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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(10): 1873-1879, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163101

RESUMO

Dysosteosclerosis (DOS) is a distinct form of sclerosing bone disease characterized by irregular osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. DOS is genetically heterogeneous; however, only five cases with SLC29A3 mutations and a single case with a splice-site mutation of TNFRSF11A have been reported, and TNFRSF11A is also a causal gene for osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 7 (OP-AR7). Thus, the causal genes of DOS and their genotype-phenotype associations remain unclear. In this study, we examined a Japanese patient with DOS and found a novel variant in TNFRSF11A. The homozygous variant was a G to T transversion at the first nucleotide of exon 9 (c.784G>T). Although the variant was predicted to cause a stop codon mutation (p.E262*), in silico evaluation of the exonic splicing elements followed by RT-PCR for the patient-derived cells showed that it caused aberrant splicing due to the change in the exonic splicing element and produced two types of aberrant transcripts: One caused a premature stop codon (p.E262Vfs*17) leading to nonsense mutation-mediated mRNA decay; the other produced a protein with interstitial deletion (p.E262_Q279del). The effects of the mutation on five splicing isoforms of TNFRSF11A were different from those in OP-AR7, but comparable with those in the first DOS with the TNFRSF11A mutation. Thus, we identified the second case of DOS caused by the TNFRSF11A splice-site mutation and confirmed the novel disease entity. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720

RESUMO

Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

3.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 28(1): 7-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507725

RESUMO

Mucolipidosis-IIIγ (ML-IIIγ) is a recessively inherited slowly progressive skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in GNPTG. We report the genetic and clinical findings in the largest cohort with ML-IIIγ so far: 18 affected individuals from 12 families including 12 patients from India, five from Turkey, and one from the USA. With consanguinity confirmed in eight of 12 families, molecular characterization showed that all affected patients had homozygous pathogenic GNPTG genotypes, underscoring the rarity of the disorder. Unlike ML-IIIαß, which present with a broader spectrum of severity, the ML-III γ phenotype is milder, with onset in early school age, but nonetheless thus far considered phenotypically not differentiable from ML-IIIαß. Evaluation of this cohort has yielded phenotypic findings including hypertrophy of the forearms and restricted supination as clues for ML-IIIγ, facilitating an earlier correct choice of genotype screening. Early identification of this disorder may help in offering a timely intervention for the relief of carpal tunnel syndrome, monitoring and surgery for cardiac valve involvement, and evaluation of the need for joint replacement. As this condition may be confused with rheumatoid arthritis, confirmation of diagnosis will prevent inappropriate use of immunosuppressants and disease-modifying agents.


Assuntos
Mucolipidoses/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico , Mucolipidoses/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucolipidoses/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0208324, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500859

RESUMO

The etiology of intellectual disability (ID) is heterogeneous including a variety of genetic and environmental causes. Historically, most research has not focused on autosomal recessive ID (ARID), which is a significant cause of ID, particularly in areas where parental consanguinity is common. Identification of genetic causes allows for precision diagnosis and improved genetic counseling. We performed whole exome sequencing to 21 Turkish families, seven multiplex and 14 simplex, with nonsyndromic ID. Based on the presence of multiple affected siblings born to unaffected parents and/or shared ancestry, we consider all families as ARID. We revealed the underlying causative variants in seven families in MCPH1 (c.427dupA, p.T143Nfs*5), WDR62 (c.3406C>T, p.R1136*), ASPM (c.5219_5225delGAGGATA, p.R1740Tfs*7), RARS (c.1588A>G, p.T530A), CC2D1A (c.811delG, p.A271Pfs*30), TUSC3 (c.793C>T, p.Q265*) and ZNF335 (c.808C>T, p.R270C and c.3715C>A, p.Q1239K) previously linked with ARID. Besides ARID genes, in one family, affected male siblings were hemizygous for PQBP1 (c.459_462delAGAG, p.R153Sfs*41) and in one family the proband was female and heterozygous for X-chromosomal SLC9A6 (c.1631+1G>A) variant. Each of these variants, except for those in MCPH1 and PQBP1, have not been previously published. Additionally in one family, two affected children were homozygous for the c.377G>A (p.W126*) variant in the FAM183A, a gene not previously associated with ARID. No causative variants were found in the remaining 11 families. A wide variety of variants explain half of families with ARID. FAM183A is a promising novel candidate gene for ARID.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2740-2750, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548201

