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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 17, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo have left indelible marks on the mental health and functioning of the Congolese civilians that sought refuge in Uganda. Even though it is clear that civilians who are exposed to potentially traumatizing events in war and conflict areas develop trauma-related mental health problems, scholarly information on gender differences on exposure to different war-related traumatic events, their conditional risks to developing PTSD and whether the cumulative exposure to traumatic events affects men and women differently is still scanty. METHODS: In total, 325 (n = 143 males, n = 182 females) Congolese refugees who lived in Nakivale, a refugee settlement in the Southwestern part of Uganda were interviewed within a year after their arrival. Assessment included exposure to war-related traumatic events, and DSM-IV PTSD symptom severity. RESULTS: Our main findings were that refugees were highly exposed to war-related traumatic events with experiencing dangerous flight as the most common event for both men (97%) and women (97%). The overall high prevalence of PTSD differed among women (94%) and men (84%). The highest conditional prevalence of PTSD in women was associated with experiencing rape. The dose-response effect differed significantly between men and women with women showing higher PTSD symptom severity when experiencing low and moderate levels of potentially traumatizing event types. CONCLUSION: In conflict areas, civilians are highly exposed to different types of war-related traumatic events that expose them to high levels of PTSD symptoms, particularly women. Interventions focused at reducing mental health problems resulting from war should take the context of gender into consideration.

2.
Psychophysiology ; 57(1): e13353, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807662

RESUMO

A variety of mental disorders are related to deviant brain activity, but these neural alterations do not validate psychiatric diagnostic categories. High symptom overlap and variable symptom patterns encourage a dimensional approach. Following the logic of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), we investigated trauma survivors for symptom clusters that might be associated with characteristics of ERPs, in particular with the early posterior negativity (EPN) elicited during affective picture processing. In rapid serial visual presentation, 90 adolescents (40 male/50 female, age M = 15.0 ± 2.5 years) who had been exposed to varying amounts of traumatic stress passively viewed a stream of high-arousing positive and low-arousing neutral pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Using standardized interviews, symptoms of trauma-related mental disorders were assessed (including those for PTSD, depression, borderline personality disorder, and behavioral problems). A principal component analysis was performed to derive potential dimensions of psychopathology. Multiple regression analysis confirmed a factor comprising problems concentrating, sleeping difficulties, and mistrust as a predictor of a larger EPN difference between high-arousing positive and low-arousing neutral IAPS pictures (ß = 0.19, p < 0.05). Sex predicted the magnitude of the EPN (ß = 0.45, p < 0.001). Male adolescents displayed a stronger EPN suppression than female adolescents. The result suggests that problems concentrating, sleeping difficulties, and mistrust seem to be trans-diagnostic elements related to diminished early emotional discrimination represented by the EPN. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the EPN in response to emotional processing is modulated by sex.

3.
Psychophysiology ; 57(1): e13288, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30328613

RESUMO

The risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases with the number of traumatic event types experienced (trauma load) in interaction with other psychobiological risk factors. The NOTCH (neurogenic locus notch homolog proteins) signaling pathway, consisting of four different trans-membrane receptor proteins (NOTCH1-4), constitutes an evolutionarily well-conserved intercellular communication pathway (involved, e.g., in cell-cell interaction, inflammatory signaling, and learning processes). Its association with fear memory consolidation makes it an interesting candidate for PTSD research. We tested for significant associations of common genetic variants of NOTCH1-4 (investigated by microarray) and genomic methylation of saliva-derived DNA with lifetime PTSD risk in independent cohorts from Northern Uganda (N1 = 924) and Rwanda (N2 = 371), and investigated whether NOTCH-related gene sets were enriched for associations with lifetime PTSD risk. We found associations of lifetime PTSD risk with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2074621 (NOTCH3) (puncorrected = 0.04) in both cohorts, and with methylation of CpG site cg17519949 (NOTCH3) (puncorrected = 0.05) in Rwandans. Yet, none of the (epi-)genetic associations survived multiple testing correction. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed enrichment for associations of two NOTCH pathways with lifetime PTSD risk in Ugandans: NOTCH binding (pcorrected = 0.003) and NOTCH receptor processing (pcorrected = 0.01). The environmental factor trauma load was significant in all analyses (all p < 0.001). Our integrated methodological approach suggests NOTCH as a possible mediator of PTSD risk after trauma. The results require replication, and the precise underlying pathophysiological mechanisms should be illuminated in future studies.

