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1.
Leukemia ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824465

RESUMO

Plasma cells (PCs) play an important role in the adaptive immune system through a continuous production of antibodies. We have demonstrated that PC differentiation can be modeled in vitro using complex multistep culture systems reproducing sequential differentiation process occurring in vivo. Here we present a comprehensive, temporal program of gene expression data encompassing human PC differentiation (PCD) using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results reveal 6374 differentially expressed genes classified into four temporal gene expression patterns. A stringent pathway enrichment analysis of these gene clusters highlights known pathways but also pathways largely unknown in PCD, including the heme biosynthesis and the glutathione conjugation pathways. Additionally, our analysis revealed numerous novel transcriptional networks with significant stage-specific overexpression and potential importance in PCD, including BATF2, BHLHA15/MIST1, EZH2, WHSC1/MMSET, and BLM. We have experimentally validated a potent role for BLM in regulating cell survival and proliferation during human PCD. Taken together, this RNA-seq analysis of PCD temporal stages helped identify coexpressed gene modules with associated up/downregulated transcription regulator genes that could represent major regulatory nodes for human PC maturation. These data constitute a unique resource of human PCD gene expression programs in support of future studies for understanding the underlying mechanisms that control PCD.

2.
Cancer Discov ; 11(4): 900-915, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811123

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly reshaping cancer research and personalized clinical care. Availability of high-dimensionality datasets coupled with advances in high-performance computing, as well as innovative deep learning architectures, has led to an explosion of AI use in various aspects of oncology research. These applications range from detection and classification of cancer, to molecular characterization of tumors and their microenvironment, to drug discovery and repurposing, to predicting treatment outcomes for patients. As these advances start penetrating the clinic, we foresee a shifting paradigm in cancer care becoming strongly driven by AI. SIGNIFICANCE: AI has the potential to dramatically affect nearly all aspects of oncology-from enhancing diagnosis to personalizing treatment and discovering novel anticancer drugs. Here, we review the recent enormous progress in the application of AI to oncology, highlight limitations and pitfalls, and chart a path for adoption of AI in the cancer clinic.

3.
Science ; 372(6538)2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833093

RESUMO

DNA methylation is essential to mammalian development, and dysregulation can cause serious pathological conditions. Key enzymes responsible for deposition and removal of DNA methylation are known, but how they cooperate to regulate the methylation landscape remains a central question. Using a knockin DNA methylation reporter, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human embryonic stem cells to discover DNA methylation regulators. The top screen hit was an uncharacterized gene, QSER1, which proved to be a key guardian of bivalent promoters and poised enhancers of developmental genes, especially those residing in DNA methylation valleys (or canyons). We further demonstrate genetic and biochemical interactions of QSER1 and TET1, supporting their cooperation to safeguard transcriptional and developmental programs from DNMT3-mediated de novo methylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
4.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor sample quality and quantity determine the success of somatic mutation analysis. Thus, a rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) tumor cytology adequacy assessment was incorporated into the workflow of precision oncology at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City. Optimal samples were obtained from 68 patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: Cytopathologists performed ROSE on fine-needle aspirate samples via telepathology, and subsequently core-needle biopsies were obtained. In a retrospective manner, the concordance between adequacy assessment and the success rate of the procedure was evaluated to obtain sufficient tumor tissue for next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Out of the 68 procedures, 43 were documented as adequate and 25 were documented as inadequate. The diagnostic yield of adequate procedures was 100%. Adequacy evaluation predicted the success rate of molecular profiling in 40 of 43 procedures (93%; 95% CI, 80.9-98.5 procedures). The success rate of molecular testing was significantly higher in the adequate group: 93% compared with 32% in the inadequate group (P < .0005). Seven procedures that failed to provide quality material for mutational analysis and pathological diagnosis were evaluated as inadequate. Cell block provided sufficient DNA for NGS in 6 cases. In 2 cases, a core biopsy could not be performed; hence, the fine-needle aspirate material confirmed the diagnosis and was used for NGS testing. CONCLUSION: These results support the incorporation of ROSE into the workflow of precision oncology to obtain high-quality tissue samples from metastatic lesions. In addition, NGS testing of concurrent cytology specimens with adequate cellularity can be a surrogate for NGS testing of biopsy specimens.

