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1.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) prognostic models are potential solutions to severe human and technical shortages. Although numerous TBI prognostic models have been developed, none are widely used in clinical practice, largely due to a lack of feasibility research to inform implementation. We previously developed a prognostic model and web-based application for in-hospital TBI care in low-resource settings. In this study, we tested the feasibility, acceptability, and usability of the application with potential end-users. METHODS: We performed our feasibility assessment with providers involved in TBI care at both a regional and national referral hospital in Uganda. We collected qualitative and quantitative data on decision support needs, application ease of use, and implementation design. RESULTS: We completed 25 questionnaires on potential uses of the app and 11 semi-structured feasibility interviews. Top-cited uses were informing the decision to operate, informing the decision to send the patient to intensive care, and counseling patients and relatives. Participants affirmed the application's potential to support difficult triage situations, particularly in the setting of limited access to diagnostics and interventions, but were hesitant to use this technology with end-of-life decisions. While all participants were satisfied with the application and agreed it is easy to use, several expressed a need for this technology to be accessible by smartphone and offline. CONCLUSIONS: We elucidated several potential uses for our app and important contextual factors that will support future implementation. This investigation helps address an unmet need to determine the feasibility of TBI clinical decision support systems in low-resource settings.

2.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Global neurosurgery is a rapidly emerging field that aims to address the worldwide shortages in neurosurgical care. Many published outreach efforts and initiatives exist to address the global disparity in neurosurgical care; however, there is no centralized report detailing these efforts. This scoping review aims to characterize the field of global neurosurgery by identifying partnerships between high-income countries (HICs) and low- and/or middle-income countries (LMICs) that seek to increase neurosurgical capacity. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. A search was conducted in five electronic databases and the gray literature, defined as literature not published through traditional commercial or academic means, to identify studies describing global neurosurgery partnerships. Study selection and data extraction were performed by four independent reviewers, and any disagreements were settled by the team and ultimately the team lead. RESULTS: The original database search produced 2221 articles, which was reduced to 183 final articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These final articles, along with 9 additional gray literature references, captured 169 unique global neurosurgery collaborations between HICs and LMICs. Of this total, 103 (61%) collaborations involved surgical intervention, while local training of medical personnel, research, and education were done in 48%, 38%, and 30% of efforts, respectively. Many of the collaborations (100 [59%]) are ongoing, and 93 (55%) of them resulted in an increase in capacity within the LMIC involved. The largest proportion of efforts began between 2005-2009 (28%) and 2010-2014 (17%). The most frequently involved HICs were the United States, Canada, and France, whereas the most frequently involved LMICs were Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides a detailed overview of current global neurosurgery efforts, elucidates gaps in the existing literature, and identifies the LMICs that may benefit from further efforts to improve accessibility to essential neurosurgical care worldwide.

3.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a burgeoning global health concern, is one condition that could benefit from prognostic modeling. Risk stratification of TBI patients on presentation to a health facility can support the prudent use of limited resources. The CRASH (Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury) model is a well-established prognostic model developed to augment complex decision-making. The authors' current study objective was to better understand in-hospital decision-making for TBI patients and determine whether data from the CRASH risk calculator influenced provider assessment of prognosis. METHODS: The authors performed a choice experiment using a simulated TBI case. All participant doctors received the same case, which included a patient history, vitals, and physical examination findings. Half the participants also received the CRASH risk score. Participants were asked to estimate the patient prognosis and decide the best next treatment step. The authors recruited a convenience sample of 28 doctors involved in TBI care at both a regional and a national referral hospital in Uganda. RESULTS: For the simulated case, the CRASH risk scores for 14-day mortality and an unfavorable outcome at 6 months were 51.4% (95% CI 42.8%, 59.8%) and 89.8% (95% CI 86.0%, 92.6%), respectively. Overall, participants were overoptimistic when estimating the patient prognosis. Risk estimates by doctors provided with the CRASH risk score were closer to that score than estimates made by doctors in the control group; this effect was more pronounced for inexperienced doctors. Surgery was selected as the best next step by 86% of respondents. CONCLUSIONS: This study was a novel assessment of a TBI prognostic model's influence on provider estimation of risk in a low-resource setting. Exposure to CRASH risk score data reduced overoptimistic prognostication by doctors, particularly among inexperienced providers.