4.
Psychophysiology ; 57(1): e13382, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059136

RESUMO

Experiencing violence changes behavior, shapes personalities, and poses a risk factor for mental disorders. This association might be mediated through epigenetic modifications that affect gene expression, such as DNA methylation. The present study investigated the impact of community and domestic violence on DNA methylation measured in saliva collected from 375 individuals including three generations: grandmothers (n = 126), mothers (n = 125), and adolescents (n = 124, 53% female). Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, in adolescents, we detected two CpG sites that showed an association of DNA methylation and lifetime exposure to community and domestic violence even after FDR correction: BDNF_cg06260077 (logFC -0.454, p = 3.71E-07), and CLPX_cg01908660 (logFC = -0.372, p = 1.38E-07). Differential DNA methylation of the CpG BDNF_cg06260077 associated with exposure to violence was also observed in the maternal but not the grandmaternal generation. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and CLPX (caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase chaperone subunit) genes are involved in neural development. Our results thus reveal altered molecular mechanisms of developmental and intergenerational trajectories in survivors of repeated violent experiences.

5.
Psychophysiology ; : e13515, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840287

RESUMO

Quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) provides useful information about neurophysiological health of the aging brain. Current studies investigating EEG coherence and power for specific brain areas and frequency bands have yielded inconsistent results. This study assessed EEG coherence and power indices at rest measured over the whole skull and for a wide frequency range as global EEG markers for cognition in a sample at risk for dementia. Since global markers are more reliable and less error-prone than region- and frequency-specific indices they might help to overcome previous inconsistencies. Global EEG coherence (1-30 Hz) and an EEG slowing score were assessed. The EEG slowing score was calculated by low-frequency power (1-8 Hz) divided by high-frequency power (9-30 Hz). In addition, the prognostic value of the two EEG indices for cognition and cognitive decline was assessed in a 5-year follow-up pilot study. Baseline global coherence correlated positively with cognition at baseline, but not with cognitive decline or with cognition at the 5-year follow-up. The EEG slowing ratio showed no significant association, neither with cognition at baseline or follow-up, nor with cognitive decline over a period of 5 years. The results indicate that the resting state global EEG coherence might be a useful and easy to assess electrophysiological correlate for neurocognitive health in older adults at risk for dementia. Because of the small statistical power for the follow-up analyses, the prognostic value of global coherence could not be determined in the present study. Future studies should assess its prognostic value with larger sample sizes.

6.
Confl Health ; 13: 46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636698

RESUMO

Background: Studies on populations affected by organized violence have shown elevated levels of family violence against children. This form of violence has been found to contribute to children's psychopathology independently of traumatic experiences related to war, persecution or flight. Little is known, so far, about the exposure to family violence and its relation to mental health in North Korean refugee youth affected by political violence. The aim of this study was to examine the amount of organized and family violence and associated psychopathology in a sample of North Korean refugee youth living in South Korea compared to their South Korean peers. Methods: Sixty-five North Korean refugee youth and 65 South Korean youth were recruited. Trained researchers conducted the survey in group meetings of five to ten participants. Using questionnaires researchers assessed traumatic experiences, family and organized violence, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms and other mental health problems. Results: Higher rates of violence and trauma, and higher levels of mental health problems were found in the North Korean sample compared to the South Korean sample. Linear regression analyses including the various types of trauma as potential predictors showed that the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms in the North Korean sample were associated with the amount of traumatic events and family violence but not with higher levels of organized violence. Conclusions: The findings suggest that in a context of organized violence, abusive experiences by family members constitute an important problem that is strongly linked to the psychopathology of adolescents. Our data suggest that psychological treatment and prevention approaches for North Korean refugees should be carefully tailored to fit the specific requirements of this population and address the mental health of the individual as well as potential problems at the family level.

