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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1015, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156619

RESUMO

Personalized cancer vaccines hold promises for future cancer therapy. Targeting neoantigens is perceived as more beneficial compared to germline, non-mutated antigens. However, it is a practical challenge to identify and vaccinate patients with neoantigens. Here we asked whether two neoantigens are sufficient, and whether the addition of germline antigens would enhance the therapeutic efficacy. We developed and used a personalized cancer nano-vaccine platform based on virus-like particles loaded with toll-like receptor ligands. We generated three sets of multi-target vaccines (MTV) to immunize against the aggressive B16F10 murine melanoma: one set based on germline epitopes (GL-MTV) identified by immunopeptidomics, another set based on mutated epitopes (Mutated-MTV) predicted by whole exome sequencing and a last set combines both germline and mutated epitopes (Mix-MTV). Our results demonstrate that both germline and mutated epitopes induced protection but the best therapeutic effect was achieved with the combination of both. Our platform is based on Cu-free click chemistry used for peptide-VLP coupling, thus enabling bedside production of a personalized cancer vaccine, ready for clinical translation.

2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 137, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122271

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the author reported an author's family name has been misspelled. Paul Engroff should be replace Paul Engeroff.Furthermore, there are two mistake in two affiliations: 9) Department of dermatology, University of Zurich, Bern, Switzerland and 10) Department of Oncology, University of Lausanne, Bern,Switzerland should be replace with 9) Department of dermatology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.10) Department of Oncology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 114, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Induction of strong T cell responses, in particular cytotoxic T cells, is a key for the generation of efficacious therapeutic cancer vaccines which yet, remains a major challenge for the vaccine developing world. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to harness the physiological properties of the lymphatic system to optimize the induction of a protective T cell response. Indeed, the lymphatic system sharply distinguishes between nanoscale and microscale particles. The former reaches the fenestrated lymphatic system via diffusion, while the latter either need to be transported by dendritic cells or form a local depot. METHODS: Our previously developed cucumber-mosaic virus-derived nanoparticles termed (CuMVTT-VLPs) incorporating a universal Tetanus toxoid epitope TT830-843 were assessed for their draining kinetics using stereomicroscopic imaging. A nano-vaccine has been generated by coupling p33 epitope as a model antigen to CuMVTT-VLPs using bio-orthogonal Cu-free click chemistry. The CuMVTT-p33 nano-sized vaccine has been next formulated with the micron-sized microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT) adjuvant and the formed depot effect was studied using confocal microscopy and trafficking experiments. The immunogenicity of the nanoparticles combined with the micron-sized adjuvant was next assessed in an aggressive transplanted murine melanoma model. The obtained results were compared to other commonly used adjuvants such as B type CpGs and Alum. RESULTS: Our results showed that CuMVTT-VLPs can efficiently and rapidly drain into the lymphatic system due to their nano-size of ~ 30 nm. However, formulating the nanoparticles with the micron-sized MCT adjuvant of ~ 5 µM resulted in a local depot for the nanoparticles and a longer exposure time for the immune system. The preclinical nano-vaccine CuMVTT-p33 formulated with the micron-sized MCT adjuvant has enhanced the specific T cell response in the stringent B16F10p33 murine melanoma model. Furthermore, the micron-sized MCT adjuvant was as potent as B type CpGs and clearly superior to the commonly used Alum adjuvant when total CD8+, specific p33 T cell response or tumour protection were assessed. CONCLUSION: The combination of nano- and micro-particles may optimally harness the physiological properties of the lymphatic system. Since the nanoparticles are well defined virus-like particles and the micron-sized adjuvant MCT has been used for decades in allergen-specific desensitization, this approach may readily be translated to the clinic.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(5): 672-675, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as a key driver of pain in osteoarthritis (OA) and antibodies to NGF are potent analgesics in human disease. Here, we validate a novel vaccine strategy to generate anti-NGF antibodies for reversal of pain behaviour in a surgical model of OA. METHODS: Virus-like particles were derived from the cucumber mosaic virus (CuMV) and coupled to expressed recombinant NGF to create the vaccine. 10-week-old male mice underwent partial meniscectomy to induce OA or sham-surgery. Spontaneous pain behaviour was measured by Linton incapacitance and OA severity was quantified using OARSI histological scoring. Mice (experimental and a sentinel cohort) were inoculated with CuMVttNGF (Vax) or CuMVttctrl (Mock) either before surgery or once pain was established. Efficacy of anti-NGF from the plasma of sentinel vaccinated mice was measured in vitro using a neurite outgrowth assay in PC12 cells. RESULTS: Anti-NGF titres were readily detectable in the vaccinated but not mock vaccinated mice. Regular boosting with fresh vaccine was required to maintain anti-NGF titres as measured in the sentinel cohort. Both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination demonstrated a reversal of pain behaviour by incapacitance testing, and a meta-analysis of the two studies showing analgesia at peak anti-NGF titres was highly statistically significant. Serum anti-NGF was able to inhibit neurite outgrowth equivalent to around 150 ug/mL of recombinant monoclonal antibody. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates therapeutic efficacy of a novel NGF vaccine strategy that reversibly alleviates spontaneous pain behaviour in surgically induced murine OA.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2522, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405579