RESUMO

The oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of frontonasal dysplasia (widely spaced eyes, facial cleft, and nose abnormalities) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS)-associated features, such as preauricular ear tags, ear dysplasia, mandibular asymmetry, epibulbar dermoids, eyelid coloboma, and costovertebral anomalies. The etiology is unknown so far. This work aimed to identify molecular bases for the OAFNS. Among a cohort of 130 patients with frontonasal dysplasia, accurate phenotyping identified 18 individuals with OAFNS. We describe their clinical spectrum, including the report of new features (micro/anophtalmia, cataract, thyroid agenesis, polymicrogyria, olfactory bulb hypoplasia, and mandibular cleft), and emphasize the high frequency of nasal polyps in OAFNS (56%). We report the negative results of ALX1, ALX3, and ALX4 genes sequencing and next-generation sequencing strategy performed on blood-derived DNA from respectively, four and four individuals. Exome sequencing was performed in four individuals, genome sequencing in one patient with negative exome sequencing result. Based on the data from this series and the literature, diverse hypotheses can be raised regarding the etiology of OAFNS: mosaic mutation, epigenetic anomaly, oligogenism, or nongenetic cause. In conclusion, this series represents further clinical delineation work of the rare OAFNS, and paves the way toward the identification of the causing mechanism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Facies , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 221-231, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057030

RESUMO

Bloom syndrome, caused by biallelic mutations in BLM, is characterized by prenatal-onset growth deficiency, short stature, an erythematous photosensitive malar rash, and increased cancer predisposition. Diagnostically, a hallmark feature is the presence of increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) on cytogenetic testing. Here, we describe biallelic mutations in TOP3A in ten individuals with prenatal-onset growth restriction and microcephaly. TOP3A encodes topoisomerase III alpha (TopIIIα), which binds to BLM as part of the BTRR complex, and promotes dissolution of double Holliday junctions arising during homologous recombination. We also identify a homozygous truncating variant in RMI1, which encodes another component of the BTRR complex, in two individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. The TOP3A mutations substantially reduce cellular levels of TopIIIα, and consequently subjects' cells demonstrate elevated rates of SCE. Unresolved DNA recombination and/or replication intermediates persist into mitosis, leading to chromosome segregation defects and genome instability that most likely explain the growth restriction seen in these subjects and in Bloom syndrome. Clinical features of mitochondrial dysfunction are evident in several individuals with biallelic TOP3A mutations, consistent with the recently reported additional function of TopIIIα in mitochondrial DNA decatenation. In summary, our findings establish TOP3A mutations as an additional cause of prenatal-onset short stature with increased cytogenetic SCEs and implicate the decatenation activity of the BTRR complex in their pathogenesis.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 115-124, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887215

RESUMO

MYF5 is member of the Myc-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family and, in cooperation with other myogenic regulatory factors MYOD and MYF5, is a key regulator of early stages of myogenesis. Here, we report three consanguineous families with biallelic homozygous loss-of-function mutations in MYF5 who define a clinical disorder characterized by congenital ophthalmoplegia with scoliosis and vertebral and rib anomalies. The clinical phenotype overlaps strikingly with that reported in several Myf5 knockout mouse models. Affected members of two families share a haploidentical region that contains a homozygous 10 bp frameshift mutation in exon 1 of MYF5 (c.23_32delAGTTCTCACC [p.Gln8Leufs∗86]) predicted to undergo nonsense-mediated decay. Affected members of the third family harbor a homozygous missense change in exon 1 of MYF5 (c.283C>T [p.Arg95Cys]). Using in vitro assays, we show that this missense mutation acts as a loss-of-function allele by impairing MYF5 DNA binding and nuclear localization. We performed whole-genome sequencing in one affected individual with the frameshift mutation and did not identify additional rare variants in the haploidentical region that might account for differences in severity among the families. These data support the direct role of MYF5 in rib, spine, and extraocular muscle formation in humans.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1226-1237, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897170

