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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023869

RESUMO

Little genetic research has been undertaken on mammals across the vast expanse of the arid biome in Australia, despite continuing species decline and need for conservation management. Here, we evaluate the contemporary and historical genetic connectivity of the yellow-footed rock-wallaby, Petrogale xanthopus xanthopus, a threatened macropodid which inhabits rocky outcrops across the disconnected mountain range systems of the southern arid biome. We use 17 microsatellite loci together with mitochondrial control region data to determine the genetic diversity of populations and the evolutionary processes shaping contemporary population dynamics on which to base conservation recommendations. Our results indicate the highly fragmented populations have reduced diversity and limited contemporary gene flow, with most populations having been through population bottlenecks. Despite limited contemporary gene flow, the phylogeographic relationships of the mitochondrial control region indicate a lack of structure and suggests greater historical connectivity. This is an emerging outcome for mammals across this arid region. On the basis of our results, we recommend augmentation of populations of P. x. xanthopus, mixing populations from disjunct mountain range systems to reduce the chance of continued diversity loss and inbreeding depression, and therefore maximize the potential for populations to adapt and survive into the future.

2.
Zootaxa ; 4564(1): zootaxa.4564.1.7, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716520

RESUMO

Adopting the name Canis dingo for the Dingo to explicitly denote a species-level taxon separate from other canids was suggested by Crowther et al.  (2014) as a means to eliminate taxonomic instability and contention. However, Jackson et al.  (2017), using standard taxonomic and nomenclatural approaches and principles, called instead for continued use of the nomen C. familiaris for all domestic dogs and their derivatives, including the Dingo. (This name, C. familiaris, is applied to all dogs that derive from the domesticated version of the Gray Wolf, Canis lupus, based on nomenclatural convention.) The primary reasons for this call by Jackson et al.  (2017) were: (1) a lack of evidence to show that recognizing multiple species amongst the dog, including the Dingo and New Guinea Singing Dog, was necessary taxonomically, and (2) the principle of nomenclatural priority (the name familiaris Linnaeus, 1758, antedates dingo Meyer, 1793). Overwhelming current evidence from archaeology and genomics indicates that the Dingo is of recent origin in Australia and shares immediate ancestry with other domestic dogs as evidenced by patterns of genetic and morphological variation. Accordingly, for Smith et al.  (2019) to recognise Canis dingo as a distinct species, the onus was on them to overturn current interpretations of available archaeological, genomic, and morphological datasets and instead show that Dingoes have a deeply divergent evolutionary history that distinguishes them from other named forms of Canis (including C. lupus and its domesticated version, C. familiaris). A recent paper by Koepfli et al.  (2015) demonstrates exactly how this can be done in a compelling way within the genus Canis-by demonstrating deep evolutionary divergence between taxa, on the order of hundreds of thousands of years, using data from multiple genetic systems. Smith et al.  (2019) have not done this; instead they have misrepresented the content and conclusions of Jackson et al.  (2017), and contributed extraneous arguments that are not relevant to taxonomic decisions. Here we dissect Smith et al.  (2019), identifying misrepresentations, to show that ecological, behavioural and morphological evidence is insufficient to recognise Dingoes as a separate species from other domestic dogs. We reiterate: the correct binomial name for the taxon derived from Gray Wolves (C. lupus) by passive and active domestication, including Dingoes and other domestic dogs, is Canis familiaris. We are strongly sympathetic to arguments about the historical, ecological, cultural, or other significance of the Dingo, but these are issues that will have to be considered outside of the more narrow scope of taxonomy and nomenclature.