7.
Behav Res Ther ; 123: 103482, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Women and girls make up a sizeable proportion of armed groups in conflict regions. However, compared to males, research into the mental health of female combatants is limited and there have been no investigations into treatments. Psychological sequalae amongst predominantly male former combatants most prominently include PTSD and appetitive aggression indicating a need for trauma-focused therapy that also addresses violent behaviour with additional components that strengthen social behaviour and inclusion. The aim of this study is to research the effectiveness of a revised adaptation of Narrative Exposure Therapy in a sample of female former child soldiers. METHODS: 92 female former child soldiers who had been forcibly recruited during the M23 insurgency (2012-2014) in Eastern DRC who were found to have PTSD were randomised into groups receiving a version of Narrative Exposure Therapy adapted for offenders (FORNET) or treatment as usual. Clinical outcomes for PTSD, appetitive aggression and depression were assessed, as well as social outcomes (current violent behaviour, guilt and perceived social acknowledgement). RESULTS: High levels of trauma, historical perpetration of extreme violence and ongoing violent behaviour were found within this group. The intervention was found to be superior to treatment as usual at 3-4 month and 9 month follow up for all clinical and social endpoints. Moderate to large effect sizes were found for PTSD, aggression and depression. CONCLUSIONS: This study investigates the effectiveness of psychotherapy for former female child soldiers, and includes long term follow up. It demonstrates that FORNET combined with group therapy can effectively reduce mental health problems as well as ongoing acts of violence in female former child soldiers within post conflict communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02992561.

8.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; : 1-13, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress but also aggressive attitudes and behaviour can be found in adolescents living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence in the low-income urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa. AIMS: We investigated the long-term effects (15-20 months after therapy) of (a) Narrative Exposure Therapy for Forensic Offender Rehabilitation (FORNET) and (b) the cognitive behavioural intervention 'Thinking for a Change' (CBT) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and aggression compared with a waiting list. METHOD: Fifty-four young males participated in the treatment trial, of which 17 completed the FORNET intervention, 11 the CBT intervention, and 26 were on a waiting list. The primary outcome was the change score for the Appetitive Aggression Scale; secondary outcomes were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview change scores, and the number of perpetrated violent event types. RESULTS: The reduction in scores for PTSD that had been observed in FORNET completers at the first follow-up were still significant at the second long-term follow-up (Cohen's d = 0.86). In this treatment arm (FORNET), the scores for appetitive aggression were also significantly reduced (Cohen's d = 1.00). There were no significant changes observed for CBT or for the waiting list. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that FORNET can successfully reduce post-traumatic stress as well as the attraction to violence even for individuals living under conditions of continuous traumatic stress.

9.
Front Genet ; 10: 269, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040859

RESUMO

Stress during pregnancy widely associates with epigenetic changes and psychiatric problems during childhood. Animal studies, however, show that under specific postnatal conditions prenatal stress may have other, less detrimental consequences for the offspring. Here, we studied mental health and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in saliva following intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy in São Gonçalo, a Brazilian city with high levels of violence. Not surprisingly, mothers exposed to pregnancy IPV expressed elevated depression, PTSD and anxiety symptoms. Children had similar psychiatric problems when they experienced maternal IPV after being born. More surprisingly, when maternal IPV occurred both during (prenatal) and after pregnancy these problems were absent. Following prenatal IPV, genomic sites in genes encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and its repressor FKBP51 (FKBP5) were among the most differentially methylated and indicated an enhanced ability to terminate hormonal stress responses in prenatally stressed children. These children also showed more DNA methylation in heterochromatin-like regions, which previously has been associated with stress/disease resilience. A similar relationship was seen in prenatally stressed middle-eastern refugees of the same age as the São Gonçalo children but exposed to postnatal war-related violence. While our study is limited in location and sample size, it provides novel insights on how prenatal stress may epigenetically shape resilience in humans, possibly through interactions with the postnatal environment. This translates animal findings and emphasizes the importance to account for population differences when studying how early life gene-environment interactions affects mental health.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024363

RESUMO

Refugees are exposed to multiple traumatic and stressful events and thereby are at higher risk for developing a variety of psychological sequelae including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the relation of PTSD to other mental health conditions has not been fully revealed in refugee populations. The present study investigated relationships among trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, and insomnia in North Korean refugee youth. Seventy-four refugee youth were assessed for exposure to traumatic events, PTSD, depression, and insomnia symptoms. The results showed high rates of multiple trauma exposures among the refugee youth and high incidences of co-occurring symptoms of PTSD and insomnia in those who have multiple trauma. Furthermore, the overall symptoms and four cluster symptoms of PTSD were strongly correlated with insomnia in addition to depression. In the path model to predict insomnia, PTSD affected insomnia only through depression, indicating that the greater the levels of PTSD suffered, the greater the likelihood for developing sleep problems via depression. The present study indicates how sleep problems relate to trauma-related symptoms, i.e., PTSD and depression in refugee populations, and highlights the need for further investigation of the specific relation between sleep problems and trauma-related symptoms for effective evaluation and intervention.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 251, 2018 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467376

