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1.
Brain Sci ; 10(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255604

RESUMO

Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence and socioeconomic cost, but the brain-physiological processes that are altered during depressive states are not well understood. Here, we build on recent findings in macaques that indicate a direct causal relationship between pupil dilation and anterior cingulate cortex mediated arousal during anticipation of reward. We translated these findings to human subjects with concomitant pupillometry/fMRI in a sample of unmedicated participants diagnosed with major depression and healthy controls. We could show that the upregulation and maintenance of arousal in anticipation of reward was disrupted in patients in a symptom-load dependent manner. We could further show that the failure to maintain reward anticipatory arousal showed state-marker properties, as it tracked the load and impact of depressive symptoms independent of prior diagnosis status. Further, group differences of anticipatory arousal and continuous correlations with symptom load were not traceable only at the level of pupillometric responses, but were mirrored also at the neural level within salience network hubs. The upregulation and maintenance of arousal during reward anticipation is a novel translational and well-traceable process that could prove a promising gateway to a physiologically informed patient stratification and targeted interventions.

2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(14): 4010-4023, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597537

RESUMO

Acute and chronic stress are important factors in the development of mental disorders. Reliable measurement of stress reactivity is therefore pivotal. Critically, experimental induction of stress often involves multiple "hits" and it is an open question whether individual differences in responses to an earlier stressor lead to habituation, sensitization, or simple additive effects on following events. Here, we investigated the effect of the individual cortisol response to intravenous catheter placement (IVP) on subsequent neural, psychological, endocrine, and autonomous stress reactivity. We used an established psychosocial stress paradigm to measure the acute stress response (Stress) and recovery (PostStress) in 65 participants. Higher IVP-induced cortisol responses were associated with lower pulse rate increases during stress recovery (b = -4.8 bpm, p = .0008) and lower increases in negative affect after the task (b = -4.2, p = .040). While the cortisol response to IVP was not associated with subsequent specific stress-induced neural activation patterns, the similarity of brain responses Pre- and PostStress was higher IVP-cortisol responders (t[64] = 2.35, p = .022) indicating faster recovery. In conclusion, preparatory stress induced by IVP reduced reactivity in a subsequent stress task by modulating the latency of stress recovery. Thus, an individually stronger preceding release of cortisol may attenuate a second physiological response and perceived stress suggesting that relative changes, not absolute levels are crucial for stress attribution. Our study highlights that considering the entire trajectory of stress induction during an experiment is important to develop reliable individual biomarkers.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(6): 433-442, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202489

RESUMO

The identification and understanding of resilience mechanisms holds potential for the development of mechanistically informed prevention and interventions in psychiatry. However, investigating resilience mechanisms is conceptually and methodologically challenging because resilience does not merely constitute the absence of disease-specific risk but rather reflects active processes that aid in the maintenance of physiological and psychological homeostasis across a broad range of environmental circumstances. In this conceptual review, we argue that the principle used in gene-by-environment interaction studies may help to unravel resilience mechanisms on different investigation levels. We present how this could be achieved by top-down designs that start with gene-by-environment interaction effects on disease phenotypes as well as by bottom-up approaches that start at the molecular level. We also discuss how recent technological advances may improve both top-down and bottom-up strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e7, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940272

RESUMO

Progress in psychiatric research has been hindered by the use of artificial disease categories to map distinct biological substrates. Efforts to overcome this obstacle have led to the misconception that relevant psychiatric dimensions are not biologically reducible. Consequently, the return to phenomenology is once again advocated. We propose a process-centered paradigm of biological reduction compatible with non-reductive materialism.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Pesquisa
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(43): E10206-E10215, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201713

RESUMO

Ample evidence links dysregulation of the stress response to the risk for psychiatric disorders. However, we lack an integrated understanding of mechanisms that are adaptive during the acute stress response but potentially pathogenic when dysregulated. One mechanistic link emerging from rodent studies is the interaction between stress effectors and neurovascular coupling, a process that adjusts cerebral blood flow according to local metabolic demands. Here, using task-related fMRI, we show that acute psychosocial stress rapidly impacts the peak latency of the hemodynamic response function (HRF-PL) in temporal, insular, and prefrontal regions in two independent cohorts of healthy humans. These latency effects occurred in the absence of amplitude effects and were moderated by regulatory genetic variants of KCNJ2, a known mediator of the effect of stress on vascular responsivity. Further, hippocampal HRF-PL correlated with both cortisol response and genetic variants that influence the transcriptional response to stress hormones and are associated with risk for major depression. We conclude that acute stress modulates hemodynamic response properties as part of the physiological stress response and suggest that HRF indices could serve as endophenotype of stress-related disorders.


Assuntos
Células Endócrinas/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
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