RESUMO

Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is a genodermatosis currently described in 77 patients, all presenting with early-onset poikiloderma, neutropenia, and several additional signs. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in USB1 gene are detected in all molecularly tested patients but genotype-phenotype correlation remains elusive. Cancer predisposition is recognized among PN features and pathogenic variants found in patients who developed early in life myelodysplasia (n = 12), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 2), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 2) should be kept into account in management and follow-up of novel patients. This will hopefully allow achieving data clustered on specific mutations relevant to oncological surveillance of the carrier patients. METHODS: We describe the clinical features of three unreported PN patients and characterize their USB1 pathogenic variants by transcript analysis to get insights into the effect on the overall phenotype and disease evolution. RESULTS: A Turkish boy is homozygous for the c.531delA deletion, a recurrent mutation in Turkey; an adult Italian male is compound heterozygous for two nonsense mutations, c.243G>A and c.541C>T, while an Italian boy is homozygous for the splicing c.683_693+1del variant. The identified mutations have already been reported in PN patients who developed hematologic or skin cancer. Aberrant mRNAs of all four mutated alleles could be identified confirming that transcripts of USB1 main isoform either carrying stop codons or mis-spliced may at least partially escape nonsense-mediated decay. CONCLUSIONS: Our study addresses the need of gathering insights on genotype-phenotype correlations in newly described PN patients, by transcript analysis and information on disease evolution of reported patients with the same pathogenic variants.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(4)2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642415

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in RECQL4 gene, a caretaker of the genome, cause Rothmund-Thomson type-II syndrome (RTS-II) and confer increased cancer risk if they damage the helicase domain. We describe five families exemplifying clinical and allelic heterogeneity of RTS-II, and report the effect of pathogenic RECQL4 variants by in silico predictions and transcripts analyses. Complete phenotype of patients #39 and #42 whose affected siblings developed osteosarcoma correlates with their c.[1048_1049del], c.[1878+32_1878+55del] and c.[1568G>C;1573delT], c.[3021_3022del] variants which damage the helicase domain. Literature survey highlights enrichment of these variants affecting the helicase domain in patients with cancer outcome raising the issue of strict oncological surveillance. Conversely, patients #29 and #19 have a mild phenotype and carry, respectively, the unreported homozygous c.3265G>T and c.3054A>G variants, both sparing the helicase domain. Finally, despite matching several criteria for RTS clinical diagnosis, patient #38 is heterozygous for c.2412_2414del; no pathogenic CNVs out of those evidenced by high-resolution CGH-array, emerged as contributors to her phenotype.


Assuntos
Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rothmund-Thomson/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , RecQ Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Síndrome de Rothmund-Thomson/patologia
12.
J Hum Genet ; 63(6): 769-774, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568001

RESUMO

Dysosteosclerosis (DOS) is a form of sclerosing bone disease characterized by irregular osteosclerosis and platyspondyly. Its mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. SLC29A3 mutations have been reported as the causal gene in two DOS families, however, genetic heterogeneity has been suggested. By whole-exome sequencing in a Turkish patient with DOS, we found a novel splice-site mutation in TNFRSF11A. TNFRSF11A mutations have previously been reported in two autosomal dominant diseases (osteolysis, familial expansile and Paget disease of bone 2, early-onset) and an autosomal recessive disease (osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 7). The biallelic mutation, c.616+3A>G, identified in our study was located in the splice donor site of intron 6 of TNFRSF11A. Exon trapping assay indicated the mutation caused skipping of exon 6, which was predicted to induce a frame-shift and an early termination codon in all known alternative transcript variants of TNFRSF11A. The predicted effect of the mutation for the isoforms was different from those of the previously reported mutations, which could explain the difference of their phenotypes. Thus, our study identified the second disease gene for DOS. TNFRSF11A isoforms may have the different roles in skeletal development and metabolism.