RESUMO

The probability to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), characterized by vivid, intrusive emotional memories of the encountered traumatic events, depends - among other factors - on the number of previous traumatic experiences (traumatic load) and individual genetic vulnerability. So far, our knowledge regarding the biological underpinnings of PTSD is relatively sparse. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by independent replication might help to discover novel, so far unknown biological mechanisms associated with the development of traumatic memories. Here, a GWAS was conducted in N = 924 Northern Ugandan rebel war survivors and identified seven suggestively significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; p ≤ 1 × 10-5) for lifetime PTSD risk. Of these seven SNPs, the association of rs3852144 on chromosome 5 was replicated in an independent sample of Rwandan genocide survivors (N = 370, p < .01). While PTSD risk increased with accumulating traumatic experiences, the vulnerability was reduced in carriers of the minor G-allele in an additive manner. Correspondingly, memory for aversive pictures decreased with higher number of the minor G-allele in a sample of N = 2698 healthy Swiss individuals. Finally, investigations on N = 90 PTSD patients treated with Narrative Exposure Therapy indicated an additive effect of genotype on PTSD symptom change from pre-treatment to four months after treatment, but not between pre-treatment and the 10-months follow-up. In conclusion, emotional memory formation seems to decline with increasing number of rs3852144 G-alleles, rendering individuals more resilient to PTSD development. However, the impact on therapy outcome remains preliminary and further research is needed to determine how this intronic marker may affect memory processes in detail.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Genocídio , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Sobreviventes , Exposição à Guerra , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resiliência Psicológica , Risco , Ruanda , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Suíça , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 423, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364089

RESUMO

Studies in conflict population have repeatedly documented that the number of traumatic event types experienced (trauma load) increases the risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a dose-dependent manner. Misconceptions about survivors' experiences and actions during the war, as well as mental health symptoms frequently lead to stigmatization by their own families and the community, which might render them even more vulnerable for PTSD development and prevent successful recovery. We therefore investigated whether stigmatization affects trauma-related psychopathology beyond the well-known effect of trauma load. The study sample comprised N = 1131 survivors of the rebel war led by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in Northern Uganda, including a large proportion of formerly abducted individuals and child soldiers. We investigated how the experience of stigmatization affects PTSD risk and the likelihood of spontaneous remission, taking trauma load into account. Further, the association of stigmatization with treatment outcome was determined in a subsample of N = 284 individuals with PTSD who received trauma-focused psychotherapy. More than one third of the total sample, and almost two-thirds of the therapy subsample, reported experiences of stigmatization. The main reasons for stigmatization were related to an association with a rebel group (e.g., being called a rebel), followed by mental health problems/PTSD symptoms and HIV/AIDS. Stigmatization was strongly associated with a higher prevalence of lifetime and current PTSD, a diminished probability of spontaneous remission and higher PTSD symptoms before and after trauma-focused psychotherapy, beyond the effect of trauma load. In sum, our results support the assumption that stigmatization aggravates trauma-related psychopathology and impede symptom improvement. In post-conflict regions, community and family interventions which aim at reducing stigmatization and discrimination might therefore complement individual psychotherapy in order to allow survivors to recover and reintegrate into society.

13.
Trials ; 19(1): 480, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic events like critical illness and intensive care are threats to life and bodily integrity and pose a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD affects the quality of life and morbidity and may increase health-care costs. Limited access to specialist care results in PTSD patients being treated in primary care settings. Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is based on the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and has shown positive effects when delivered by health-care professionals other than psychologists. The primary aims of the PICTURE trial (from "PTSD after ICU survival") are to investigate the effectiveness and applicability of NET adapted for primary care with case management in adults diagnosed with PTSD after intensive care. METHODS/DESIGN: This is an investigator-initiated, multi-center, primary care-based, randomized controlled two-arm parallel group, observer-blinded superiority trial conducted throughout Germany. In total, 340 adult patients with a total score of at least 20 points on the posttraumatic diagnostic scale (PDS-5) 3 months after receiving intensive care treatment will be equally randomized to two groups: NET combined with case management and improved treatment as usual (iTAU). All primary care physicians (PCPs) involved will be instructed in the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD according to current German guidelines. PCPs in the iTAU group will deliver usual care during three consultations. In the experimental group, PCPs will additionally be trained to deliver an adapted version of NET (three sessions) supported by phone-based case management by a medical assistant. At 6 and 12 months after randomization, structured blinded telephone interviews will assess patient-reported outcomes. The primary composite endpoint is the absolute change from baseline at month 6 in PTSD symptom severity measured by the PDS-5 total score, which also incorporates the death of any study patients. Secondary outcomes cover the domains depression, anxiety, disability, health-related quality-of-life, and cost-effectiveness. The principal analysis is by intention to treat. DISCUSSION: If the superiority of the experimental intervention over usual care can be demonstrated, the combination of brief NET and case management could be a treatment option to relieve PTSD-related symptoms and to improve primary care after intensive care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03315390 . Registered on 10 October 2017. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00012589 . Registered on 17 October 2017.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13132, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177846