4.
Neurosurg Focus ; 47(5): E6, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in low- and middle-income countries who receive surgery have better outcomes than patients with TBI who do not receive surgery, and whether this differs with severity of injury. METHODS: The authors generated a series of Kaplan-Meier plots and performed multiple Cox proportional hazard models to assess the relationship between TBI surgery and TBI severity. The TBI severity was categorized using admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores: mild (14, 15), moderate (9-13), or severe (3-8). The authors investigated outcomes from admission to hospital day 14. The outcome considered was the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, categorized as poor outcome (1-4) and good outcome (5-8). The authors used TBI registry data collected from 2013 to 2017 at a regional referral hospital in Tanzania. RESULTS: Of the final 2502 patients, 609 (24%) received surgery and 1893 (76%) did not receive surgery. There were significantly fewer road traffic injuries and more violent causes of injury in those receiving surgery. Those receiving surgery were also more likely to receive care in the ICU, to have a poor outcome, to have a moderate or severe TBI, and to stay in the hospital longer. The hazard ratio for patients with TBI who underwent operation versus those who did not was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06-0.49; p < 0.001) in patients with moderate TBI; 0.2 (95% CI 0.06-0.64; p = 0.01) for those with mild TBI, and 0.47 (95% CI 0.24-0.89; p = 0.02) for those with severe TBI. CONCLUSIONS: Those who received surgery for their TBI had a lower hazard for poor outcome than those who did not. Surgical intervention was associated with the greatest improvement in outcomes for moderate head injuries, followed by mild and severe injuries. The findings suggest a reprioritization of patients with moderate TBI-a drastic change to the traditional practice within low- and middle-income countries in which the most severely injured patients are prioritized for care.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence is a global health burden that disproportionately affects women and their health outcomes. Women in Brazil are also affected by interpersonal violence. We aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence of three forms of interpersonal violence against women (IPVAW) and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with IPVAW in one urban Brazilian city. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we interviewed women aged ≥18 years in the urban Brazilian city, Maringá, who currently have or have had an intimate partner. The 13-item WHO Violence Against Women instrument was used to ask participants about their experiences with intimate partner violence, categorized into psychological, physical and sexual violence. We estimated associations between IPVAW and sociodemographic characteristics using generalized linear models. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 419 women who were enrolled and met inclusion criteria, lifetime prevalence of IPVAW was 56%. Psychological violence was more prevalent (52%) than physical (21%) or sexual violence (13%). Twenty-eight women (6.4%) experienced all three forms of IPVAW. Women were more likely to experience violence if they were employed, did not live with their partner or had 4 or more children. Educational level, household income, age and race were not significantly associated factors. Our findings highlight a high prevalence of IPVAW in a community in southern Brazil.

6.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVETraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with a disproportionate burden of this injury on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited access to diagnostic technologies and highly skilled providers combined with high patient volumes contributes to poor outcomes in LMICs. Prognostic modeling as a clinical decision support tool, in theory, could optimize the use of existing resources and support timely treatment decisions in LMICs. The objective of this study was to develop a machine learning-based prognostic model using data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania.METHODSThis study is a secondary analysis of a TBI data registry including 3138 patients. The authors tested nine different machine learning techniques to identify the prognostic model with the greatest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Input data included demographics, vital signs, injury type, and treatment received. The outcome variable was the discharge score on the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.RESULTSThe AUC for the prognostic models varied from 66.2% (k-nearest neighbors) to 86.5% (Bayesian generalized linear model). An increasing Glasgow Coma Scale score, increasing pulse oximetry values, and undergoing TBI surgery were predictive of a good recovery, while injuries suffered from a motor vehicle crash and increasing age were predictive of a poor recovery.CONCLUSIONSThe authors developed a TBI prognostic model with a substantial level of accuracy in a low-resource setting. Further research is needed to externally validate the model and test the algorithm as a clinical decision support tool.