Assuntos
Mutação , Osteosclerose/genética , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Éxons , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Íntrons , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Turquia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Hum Genome Var ; 4: 17040, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983407

RESUMO

Marshall-Stickler syndrome represents a spectrum of inherited connective tissue disorders affecting the ocular, auditory, and skeletal systems. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the COL2A1, COL11A1, COL11A2, COL9A1, and COL9A2 genes. In this study, we examined four Turkish families with Marshall-Stickler syndrome using whole-exome sequencing and identified one COL2A1 mutation and three COL11A1 mutations. Two of the COL11A1 mutations were novel. Our findings expand our knowledge of the COL11A1 mutational spectrum that causes Marshall-Stickler syndrome.

14.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 30(6): 563-570, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640947

RESUMO

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), first described in 1959, is a rare form of syndromic oculocutaneous albinism associated with bleeding diathesis and in some cases pulmonary fibrosis and granulomatous colitis. All 10 HPS types are caused by defects in vesicle trafficking of lysosome-related organelles (LRO) proteins. The HPS5 protein associates with HPS3 and HPS6 to form the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-2 (BLOC-2). Here, we report the clinical and genetic data of 11 patients with HPS-5 analyzed in our laboratory. We report 11 new pathogenic variants. The 11 patients present with ocular features that are typical for albinism, with mild hypopigmentation, and with no other major complication, apart from a tendency to bleed. HPS-5 therefore appears as a mild form of HPS, which is often clinically undistinguishable from mild oculocutaneous or ocular forms of albinism. Molecular analysis is therefore required to establish the diagnosis of this mild HPS form, which has consequences in terms of prognosis and of clinical management of the patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/genética , Síndrome de Hermanski-Pudlak/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética
15.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 821-834, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393272

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome are the cause of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. The RNA splicing process is facilitated by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex consisting of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and many other proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development. HNRNPU is expressed in the fetal brain and adult heart, kidney, liver, brain, and cerebellum. Microdeletions in the 1q44 region encompassing HNRNPU have been described in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and other clinical features, such as seizures, corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA), and microcephaly. Recently, pathogenic HNRNPU variants were identified in large ID and epileptic encephalopathy cohorts. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of five novels and review two of the previously published individuals with (likely) pathogenic de novo variants in the HNRNPU gene including three non-sense and two missense variants, one small intragenic deletion, and one duplication. The phenotype in individuals with variants in HNRNPU is characterized by early onset seizures (6/7), severe ID (6/6), severe speech impairment (6/6), hypotonia (6/7), and central nervous system (CNS) (5/6), cardiac (4/6), and renal abnormalities (3/4). In this study, we broaden the clinical and mutational HNRNPU-associated spectrum, and demonstrate that heterozygous HNRNPU variants cause epilepsy, severe ID with striking speech impairment and variable CNS, cardiac, and renal anomalies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Idade de Início , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Processamento de RNA , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/genética
16.
J Hum Genet ; 62(8): 797-801, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331220

RESUMO

Spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is a group of inherited skeletal diseases characterized by the anomalies in spine, epiphyses and metaphyses. SEMD is highly heterogeneous and >20 distinct entities have been identified. Here we describe a novel type of SEMD in two unrelated Turkish patients who presented with severe platyspondyly, kyphoscoliosis, pelvic distortion, constriction of the proximal femora and brachydactyly. Although these phenotypes overlap considerably with some known SEMDs, they had a novel causal gene, exostosin-like glycosyltransferase 3 (EXTL3), that encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate. The EXTL3 mutation identified in the patients was a homozygous missense mutation (c.953C>T) that caused a substitution in a highly conserved amino acid (p.P318L). The enzyme activity of the mutant EXTL3 protein was significantly decreased compared to the wild-type protein. Both patients had spinal cord compression at the cranio-vertebral junction and multiple liver cysts since early infancy. One of the patients showed severe immunodeficiency, which is considered non-fortuitous association. Our findings would help define a novel type of SEMD caused by EXTL3 mutations.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lactente , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/cirurgia , Fenótipo
17.
J Hum Genet ; 62(3): 447-451, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27881841