RESUMO

Victims of war, torture and natural catastrophes are prone to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These individuals experience the recurrent, involuntary intrusion of traumatic memories. What neurocognitive mechanisms are driving this memory disorder? Here we show that PTSD symptoms in heavily traumatized refugees are related to deficits in the effective control of memory retrieval. In a think/no-think task, PTSD patients were unable to forget memories that they had previously tried to suppress when compared to control participants with the same trauma history but without PTSD. Deficits in voluntary forgetting were clinically relevant since they correlated with memory intrusions in everyday life. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recorded during suppression attempts revealed that PTSD patients were unable to downregulate signatures of sensory long-term memory traces in the gamma frequency band (70-120 Hz). Thus, our data suggest that the inability to suppress unwanted memories through modulation of gamma activity is related to PTSD symptom severity.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória de Longo Prazo , Rememoração Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 352, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123145

RESUMO

Background: Cross-sectional studies indicate that a substantial proportion of refugees have psychiatric disorders. However, longitudinal studies on the course of psychiatric symptoms and on influencing factors are scarce. The current study investigates the development of symptoms in an untreated refugee sample in Germany and seeks to identify potential predictors. Methods: Over the course of 1 year, 57 refugees participated in monthly assisted self-reports on the phone assessing emotional distress. At the same time, semi-annual, semi-structured clinical interviews focusing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were conducted. The overall dropout rate for the year was 23% for the assisted self-reports and 33% for the clinical interviews. Results: Symptoms did not systematically change over the course of the year. On the individual level, a reliable change in PTSD symptoms was observed in 13% who showed improvement and 24% who showed worsening symptoms. Figures for depression symptoms were 24 and 16% respectively. A higher number of traumatic experiences was related to a greater intensity of PTSD symptoms. In addition, postmigrational stressors were associated with a worsening of PTSD symptoms over the course of the year. Emotional distress was associated with current negative life events, unemployment, and frequent visits to physicians. Conclusions: There is on average no improvement or worsening of symptoms over the period of 1 year. However, individual courses vary, and thus show the importance of risk factors. Accordingly, the identification of risk factors such as trauma load and postmigrational stressors can be useful to determine the need of further monitoring and to provide appropriate interventions when necessary.

16.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 25(6): 827-841, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mental health needs of women affected by intimate partner violence (IPV) and living under continuous domestic violence are currently not well understood. The present study investigates the feasibility and efficacy of narrative exposure therapy (NET), compared with commonly used counselling (treatment-as-usual, TAU), in a group of currently IPV-affected women in Tehran, Iran. METHOD: Forty-five IPV-affected women with a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomized to 10 to 12 sessions of either NET (n = 24) or TAU (n = 21). Primary outcome measures, including PTSD, depression, and perceived stress symptoms, were examined at pretreatment and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. IPV experiences, general lifetime traumatic events, childhood adversities, borderline symptoms, and daily functioning impairment were also inspected. RESULTS: NET participants showed a significantly greater symptom reduction in comparison with the TAU group in PTSD, depression, and perceived stress at both follow-ups. Improvement in daily functioning and reduction of IPV experiences and borderline symptoms at 3- and 6-month follow-ups were pronounced but not significantly different between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSION: IPV-affected women living under continuous threat and violence would benefit from trauma-focused interventions such as NET.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 187, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal evidence suggests the frequently traumatic nature of female genital mutilation (FGM). At present, systematic research on the psychological sequelae of this tradition has remained limited. The study provides preliminary, high-quality psychodiagnostic data on potential psychopathological consequences of FGM, with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), shutdown dissociation and other stress-related variables. METHODS: We investigated a convenience sample of N = 167 women, supported by the women's affairs headquarters in Jijiga (capital of the Ethiopian Somali Region) and a local Ethiopian non-governmental organization. Our main outcome measures were PTSD (PSS-I) and shutdown dissociation (ShuD). We also assessed depression and anxiety (HSCL-25), major depression, substance abuse and dependence, suicidality and psychotic disorders (M.I.N.I.; sub-scales A., B., K., and L.). In addition, we collected hair samples to assess hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) as a neuroendocrinological measure. RESULTS: The majority of women endured FGM (FGM I: 36%, FGM II/III: 52%) and, regardless of the level of the physical invasiveness, almost all women reported having felt intense fear and/or helplessness. FGM II/III, the more invasive form, was associated with a greater vulnerability to PTSD symptoms (p < .001) and shutdown dissociation (p < .001). Symptoms of depression (p < .05) and anxiety (p < .01) were also elevated. Random forest regression with conditional inference trees revealed evidence of an alteration of the cortisol levels in relation to the age when FGM was experienced (< 1 year) and the invasiveness of the procedure. CONCLUSION: More extensive forms of FGM are associated with more severe psychopathological symptoms - particularly with an increased vulnerability to PTSD. Higher hair cortisol levels in women who experienced FGM before their first year of age or had more severe forms of FGM indicate long-term neuroendocrinological consequences of FGM and trauma in general on the stress system.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dissociativos/etiologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6714, 2018 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712944