Assuntos
Lobos , Animais , Austrália , Cães , Nova Guiné
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434289

RESUMO

The recent advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling a rapid increase in the number of genomes being sequenced. However, many fundamental questions in genome biology remain unanswered, because sequence data alone is unable to provide insight into how the genome is organised into chromosomes, the position and interaction of those chromosomes in the cell, and how chromosomes and their interactions with each other change in response to environmental stimuli or over time. The intimate relationship between DNA sequence and chromosome structure and function highlights the need to integrate genomic and cytogenetic data to more comprehensively understand the role genome architecture plays in genome plasticity. We propose adoption of the term 'chromosomics' as an approach encompassing genome sequencing, cytogenetics and cell biology, and present examples of where chromosomics has already led to novel discoveries, such as the sex-determining gene in eutherian mammals. More importantly, we look to the future and the questions that could be answered as we enter into the chromosomics revolution, such as the role of chromosome rearrangements in speciation and the role more rapidly evolving regions of the genome, like centromeres, play in genome plasticity. However, for chromosomics to reach its full potential, we need to address several challenges, particularly the training of a new generation of cytogeneticists, and the commitment to a closer union among the research areas of genomics, cytogenetics, cell biology and bioinformatics. Overcoming these challenges will lead to ground-breaking discoveries in understanding genome evolution and function.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Humanos
4.
Yale J Biol Med ; 91(4): 491-501, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588214

RESUMO

Humans are responsible for a cataclysm of species extinction that will change the world as we see it, and will adversely affect human health and wellbeing. We need to understand at individual and societal levels why species conservation is important. Accepting the premise that species have value, we need to next consider the mechanisms underlying species extinction and what we can do to reverse the process. One of the last stages of species extinction is the reduction of a species to a few populations of relatively few individuals, a scenario that leads invariably to inbreeding and its adverse consequences, inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression can be so severe that populations become at risk of extinction not only because of the expression of harmful recessive alleles (alleles having no phenotypic effect when in the heterozygous condition, e.g., Aa, where a is the recessive allele), but also because of their inability to respond genetically with sufficient speed to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, new conservation approaches based on foundational quantitative and population genetic theory advocate for active genetic management of fragmented populations by facilitating gene movements between populations, i.e., admixture, or genetic rescue. Why species conservation is critical, the genetic consequences of small population size that often lead to extinction, and possible solutions to the problem of small population size are discussed and presented.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Genética Populacional/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Endogamia
5.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1102-1111, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967444

RESUMO

The koala, the only extant species of the marsupial family Phascolarctidae, is classified as 'vulnerable' due to habitat loss and widespread disease. We sequenced the koala genome, producing a complete and contiguous marsupial reference genome, including centromeres. We reveal that the koala's ability to detoxify eucalypt foliage may be due to expansions within a cytochrome P450 gene family, and its ability to smell, taste and moderate ingestion of plant secondary metabolites may be due to expansions in the vomeronasal and taste receptors. We characterized novel lactation proteins that protect young in the pouch and annotated immune genes important for response to chlamydial disease. Historical demography showed a substantial population crash coincident with the decline of Australian megafauna, while contemporary populations had biogeographic boundaries and increased inbreeding in populations affected by historic translocations. We identified genetically diverse populations that require habitat corridors and instituting of translocation programs to aid the koala's survival in the wild.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Phascolarctidae/genética , Animais , Austrália , Infecções por Chlamydia/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Feminino , Genoma , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Phascolarctidae/metabolismo , Translocação Genética
6.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 589-599, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807156

RESUMO

Amongst the Australasian kangaroos and wallabies (Macropodidae) one anomalous genus, the tree-kangaroos, Dendrolagus, has secondarily returned to arboreality. Modern tree-kangaroos are confined to the wet tropical forests of north Queensland, Australia (2 species) and New Guinea (8 species). Due to their behavior, distribution and habitat most species are poorly known and our understanding of the evolutionary history and systematics of the genus is limited and controversial. We obtained tissue samples from 36 individual Dendrolagus including representatives from 14 of the 17 currently recognised or proposed subspecies and generated DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial (3116 bp) and five nuclear (4097 bp) loci. Phylogenetic analysis of these multi-locus data resolved long-standing questions regarding inter-relationships within Dendrolagus. The presence of a paraphyletic ancestral long-footed and derived monophyletic short-footed group was confirmed. Six major lineages were identified: one in Australia (D. lumholtzi, D. bennettianus) and five in New Guinea (D. inustus, D. ursinus, a Goodfellow's group, D. mbaiso and a Doria's group). Two major episodes of diversification within Dendrolagus were identified: the first during the late Miocene/early Pliocene associated with orogenic processes in New Guinea and the second mostly during the early Pleistocene associated with the intensification of climatic cycling. All sampled subspecies showed high levels of genetic divergence and currently recognized species within both the Doria's and Goodfellow's groups were paraphyletic indicating that adjustments to current taxonomy are warranted.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Macropodidae/genética , Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0194908, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634748