5.
Nature ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915568

RESUMO

Respiratory failure is the leading cause of death in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1,2, yet the host response at the lung tissue-level is poorly understood. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA-sequencing of ~116,000 nuclei of lungs from 19 COVID-19 decedents who underwent rapid autopsy and 7 control lungs. Integrated analyses revealed significant alterations in cellular composition, transcriptional cell states, and cell-to-cell interactions, providing insights into the biology of lethal COVID-19. COVID-19 lungs were highly inflamed with dense infiltration of aberrantly activated monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages, but demonstrated impaired T cell responses. Monocyte/macrophage-derived IL-1ß and epithelial cell-derived IL-6 were unique features of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to other viral and bacterial causes of pneumonia. Alveolar type 2 cells adopted an inflammation-associated transient progenitor cell state and failed to undergo full transition into alveolar type 1 cells resulting in impaired lung regeneration. Furthermore, we identified expansion of recently described CTHRC1+ pathological fibroblasts3 contributing to rapidly ensuing pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19. Inference of protein activity and ligand-receptor interactions identified putative drug targets to disrupt deleterious circuits. This atlas enables dissection of lethal COVID-19, may inform our understanding of long-term complications of COVID-19 survivors, and provides an important resource for therapeutic development.

6.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915289

RESUMO

In the past few years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have been applied to almost every facet of oncology, from basic research to drug development and clinical care. In the clinical arena where AI has perhaps received the most attention, AI is showing promise in enhancing and automating image-based diagnostic approaches in fields such as radiology and pathology. Robust AI applications, which retain high performance and reproducibility over multiple datasets, extend from predicting indications for drug development to improving clinical decision support using electronic health record data. In this article, we review some of these advances. We also introduce common concepts and fundamentals of AI and its various uses, along with its caveats, to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges in the field of oncology. Leveraging AI techniques productively to provide better care throughout a patient's medical journey can fuel the predictive promise of precision medicine.

7.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710257

RESUMO

In 1911, more than a century ago, Peyton Rous described a curious observation, later explained by a virus named for him that led to the discovery of oncogenes, the modern era of cancer research, and the emergent field of precision medicine (1911. J. Exp. Med. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.13.4.397).

8.
Genet Med ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686259

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Next-generation sequencing has implicated some risk variants for human spina bifida (SB), but the genome-wide contribution of structural variation to this complex genetic disorder remains largely unknown. We examined copy-number variant (CNV) participation in the genetic architecture underlying SB risk. METHODS: A high-confidence ensemble approach to genome sequences (GS) was benchmarked and employed for systematic detection of common and rare CNVs in two separate ancestry-matched SB case-control cohorts. RESULTS: SB cases were enriched with exon disruptive rare CNVs, 44% of which were under 10 kb, in both ancestral populations (P = 6.75 × 10-7; P = 7.59 × 10-4). Genes containing these disruptive CNVs fall into molecular pathways, supporting a role for these genes in SB. Our results expand the catalog of variants and genes with potential contribution to genetic and gene-environment interactions that interfere with neurulation, useful for further functional characterization. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the need for genome-wide investigation and extends our previous threshold model of exonic, single-nucleotide variation toward human SB risk to include structural variation. Since GS data afford detection of CNVs with greater resolution than microarray methods, our results have important implications toward a more comprehensive understanding of the genetic risk and mechanisms underlying neural tube defect pathogenesis.

9.
Nature ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780969

RESUMO

Recent studies have provided insights into the pathology of and immune response to COVID-191-8. However, a thorough investigation of the interplay between infected cells and the immune system at sites of infection has been lacking. Here we use high-parameter imaging mass cytometry9 that targets the expression of 36 proteins to investigate the cellular composition and spatial architecture of acute lung injury in humans (including injuries derived from SARS-CoV-2 infection) at single-cell resolution. These spatially resolved single-cell data unravel the disordered structure of the infected and injured lung, alongside the distribution of extensive immune infiltration. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration are hallmarks of bacterial pneumonia and COVID-19, respectively. We provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infects predominantly alveolar epithelial cells and induces a localized hyperinflammatory cell state that is associated with lung damage. We leverage the temporal range of fatal outcomes of COVID-19 in relation to the onset of symptoms, which reveals increased macrophage extravasation and increased numbers of mesenchymal cells and fibroblasts concomitant with increased proximity between these cell types as the disease progresses-possibly as a result of attempts to repair the damaged lung tissue. Our data enable us to develop a biologically interpretable landscape of lung pathology from a structural, immunological and clinical standpoint. We use this landscape to characterize the pathophysiology of the human lung from its macroscopic presentation to the single-cell level, which provides an important basis for understanding COVID-19 and lung pathology in general.