RESUMO

Allergen-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) responses followed by eosinophilic inflammation of the lung are important causes of allergic asthma. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a master regulator of eosinophil differentiation as well as activation. Blocking IL-5 using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against IL-5 is a powerful way to improve asthmatic symptoms in patients with an eosinophilic component of the disease. We have previously shown that vaccination against IL-5 can abrogate eosinophilic inflammation of the lung in allergic mice. More recently, we have demonstrated that eosinophil-mediated skin disease in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity can be strongly reduced by vaccination against IL-5. Here we would like to propose the development of a similar vaccine for the treatment of asthma in humans.

6.
NPJ Vaccines ; 2: 30, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263885

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies are widely used to treat non-infectious conditions but are costly. Vaccines could offer a cost-effective alternative but have been limited by sub-optimal T-cell stimulation and/or weak vaccine responses in recipients, for example, in elderly patients. We have previously shown that the repetitive structure of virus-like-particles (VLPs) can effectively bypass self-tolerance in therapeutic vaccines. Their efficacy could be increased even further by the incorporation of an epitope stimulating T cell help. However, the self-assembly and stability of VLPs from envelope monomer proteins is sensitive to geometry, rendering the incorporation of foreign epitopes difficult. We here show that it is possible to engineer VLPs derived from a non human-pathogenic plant virus to incorporate a powerful T-cell-stimulatory epitope derived from Tetanus toxoid. These VLPs (termed CMVTT) retain self-assembly as well as long-term stability. Since Th cell memory to Tetanus is near universal in humans, CMVTT-based vaccines can deliver robust antibody-responses even under limiting conditions. By way of proof of concept, we tested a range of such vaccines against chronic inflammatory conditions (model: psoriasis, antigen: interleukin-17), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's, ß-amyloid), and allergic disease (cat allergy, Fel-d1), respectively. Vaccine responses were uniformly strong, selective, efficient in vivo, observed even in old mice, and employing low vaccine doses. In addition, randomly ascertained human blood cells were reactive to CMVTT-VLPs, confirming recognition of the incorporated Tetanus epitope. The CMVTT-VLP platform is adaptable to almost any antigen and its features and performance are ideally suited for the design of vaccines delivering enhanced responsiveness in aging populations.