RESUMO

Pteropus (flying-foxes) are a speciose group of non-echolocating large bats, with five extant Australian species and 24 additional species distributed amongst the Pacific Islands. In 2015, an injured flying-fox with unusual facial markings was found in Sydney, Australia, following severe and widespread storms. Based on an initial assessment, the individual belonged to Pteropus but could not be readily identified to species. As a consequence, four hypotheses for its identification/origin were posited: the specimen represented (1) an undescribed Australian species; or (2) a morphological variant of a recognised Australian species; or (3) a hybrid individual; or (4) a vagrant from the nearby Southwest Pacific Islands. We used a combination of morphological and both mitochondrial- and nuclear DNA-based identification methods to assess these hypotheses. Based on the results, we propose that this morphologically unique Pteropus most likely represents an unusual P. alecto (black flying-fox) potentially resulting from introgression from another Pteropus species. Unexpectedly, this individual, and the addition of reference sequence data from newly vouchered specimens, revealed a previously unreported P. alecto mitochondrial DNA lineage. This lineage was distinct from currently available haplotypes. It also suggests long-term hybridisation commonly occurs between P. alecto and P. conspicillatus (spectacled flying-fox). This highlights the importance of extensive reference data, and the inclusion of multiple vouchered specimens for each species to encompass both intraspecific and interspecific variation to provide accurate and robust species identification. Moreover, our additional reference data further demonstrates the complexity of Pteropus species relationships, including hybridisation, and potential intraspecific biogeographical structure that may impact on their management and conservation.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Animais , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , DNA/química , Esmalte Dentário/fisiologia , Genes RAG-1/genética , Geografia , Funções Verossimilhança , Ilhas do Pacífico , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Syst Biol ; 67(3): 400-412, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029231

RESUMO

A fundamental challenge in resolving evolutionary relationships across the tree of life is to account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary signal across loci. Studies of marsupial mammals have demonstrated that this heterogeneity can be substantial, leaving considerable uncertainty in the evolutionary timescale and relationships within the group. Using simulations and a new phylogenomic data set comprising nucleotide sequences of 1550 loci from 18 of the 22 extant marsupial families, we demonstrate the power of a method for identifying clusters of loci that support different phylogenetic trees. We find two distinct clusters of loci, each providing an estimate of the species tree that matches previously proposed resolutions of the marsupial phylogeny. We also identify a well-supported placement for the enigmatic marsupial moles (Notoryctes) that contradicts previous molecular estimates but is consistent with morphological evidence. The pattern of gene-tree variation across tree-space is characterized by changes in information content, GC content, substitution-model adequacy, and signatures of purifying selection in the data. In a simulation study, we show that incomplete lineage sorting can explain the division of loci into the two tree-topology clusters, as found in our phylogenomic analysis of marsupials. We also demonstrate the potential benefits of minimizing uncertainty from phylogenetic conflict for molecular dating. Our analyses reveal that Australasian marsupials appeared in the early Paleocene, whereas the diversification of present-day families occurred primarily during the late Eocene and early Oligocene. Our methods provide an intuitive framework for improving the accuracy and precision of phylogenetic inference and molecular dating using genome-scale data.