7.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 30(2): 519-531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study's purpose was to assess population demographics and resource utilization of the Medical Student Run Clinic, which provides primary care services to patients in El Paso, Texas along the Texas-Mexico border. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional chart review was performed on 760 patients evaluated at the medical student-run clinic between 2013 and 2016. Data included demographic characteristics, chief complaints, diagnoses, and interventions, which were analyzed with calculations of means, standard deviations, and percentages. RESULTS: Most (79.7%) patients were female; average age was 38.43 years; 91% of patients were Hispanic, and 66.8% spoke Spanish. Average BMI was 30.9 kg/m2. Less than 1% of patients presented with a psychiatric complaint; however, 17.9% screened positive for anxiety, and 16.5% screened positive for depression. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that diabetes, hypertension, obesity, anxiety, and depression represent avenues for future patient-centered interventions and provide insight into challenges patients face along the border.

8.
Neurosurg Focus ; 45(4): E15, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In addition to the rising burden of surgical disease globally, infrastructure and human resources for health remain a great challenge for low- and middle-income countries, especially in Uganda. In this study, the authors aim to explore the trends of neurosurgical care at a regional referral hospital in Uganda and assess the long-term impact of the institutional collaboration between Mulago National Referral Hospital and Duke University. METHODS: An interrupted time series is a quasi-experimental design used to evaluate the effects of an intervention on longitudinal data. The authors applied this design to evaluate the trends in monthly mortality rates for neurosurgery patients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) from March 2013 to October 2015. They used segmented regression and autoregressive integrated moving average models for the analysis. RESULTS: Over the study timeframe, MRRH experienced significant increases in referrals received (from 117 in 2013 to 211 in 2015), neurosurgery patients treated (from 337 in 2013 to 625 in 2015), and operations performed (from 61 in 2013 to 173 in 2015). Despite increasing patient volumes, the hospital achieved a significant reduction in hospital mortality during 2015 compared to prior years (p value = 0.0039). CONCLUSIONS: This interrupted time series analysis study showed improving trends of neurosurgical care in Western Uganda. There is a steady increase in volume accompanied by a sharp decrease in mortality through the years. Multiple factors are implicated in the significant increase in volume and decrease in mortality, including the addition of a part-time neurosurgeon, improvement in infrastructure, and increased experience. Further in-depth prospective studies exploring seasonality and long-term outcomes are warranted.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitais , Humanos , Intercâmbio Educacional Internacional , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Neurocirurgia/educação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/educação , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/mortalidade , North Carolina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/tendências , Uganda
9.
World Neurosurg ; 120: 36-42, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Castleman disease (CD) is an uncommon disorder of deregulated lymphoproliferation with unicentric (UCD) and multicentric forms based on extent of nodal involvement. Gross resection with histopathologic analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis of UCD and is curative in most cases. Symptomatic paraspinal UCD is a rare presentation with potentially dangerous complications, and its tendency to mimic more common spinal tumors presents a significant diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old Hispanic man with no past medical history was evaluated for a known left-sided paraspinal mass that was incidentally discovered during an emergency department work-up for hematuria. Computed tomography on initial presentation revealed a 5.3 cm × 3.3 cm × 4.8 cm heterogeneously enhancing left paraspinal mass adjacent to the T11 vertebral body with tonguelike extension into the T11-T12 neural foramen. Although he remained neurologically intact throughout most of the diagnostic work-up, an inconclusive biopsy, worsening hematuria, and late-onset radiculopathy with severe back pain prompted surgical intervention. Microscopic histomorphology was consistent with CD. He continued to have intermittent hematuria and dysuria postoperatively, but repeat computed tomography at 7 months confirmed no recurrence of the mass. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previous reports, our case of postcoital hematuria and radiculopathy accompanying a paraspinal thoracic mass in a young Mexican-American man is a unique presentation. Awareness and early consideration of UCD in the work-up of a paraspinal mass may spare affected patients adverse and dangerous sequelae, such as spinal cord compression and excessive intraoperative hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/complicações , Hematúria/complicações , Adulto , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/terapia , Coito , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Hematúria/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematúria/patologia , Hematúria/terapia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos , Vértebras Torácicas
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