RESUMO

Appetitive aggression is a sub-category of instrumental aggression, characterised by the primary intrinsic enjoyment of aggressive activity. Aggression is heritable, and serotonergic and monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems have been found to contribute to the underlying molecular mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the role that genetic variants in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genes play in the aetiology of appetitive aggression in South African Xhosa males (n = 290). SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, rs25531, and STin2 variants, as well as MAOA-uVNTR were investigated for their association with levels of appetitive aggression using Poisson regression analysis. The STin2 VNTR12 allele was found to be associated with increased levels of appetitive aggression (p = 0.003), but with decreased levels of reactive aggression (p = 7 × 10-5). This study is the first to investigate genetic underpinnings of appetitive aggression in a South African population, with preliminary evidence suggesting that SCL6A4 STin2 variants play a role in its aetiology, and may also be important in differentiating between appetitive and reactive aggression. Although the results require replication, they shed some preliminary light on the molecular dichotomy that may underlie the two forms of aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Neurotransmissores/genética , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Serotonina/genética , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
19.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 19: 135-138, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279212

RESUMO

The Good: when you fight to counter threat, your aggression is a reactive defense, and often morally justifiable. The Bad: when you loot and rob, hurt and kill, to obtain social status or material goods, that is an extrinsic reward. This is instrumental aggression. And The Ugly: The intrinsic enjoyment of violence. This 'appetitive aggression' describes a lust for violence, underlying first-person shooter gamers, hunting, and extreme acts of violence, such as murder and massacres. Although violence often results from a combination of these forms of aggression, the differentiation is necessary to understand their interplay, as they drive two interconnected cycles of violence: the reactive cycle, fueled by the motivation to overcome negative feelings, and the hedonically driven appetitive cycle.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Recompensa , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Violência/psicologia , Humanos
20.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 8(sup2): 1389205, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163869

RESUMO

Background: A substantial number of refugees present with mental disorders. This appears particularly acute in the currently increasing refugee populations in Europe. Although EU guidelines demand the identification and support of vulnerable individuals such as survivors of trauma, no adequately validated and comprehensive mental health screening instruments for refugees residing in Europe currently exist. Objective: We studied the feasibility, validity, and reliability of the Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15) - a time-efficient and easy-to-implement screening developed by Hollifield et al. (2013) - as a self-rating and interview instrument. Methods: A sample of refugees from different countries (N = 86), representative of those who had arrived around the turn of the year 2015/2016 in Germany, filled in the RHS-15 on their own. A semi-structured clinical interview was later conducted with a random subsample (n = 56). Results: Fifty-two percent of the refugees examined screened positive in the RHS-15, thus indicating current mental health problems. The RHS-15 showed a good feasibility, reliability, and validity in both the self-rating and the interview version. It detected clinically relevant mental health problems when PTSD, depression, anxiety, or somatization problems were present. A shorter 13-item version proved to be equally valid. Conclusions: Together with previous research on the RHS in refugees living in the US, this suggests that the RHS is a time-efficient and accurate instrument that is able to detect common mental health problems in a wide range of refugees. Prospectively, the RHS could be used as an instrument for identifying vulnerable refugees, for example, by integrating it in the initial medical examination in the host community, thereby initiating support.

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