7.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0181844, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797124

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and currently incurable neurological disorder characterised by the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and the accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (a-syn). Oligomeric a-syn is proposed to play a central role in spreading protein aggregation in the brain with associated cellular toxicity contributing to a progressive neurological decline. For this reason, a-syn oligomers have attracted interest as therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative conditions such as PD and other alpha-synucleinopathies. In addition to strategies using small molecules, neutralisation of the toxic oligomers by antibodies represents an attractive and highly specific strategy for reducing disease progression. Emerging active immunisation approaches using vaccines are already being trialled to induce such antibodies. Here we propose a novel vaccine based on the RNA bacteriophage (Qbeta) virus-like particle conjugated with short peptides of human a-syn. High titres of antibodies were successfully and safely generated in wild-type and human a-syn over-expressing (SNCA-OVX) transgenic mice following vaccination. Antibodies from vaccine candidates targeting the C-terminal regions of a-syn were able to recognise Lewy bodies, the hallmark aggregates in human PD brains. Furthermore, antibodies specifically targeted oligomeric and aggregated a-syn as they exhibited 100 times greater affinity for oligomeric species over monomer a-syn proteins in solution. In the SNCA-OVX transgenic mice used, vaccination was, however, unable to confer significant changes to oligomeric a-syn bioburden. Similarly, there was no discernible effect of vaccine treatment on behavioural phenotype as compared to control groups. Thus, antibodies specific for oligomeric a-syn induced by vaccination were unable to treat symptoms of PD in this particular mouse model.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/prevenção & controle , RNA Viral/uso terapêutico , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , alfa-Sinucleína/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Bacteriófagos/química , Bacteriófagos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Doença de Parkinson/imunologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/imunologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/imunologia , Vacinas/química , Vacinas/imunologia , Vírion/química , Vírion/imunologia , alfa-Sinucleína/química , alfa-Sinucleína/imunologia , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 5(2)2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468322

RESUMO

Vaccination is the most effective prophylactic tool against infectious diseases. Despite continued efforts to control malaria, the disease still generally represents a significant unmet medical need. Microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT) is a well described depot used in licensed allergy immunotherapy products and in clinical development. However, its proof of concept in prophylactic vaccines has only recently been explored. MCT has never been used in combination with virus-like particles (VLPs), which are considered to be one of the most potent inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses in mice and humans. In the current study we assessed the potential of MCT to serve as an adjuvant in the development of a vaccine against malaria either alone or combined with VLP using Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) as a target antigen. We chemically coupled PvTRAP to VLPs derived from the cucumber mosaic virus fused to a universal T-cell epitope of the tetanus toxin (CMVtt), formulated with MCT and compared the induced immune responses to PvTRAP formulated in PBS or Alum. The protective capacity of the various formulations was assessed using Plasmodium berghei expressing PvTRAP. All vaccine formulations using adjuvants and/or VLP increased humoral immunogenicity for PvTRAP compared to the antigen alone. The most proficient responder was the group of mice immunized with the vaccine formulated with PvTRAP-VLP + MCT. The VLP-based vaccine formulated in MCT also induced the strongest T cell response and conferred best protection against challenge with recombinant Plasmodium berghei. Thus, the combination of VLP with MCT may take advantage of the properties of each component and appears to be an alternative biodegradable depot adjuvant for development of novel prophylactic vaccines.

9.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 24(4)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28179403