10.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer requires a biopsy to obtain tissue for pathologic analysis, but this is an invasive procedure and is associated with complications. PURPOSE: To develop an artificial intelligence (AI)-based model (named AI-biopsy) for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance (MR) images labeled with histopathology information. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets from 400 patients with suspected prostate cancer and with histological data (228 acquired in-house and 172 from external publicly available databases). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 1.5 to 3.0 Tesla, T2-weighted image pulse sequences. ASSESSMENT: MR images reviewed and selected by two radiologists (with 6 and 17 years of experience). The patient images were labeled with prostate biopsy including Gleason Score (6 to 10) or Grade Group (1 to 5) and reviewed by one pathologist (with 15 years of experience). Deep learning models were developed to distinguish 1) benign from cancerous tumor and 2) high-risk tumor from low-risk tumor. STATISTICAL TESTS: To evaluate our models, we calculated negative predictive value, positive predictive value, specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. We also calculated areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUCs) and Cohen's kappa. RESULTS: Our computational method (https://github.com/ih-lab/AI-biopsy) achieved AUCs of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.86-0.92]) and 0.78 (95% CI: [0.74-0.82]) to classify cancer vs. benign and high- vs. low-risk of prostate disease, respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: AI-biopsy provided a data-driven and reproducible way to assess cancer risk from MR images and a personalized strategy to potentially reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. AI-biopsy highlighted the regions of MR images that contained the predictive features the algorithm used for diagnosis using the class activation map method. It is a fully automatic method with a drag-and-drop web interface (https://ai-biopsy.eipm-research.org) that allows radiologists to review AI-assessed MR images in real time. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.

11.
Cell Rep ; 34(5): 108707, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535033

RESUMO

RTK/RAS/RAF pathway alterations (RPAs) are a hallmark of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In this study, we use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 85 cases found to be RPA(-) by previous studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to characterize the minority of LUADs lacking apparent alterations in this pathway. We show that WGS analysis uncovers RPA(+) in 28 (33%) of the 85 samples. Among the remaining 57 cases, we observe focal deletions targeting the promoter or transcription start site of STK11 (n = 7) or KEAP1 (n = 3), and promoter mutations associated with the increased expression of ILF2 (n = 6). We also identify complex structural variations associated with high-level copy number amplifications. Moreover, an enrichment of focal deletions is found in TP53 mutant cases. Our results indicate that RPA(-) cases demonstrate tumor suppressor deletions and genome instability, but lack unique or recurrent genetic lesions compensating for the lack of RPAs. Larger WGS studies of RPA(-) cases are required to understand this important LUAD subset.

12.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526512

RESUMO

Serine is a nonessential amino acid generated by the sequential actions of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT1), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSPH). Increased serine biosynthesis occurs in several cancers and supports tumor growth. In addition, cancer cells can harness exogenous serine to enhance their metabolism and proliferation. Here we tested the relative contributions of exogenous and endogenous sources of serine on the biology of colorectal cancer. In murine tumors, Apc status was identified as a determinant of the expression of genes controlling serine synthesis. In patient samples, PSAT1 was overexpressed in both colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Combining genetic deletion of PSAT1 with exogenous serine deprivation maximally suppressed the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and induced profound metabolic defects including diminished nucleotide production. Inhibition of serine synthesis enhanced the transcriptional changes following exogenous serine removal as well as alterations associated with DNA damage. Both loss of PSAT1 and removal of serine from the diet were necessary to suppress colorectal cancer xenograft growth and enhance the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Restricting endogenous and exogenous serine in vitro augmented 5-FU-induced cell death, DNA damage, and metabolic perturbations, likely accounting for the observed antitumor effect. Collectively, our results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous sources of serine contribute to colorectal cancer growth and resistance to 5-FU. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide insights into the metabolic requirements of colorectal cancer and reveal a novel approach for its treatment. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/00/0/000/F1.large.jpg.

13.
Nat Immunol ; 22(2): 240-253, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432228

RESUMO

During the germinal center (GC) reaction, B cells undergo extensive redistribution of cohesin complex and three-dimensional reorganization of their genomes. Yet, the significance of cohesin and architectural programming in the humoral immune response is unknown. Herein we report that homozygous deletion of Smc3, encoding the cohesin ATPase subunit, abrogated GC formation, while, in marked contrast, Smc3 haploinsufficiency resulted in GC hyperplasia, skewing of GC polarity and impaired plasma cell (PC) differentiation. Genome-wide chromosomal conformation and transcriptional profiling revealed defects in GC B cell terminal differentiation programs controlled by the lymphoma epigenetic tumor suppressors Tet2 and Kmt2d and failure of Smc3-haploinsufficient GC B cells to switch from B cell- to PC-defining transcription factors. Smc3 haploinsufficiency preferentially impaired the connectivity of enhancer elements controlling various lymphoma tumor suppressor genes, and, accordingly, Smc3 haploinsufficiency accelerated lymphomagenesis in mice with constitutive Bcl6 expression. Collectively, our data indicate a dose-dependent function for cohesin in humoral immunity to facilitate the B cell to PC phenotypic switch while restricting malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/deficiência , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Imunidade Humoral , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/deficiência , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Haploinsuficiência , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/imunologia , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Nat Chem Biol ; 17(3): 307-316, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510451