Assuntos
Genômica , Marsupiais/classificação , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Marsupiais/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0172777, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257440

RESUMO

The tammar wallaby (Notamacropus eugenii) is one of the most intensively studied of all macropodids and was the first Australasian marsupial to have its genome sequenced. However, comparatively little is known about genetic diversity and differentiation amongst the morphologically distinct allopatric populations of tammar wallabies found in Western (WA) and South Australia (SA). Here we compare autosomal and Y-linked microsatellite genotypes, as well as sequence data (~600 bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) in tammar wallabies from across its distribution. Levels of diversity at autosomal microsatellite loci were typically high in the WA mainland and Kangaroo Island (SA) populations (A = 8.9-10.6; He = 0.77-0.78) but significantly reduced in other endemic island populations (A = 3.8-4.1; He = 0.41-0.48). Autosomal and Y-linked microsatellite loci revealed a pattern of significant differentiation amongst populations, especially between SA and WA. The Kangaroo Island and introduced New Zealand population showed limited differentiation. Multiple divergent mtDNA CR haplotypes were identified within both SA and WA populations. The CR haplotypes of tammar wallabies from SA and WA show reciprocal monophyly and are highly divergent (14.5%), with levels of sequence divergence more typical of different species. Within WA tammar wallabies, island populations each have unique clusters of highly related CR haplotypes and each is most closely related to different WA mainland haplotypes. Y-linked microsatellite haplotypes show a similar pattern of divergence although levels of diversity are lower. In light of these differences, we suggest that two subspecies of tammar wallaby be recognized; Notamacropus eugenii eugenii in SA and N. eugenii derbianus in WA. The extensive neutral genetic diversity and inter-population differentiation identified within tammar wallabies should further increase the species value and usefulness as a model organism.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Macropodidae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Nova Zelândia , Austrália do Sul
10.
Front Genet ; 8: 10, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265284

RESUMO

The association of chromosome rearrangements (CRs) with speciation is well established, and there is a long history of theory and evidence relating to "chromosomal speciation." Genomic sequencing has the potential to provide new insights into how reorganization of genome structure promotes divergence, and in model systems has demonstrated reduced gene flow in rearranged segments. However, there are limits to what we can understand from a small number of model systems, which each only tell us about one episode of chromosomal speciation. Progressing from patterns of association between chromosome (and genic) change, to understanding processes of speciation requires both comparative studies across diverse systems and integration of genome-scale sequence comparisons with other lines of evidence. Here, we showcase a promising example of chromosomal speciation in a non-model organism, the endemic Australian marsupial genus Petrogale. We present initial phylogenetic results from exon-capture that resolve a history of divergence associated with extensive and repeated CRs. Yet it remains challenging to disentangle gene tree heterogeneity caused by recent divergence and gene flow in this and other such recent radiations. We outline a way forward for better integration of comparative genomic sequence data with evidence from molecular cytogenetics, and analyses of shifts in the recombination landscape and potential disruption of meiotic segregation and epigenetic programming. In all likelihood, CRs impact multiple cellular processes and these effects need to be considered together, along with effects of genic divergence. Understanding the effects of CRs together with genic divergence will require development of more integrative theory and inference methods. Together, new data and analysis tools will combine to shed light on long standing questions of how chromosome and genic divergence promote speciation.

11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 17(5): 869-876, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863094

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing methods promise to improve our ability to infer the evolutionary histories of lineages and to delimit species. These are exciting prospects for the study of Australian vertebrates, a group comprised of many globally unique lineages with a long history of isolation. The evolutionary relationships within many of these lineages have been difficult to resolve with small numbers of loci, and we now know that many lineages also exhibit substantial cryptic diversity. Here, we present a set of phylogenetically diverse transcriptome resources to enable exon-based sequence capture studies of Australian vertebrates, including transcriptome sequences for four species of birds, four frogs, seven lizards and seven mammals. We also use exon data from the marsupial transcriptomes we generated to examine an approach for choosing a moderate number (dozens or hundreds) of phylogenetically informative exons based on a single transcriptome sequence, and a relatively distant reference genome.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Filogenia , Vertebrados/classificação , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Austrália
12.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162207, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588685

