized tomography, 11.1% for plain x-ray, 22.2% for linear tomography and 22.2% for ultrasound (p <0.05). Sensitivity for detecting significant residual stones was 100% for computerized tomography, 20% for plain x-ray, 33.3% for linear tomography and 20% for ultrasound (p <0.05). For opaque stones sensitivity for overall stone detection was 100% for computerized tomography, 62.9% for plain x-ray, 74.3% linear tomography and 48.6% for ultrasound (p <0.05). Sensitivity for detecting significant residual stones was 100% for computerized tomography, 85.7% for plain x-ray (p not significant), 95.2% for linear tomography (p not significant) and 57.1% for ultrasound (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Computerized tomography provides the most sensitive tool for detecting residual stones after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Nevertheless, it should not be routinely performed in patients with opaque stones because it yields no statistically valuable increase in the diagnosis of significant residual stones compared with that of plain x-ray and linear tomography.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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