RESUMO

Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal disorder characterized by growth retardation, joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. DBQD is classified into two types based on the presence (DBQD1) or absence (DBQD2) of characteristic hand abnormalities. CANT1 mutations have been reported in both DBQD1 and DBQD2. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding xylosyltransferase 1 (XYLT1) were identified in several families with DBQD2. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in two Turkish families with DBQD2. We found a novel and a recurrent XYLT1 mutation in each family. The patients were homozygous for the mutations. Our results further support that XYLT1 is responsible for a major subset of DBQD2.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/genética , Displasia Campomélica/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Instabilidade Articular/genética , Mutação , Pentosiltransferases/genética , Acondroplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Acondroplasia/patologia , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Displasia Campomélica/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Campomélica/patologia , Criança , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Consanguinidade , Exoma , Família , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Instabilidade Articular/patologia , Radiografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Turquia
18.
Hum Mutat ; 37(9): 847-64, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302555

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare but recognizable condition that consists of a characteristic face, short stature, various organ malformations, and a variable degree of intellectual disability. Mutations in KMT2D have been identified as the main cause for KS, whereas mutations in KDM6A are a much less frequent cause. Here, we report a mutation screening in a case series of 347 unpublished patients, in which we identified 12 novel KDM6A mutations (KS type 2) and 208 mutations in KMT2D (KS type 1), 132 of them novel. Two of the KDM6A mutations were maternally inherited and nine were shown to be de novo. We give an up-to-date overview of all published mutations for the two KS genes and point out possible mutation hot spots and strategies for molecular genetic testing. We also report the clinical details for 11 patients with KS type 2, summarize the published clinical information, specifically with a focus on the less well-defined X-linked KS type 2, and comment on phenotype-genotype correlations as well as sex-specific phenotypic differences. Finally, we also discuss a possible role of KDM6A in Kabuki-like Turner syndrome and report a mutation screening of KDM6C (UTY) in male KS patients.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Face/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Face/patologia , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Doenças Vestibulares/patologia
19.
Nat Genet ; 48(1): 36-43, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595769

RESUMO

DNA lesions encountered by replicative polymerases threaten genome stability and cell cycle progression. Here we report the identification of mutations in TRAIP, encoding an E3 RING ubiquitin ligase, in patients with microcephalic primordial dwarfism. We establish that TRAIP relocalizes to sites of DNA damage, where it is required for optimal phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA2 during S-phase in response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, as well as fork progression through UV-induced DNA lesions. TRAIP is necessary for efficient cell cycle progression and mutations in TRAIP therefore limit cellular proliferation, providing a potential mechanism for microcephaly and dwarfism phenotypes. Human genetics thus identifies TRAIP as a component of the DNA damage response to replication-blocking DNA lesions.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Nanismo/genética , Mutação , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Pré-Escolar , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Facies , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Microcefalia/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fosforilação , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo , Fase S/efeitos da radiação , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(13): 3708-17, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25839420

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly toxic lesions, which, if not properly repaired, can give rise to genomic instability. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a well-orchestrated, multistep process involving numerous proteins essential for cell viability, represents one major pathway to repair DSBs in mammalian cells, and mutations in different NHEJ components have been described in microcephalic syndromes associated, e.g. with short stature, facial dysmorphism and immune dysfunction. By using whole-exome sequencing, we now identified in three affected brothers of a consanguineous Turkish family a homozygous mutation, c.482G>A, in the XRCC4 gene encoding a crucial component of the NHEJ pathway. Moreover, we found one additional patient of Swiss origin carrying the compound heterozygous mutations c.25delG (p.His9Thrfs*8) and c.823C>T (p.Arg275*) in XRCC4. The clinical phenotype presented in these patients was characterized by severe microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and short stature, but they did not show a recognizable immunological phenotype. We showed that the XRCC4 c.482G>A mutation, which affects the last nucleotide of exon 4, induces defective splicing of XRCC4 pre-mRNA mainly resulting in premature protein truncation and most likely loss of XRCC4 function. Moreover, we observed on cellular level that XRCC4 deficiency leads to hypersensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and defective DSB repair, which results in increased cell death after exposure to genotoxic agents. Taken together, our data provide evidence that autosomal recessive mutations in XRCC4 induce increased genomic instability and cause a NHEJ-related syndrome defined by facial dysmorphism, primary microcephaly and short stature.


Assuntos
Estatura , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação Puntual , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Turquia
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