RESUMO

The Australian continent exhibits complex biogeographic patterns but studies of the impacts of Pleistocene climatic oscillation on the mesic environments of the Southern Hemisphere are limited. The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), one of Australia's most iconic species, was historically widely distributed throughout much of eastern Australia but currently represents a complex conservation challenge. To better understand the challenges to koala genetic health, we assessed the phylogeographic history of the koala. Variation in the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (CR) was examined in 662 koalas sampled throughout their distribution. In addition, koala CR haplotypes accessioned to Genbank were evaluated and consolidated. A total of 53 unique CR haplotypes have been isolated from koalas to date (including 15 haplotypes novel to this study). The relationships among koala CR haplotypes were indicative of a single Evolutionary Significant Unit and do not support the recognition of subspecies, but were separated into four weakly differentiated lineages which correspond to three geographic clusters: a central lineage, a southern lineage and two northern lineages co-occurring north of Brisbane. The three geographic clusters were separated by known Pleistocene biogeographic barriers: the Brisbane River Valley and Clarence River Valley, although there was evidence of mixing amongst clusters. While there is evidence for historical connectivity, current koala populations exhibit greater structure, suggesting habitat fragmentation may have restricted female-mediated gene flow. Since mtDNA data informs conservation planning, we provide a summary of existing CR haplotypes, standardise nomenclature and make recommendations for future studies to harmonise existing datasets. This holistic approach is critical to ensuring management is effective and small scale local population studies can be integrated into a wider species context.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Variação Genética , Phascolarctidae/genética , Animais , Austrália , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecossistema , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Filogeografia
13.
J Microbiol Methods ; 124: 1-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26944624

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are well-established for studying bacterial communities but not yet for microbial eukaryotes. Parasite communities remain poorly studied, due in part to the lack of reliable and accessible molecular methods to analyse eukaryotic communities. We aimed to develop and evaluate a methodology to analyse communities of the protozoan parasite Eimeria from populations of the Australian marsupial Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby) using NGS. An oocyst purification method for small sample sizes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the 18S rRNA locus targeting Eimeria was developed and optimised prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A data analysis approach was developed by modifying methods from bacterial metagenomics and utilising existing Eimeria sequences in GenBank. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assignment at a high similarity threshold (97%) was more accurate at assigning Eimeria contigs into Eimeria OTUs but at a lower threshold (95%) there was greater resolution between OTU consensus sequences. The assessment of two amplification PCR methods prior to Illumina MiSeq, single and nested PCR, determined that single PCR was more sensitive to Eimeria as more Eimeria OTUs were detected in single amplicons. We have developed a simple and cost-effective approach to a data analysis pipeline for community analysis of eukaryotic organisms using Eimeria communities as a model. The pipeline provides a basis for evaluation using other eukaryotic organisms and potential for diverse community analysis studies.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Animais , Austrália , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
14.
Biol Lett ; 11(10)2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445985

RESUMO

Complex Robertsonian rearrangements, with shared arms in different fusions, are expected to prevent gene flow between hybrids through missegregation during meiosis. Here, we estimate gene flow between recently diverged and chromosomally diverse rock-wallabies (Petrogale) to test for this form of chromosomal speciation. Contrary to expectations, we observe relatively high admixture among species with complex fusions. Our results reinforce the need to consider alternative roles of chromosome change, together with genic divergence, in driving speciation.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Macropodidae/genética , Animais , Austrália , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Translocação Genética
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 33: 277-80, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25986646