RESUMO

Four different vaccine platforms, each targeting the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PvCelTOS), were generated and assessed for protective efficacy. These platforms consisted of a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector 63 (ChAd63) expressing PvCelTOS (Ad), a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing PvCelTOS (MVA), PvCelTOS conjugated to bacteriophage Qß virus-like particles (VLPs), and a recombinant PvCelTOS protein expressed in eukaryotic HEK293T cells (protein). Inbred BALB/c mice and outbred CD-1 mice were immunized using the following prime-boost regimens: Ad-MVA, Ad-VLPs, and Ad-protein. Protective efficacy against sporozoite challenge was assessed after immunization using a novel chimeric rodent Plasmodium berghei parasite (Pb-PvCelTOS). This chimeric parasite expresses P. vivax CelTOS in place of the endogenous P. berghei CelTOS and produces fully infectious sporozoites. A single Ad immunization in BALB/c and CD-1 mice induced anti-PvCelTOS antibodies which were boosted efficiently using MVA, VLP, or protein immunization. PvCelTOS-specific gamma interferon- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing CD8+ T cells were induced at high frequencies by all prime-boost regimens in BALB/c mice but not in CD-1 mice; in CD-1 mice, they were only marginally increased after boosting with MVA. Despite the induction of anti-PvCelTOS antibodies and PvCelTOS-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, only low levels of protective efficacy against challenge with Pb-PvCelTOS sporozoites were obtained using any immunization strategy. In BALB/c mice, no immunization regimens provided significant protection against a Pb-PvCelTOS chimeric sporozoite challenge. In CD-1 mice, modest protective efficacy against challenge with chimeric P. berghei sporozoites expressing either PvCelTOS or P. falciparum CelTOS was observed using the Ad-protein vaccination regimen.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Portadores de Fármacos , Feminino , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vacinas de Subunidades/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
10.
Int J Parasitol ; 47(7): 435-446, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153778

RESUMO

Development of bespoke biomanufacturing processes remains a critical bottleneck for translational studies, in particular when modest quantities of a novel product are required for proof-of-concept Phase I/II clinical trials. In these instances the ability to develop a biomanufacturing process quickly and relatively cheaply, without risk to product quality or safety, provides a great advantage by allowing new antigens or concepts in immunogen design to more rapidly enter human testing. These challenges with production and purification are particularly apparent when developing recombinant protein-based vaccines for difficult parasitic diseases, with Plasmodium falciparum malaria being a prime example. To that end, we have previously reported the expression of a novel protein vaccine for malaria using the ExpreS2Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 stable cell line system, however, a very low overall process yield (typically <5% recovery of hexa-histidine-tagged protein) meant the initial purification strategy was not suitable for scale-up and clinical biomanufacture of such a vaccine. Here we describe a newly available affinity purification method that was ideally suited to purification of the same protein which encodes the P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 - currently the leading antigen for assessment in next generation vaccines aiming to prevent red blood cell invasion by the blood-stage parasite. This purification system makes use of a C-terminal tag known as 'C-tag', composed of the four amino acids, glutamic acid - proline - glutamic acid - alanine (E-P-E-A), which is selectively purified on a CaptureSelect™ affinity resin coupled to a camelid single chain antibody, called NbSyn2. The C-terminal fusion of this short C-tag to P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 achieved >85% recovery and >70% purity in a single step purification directly from clarified, concentrated Schneider 2 cell supernatant under mild conditions. Biochemical and immunological analysis showed that the C-tagged and hexa-histidine-tagged P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 proteins are comparable. The C-tag technology has the potential to form the basis of a current good manufacturing practice-compliant platform, which could greatly improve the speed and ease with which novel protein-based products progress to clinical testing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/química , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Coelhos
11.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0120751, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830365

RESUMO

The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs) when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. Specifically, the major insertion region (MIR) on the HBcAg protein allows the insertion of foreign sequences, which are then exposed on the tips of surface spike structures on the outside of the assembled particle. Here, we present a novel strategy which aids the display of whole proteins on the surface of HBc particles. This strategy, named tandem core, is based on the production of the HBcAg dimer as a single polypeptide chain by tandem fusion of two HBcAg open reading frames. This allows the insertion of large heterologous sequences in only one of the two MIRs in each spike, without compromising VLP formation. We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. The results show that tandem core particles can be produced with unmodified MIRs, or with one MIR in each tandem dimer modified to contain the entire sequence of GFP or of a camelid nanobody. Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody) retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. This technology paves the way for the display of natively folded proteins on the surface of HBc particles either through direct fusion or through non-covalent attachment via a nanobody.


Assuntos
Fusão Gênica Artificial/métodos , Escherichia coli/genética , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/química , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Multimerização Proteica , Tabaco/genética , Vírus , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética
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