RESUMO

Assemblages of the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis common in humans and domestic species are increasingly identified in wildlife species, raising concern about the spill-over of pathogens from humans and domestic animals into wildlife. Here, the identity and prevalence of G. duodenalis in populations of a threatened marsupial, the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata), was investigated. Identification of G. duodenalis isolates, across three loci (18S rRNA, ß-giardin and gdh), from rock-wallaby fecal samples (n = 318) identified an overall detection rate of 6.3%. No significant difference in G. duodenalis detection was found among captive, wild and supplemented populations. Isolates were assigned to the zoonotic assemblages A and B at 18S rRNA, with sub-assemblages AI and BIV identified at the ß-giardin and gdh loci, respectively. Assemblages AI and BIV have previously been identified in human clinical cases, but also in domestic animals and wildlife. The identification of these assemblages in brush-tailed rock-wallabies suggests there are transmission routes of G. duodenalis from humans or other animals to Australian wildlife, both in captivity and in the wild.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/veterinária , Macropodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 4(2): 190-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834789

RESUMO

Host-parasite relationships are likely to be impacted by conservation management practices, potentially increasing the susceptibility of wildlife to emerging disease. Cryptosporidium, a parasitic protozoan genus comprising host-adapted and host-specific species, was used as an indicator of parasite movement between populations of a threatened marsupial, the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata). PCR screening of faecal samples (n = 324) from seven wallaby populations across New South Wales, identified Cryptosporidium in 7.1% of samples. The sampled populations were characterised as captive, supplemented and wild populations. No significant difference was found in Cryptosporidium detection between each of the three population categories. The positive samples, detected using 18S rRNA screening, were amplified using the actin and gp60 loci. Multi-locus sequence analysis revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium fayeri, a marsupial-specific species, and C. meleagridis, which has a broad host range, in samples from the three population categories. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has not been previously reported in marsupials and hence the pathogenicity of this species to brush-tailed rock-wallabies is unknown. Based on these findings, we recommend further study into Cryptosporidium in animals undergoing conservation management, as well as surveying wild animals in release areas, to further understand the diversity and epidemiology of this parasite in threatened wildlife.

17.
BMC Genomics ; 15: 786, 2014 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25214207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, is a biologically unique and evolutionarily distinct Australian arboreal marsupial. The goal of this study was to sequence the transcriptome from several tissues of two geographically separate koalas, and to create the first comprehensive catalog of annotated transcripts for this species, enabling detailed analysis of the unique attributes of this threatened native marsupial, including infection by the koala retrovirus. RESULTS: RNA-Seq data was generated from a range of tissues from one male and one female koala and assembled de novo into transcripts using Velvet-Oases. Transcript abundance in each tissue was estimated. Transcripts were searched for likely protein-coding regions and a non-redundant set of 117,563 putative protein sequences was produced. In similarity searches there were 84,907 (72%) sequences that aligned to at least one sequence in the NCBI nr protein database. The best alignments were to sequences from other marsupials. After applying a reciprocal best hit requirement of koala sequences to those from tammar wallaby, Tasmanian devil and the gray short-tailed opossum, we estimate that our transcriptome dataset represents approximately 15,000 koala genes. The marsupial alignment information was used to look for potential gene duplications and we report evidence for copy number expansion of the alpha amylase gene, and of an aldehyde reductase gene.Koala retrovirus (KoRV) transcripts were detected in the transcriptomes. These were analysed in detail and the structure of the spliced envelope gene transcript was determined. There was appreciable sequence diversity within KoRV, with 233 sites in the KoRV genome showing small insertions/deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms. Both koalas had sequences from the KoRV-A subtype, but the male koala transcriptome has, in addition, sequences more closely related to the KoRV-B subtype. This is the first report of a KoRV-B-like sequence in a wild population. CONCLUSIONS: This transcriptomic dataset is a useful resource for molecular genetic studies of the koala, for evolutionary genetic studies of marsupials, for validation and annotation of the koala genome sequence, and for investigation of koala retrovirus. Annotated transcripts can be browsed and queried at http://koalagenome.org.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Phascolarctidae/genética , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Retroviridae/genética , Retroviridae/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genômica , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Processamento de RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteínas Virais/genética
18.
Ecol Evol ; 4(5): 554-67, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25035797

RESUMO

Tropical savannas cover 20-30% of the world's land surface and exhibit high levels of regional endemism, but the evolutionary histories of their biota remain poorly studied. The most extensive and unmodified tropical savannas occur in Northern Australia, and recent studies suggest this region supports high levels of previously undetected genetic diversity. To examine the importance of barriers to gene flow and the environmental history of Northern Australia in influencing patterns of diversity, we investigated the phylogeography of two closely related, large, vagile macropodid marsupials, the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus; n = 78), and the common wallaroo (Macropus robustus; n = 21). Both species are widespread across the tropical savannas of Australia except across the Carpentarian Barrier (CB) where there is a break in the distribution of M. antilopinus. We determined sequence variation in the hypervariable Domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region and genotyped individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the historical and contemporary influence of the CB on these species. Surprisingly, we detected only limited differentiation between the disjunct Northern Territory and QueenslandM. antilopinus populations. In contrast, the continuously distributedM. robustus was highly divergent across the CB. Although unexpected, these contrasting responses appear related to minor differences in species biology. Our results suggest that vicariance may not explain well the phylogeographic patterns in Australia's dynamic monsoonal environments. This is because Quaternary environmental changes in this region have been complex, and diverse individual species' biologies have resulted in less predictable and idiosyncratic responses.

19.
Ecol Evol ; 4(7): 1102-16, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24772286

RESUMO

Mesic southeastern Australia represents the continent's ancestral biome and is highly biodiverse, yet its phylogeographic history remains poorly understood. Here, we examine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and microsatellite diversity in the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata;n = 279 from 31 sites), to assess historic evolutionary and biogeographic processes in southeastern Australia. Our results (mtDNA, microsatellites) confirmed three geographically discrete and genetically divergent lineages within brush-tailed rock-wallabies, whose divergence appears to date to the mid-Pleistocene. These three lineages had been hypothesized previously but data were limited. While the Northern and Central lineages were separated by a known biogeographic barrier (Hunter Valley), the boundary between the Central and Southern lineages was not. We propose that during particularly cool glacial cycles, the high peaks of the Great Dividing Range and the narrow adjacent coastal plain resulted in a more significant north-south barrier for mesic taxa in southeastern Australia than has been previously appreciated. Similarly, located phylogeographic breaks in codistributed species highlight the importance of these regions in shaping the distribution of biodiversity in southeastern Australia and suggest the existence of three major refuge areas during the Pleistocene. Substructuring within the northern lineage also suggests the occurrence of multiple local refugia during some glacial cycles. Within the three major lineages, most brush-tailed rock-wallaby populations were locally highly structured, indicating limited dispersal by both sexes. The three identified lineages represent evolutionarily significant units and should be managed to maximize the retention of genetic diversity within this threatened species.

20.
Conserv Biol ; 28(2): 572-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24283832

RESUMO

The taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. The Christmas Island shrew (Crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family Soricidae recorded from Australia. It is currently classified as a subspecies of the Asian gray or long-tailed shrew (C. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast Asian white-toothed shrew (C. fuliginosa). The Christmas Island shrew is currently listed as endangered and has not been recorded in the wild since 1984-1985, when 2 specimens were collected after an 80-year absence. We aimed to obtain DNA sequence data for cytochrome b (cytb) from Christmas Island shrew museum specimens to determine their taxonomic affinities and to confirm the identity of the 1980s specimens. The Cytb sequences from 5, 1898 specimens and a 1985 specimen were identical. In addition, the Christmas Island shrew cytb sequence was divergent at the species level from all available Crocidura cytb sequences. Rather than a population of a widespread species, current evidence suggests the Christmas Island shrew is a critically endangered endemic species, C. trichura, and a high priority for conservation. As the decisions typically required to save declining species can be delayed or deferred if the taxonomic status of the population in question is uncertain, it is hoped that the history of the Christmas Island shrew will encourage the clarification of taxonomy to be seen as an important first step in initiating informed and effective conservation action.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Musaranhos/classificação , Musaranhos/genética , Animais , Austrália , Citocromos b/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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