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, but their use is limited by on-target adverse effects including insulin resistance and skeletal muscle atrophy. We used a chemical systems biology approach, ligand class analysis, to examine ligands designed to modulate glucocorticoid receptor activity through distinct structural mechanisms. These ligands displayed diverse activity profiles, providing the variance required to identify target genes and coregulator interactions that were highly predictive of their effects on myocyte glucose disposal and protein balance. Their anti-inflammatory effects were linked to glucose disposal but not muscle atrophy. This approach also predicted selective modulation in vivo, identifying compounds that were muscle-sparing or anabolic for protein balance and mitochondrial potential. Ligand class analysis defined the mechanistic links between the ligand-receptor interface and ligand-driven physiological outcomes, a general approach that can be applied to any ligand-regulated allosteric signaling system.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(2)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361110

RESUMO

With a rising incidence of COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide, it is critical to elucidate the innate and adaptive immune responses that drive disease severity. We performed longitudinal immune profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 45 patients and healthy donors. We observed a dynamic immune landscape of innate and adaptive immune cells in disease progression and absolute changes of lymphocyte and myeloid cells in severe versus mild cases or healthy controls. Intubation and death were coupled with selected natural killer cell KIR receptor usage and IgM+ B cells and associated with profound CD4 and CD8 T-cell exhaustion. Pseudo-temporal reconstruction of the hierarchy of disease progression revealed dynamic time changes in the global population recapitulating individual patients and the development of an eight-marker classifier of disease severity. Estimating the effect of clinical progression on the immune response and early assessment of disease progression risks may allow implementation of tailored therapies.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , /imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , /virologia , Progressão da Doença , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/diagnóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 49-67, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326753

RESUMO

Although thousands of loci have been associated with human phenotypes, the role of gene-environment (GxE) interactions in determining individual risk of human diseases remains unclear. This is partly because of the severe erosion of statistical power resulting from the massive number of statistical tests required to detect such interactions. Here, we focus on improving the power of GxE tests by developing a statistical framework for assessing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the trait means and/or trait variances. When applying this framework to body mass index (BMI), we find that GxE discovery and replication rates are significantly higher when prioritizing genetic variants associated with the variance of the phenotype (vQTLs) compared to when assessing all genetic variants. Moreover, we find that vQTLs are enriched for associations with other non-BMI phenotypes having strong environmental influences, such as diabetes or ulcerative colitis. We show that GxE effects first identified in quantitative traits such as BMI can be used for GxE discovery in disease phenotypes such as diabetes. A clear conclusion is that strong GxE interactions mediate the genetic contribution to body weight and diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
17.
Cancer Discov ; 11(5): 1212-1227, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372007

RESUMO

Cytosolic DNA is characteristic of chromosomally unstable metastatic cancer cells, resulting in constitutive activation of the cGAS-STING innate immune pathway. How tumors co-opt inflammatory signaling while evading immune surveillance remains unknown. Here, we show that the ectonucleotidase ENPP1 promotes metastasis by selectively degrading extracellular cGAMP, an immune-stimulatory metabolite whose breakdown products include the immune suppressor adenosine. ENPP1 loss suppresses metastasis, restores tumor immune infiltration, and potentiates response to immune checkpoint blockade in a manner dependent on tumor cGAS and host STING. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type ENPP1, but not an enzymatically weakened mutant, promotes migration and metastasis, in part through the generation of extracellular adenosine, and renders otherwise sensitive tumors completely resistant to immunotherapy. In human cancers, ENPP1 expression correlates with reduced immune cell infiltration, increased metastasis, and resistance to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment. Thus, cGAMP hydrolysis by ENPP1 enables chromosomally unstable tumors to transmute cGAS activation into an immune-suppressive pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: Chromosomal instability promotes metastasis by generating chronic tumor inflammation. ENPP1 facilitates metastasis and enables tumor cells to tolerate inflammation by hydrolyzing the immunotransmitter cGAMP, preventing its transfer from cancer cells to immune cells.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 995.

18.
Nature ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299181

RESUMO

Linker histone H1 proteins bind to nucleosomes and facilitate chromatin compaction1, although their biological functions are poorly understood. Mutations in the genes that encode H1 isoforms B-E (H1B, H1C, H1D and H1E; also known as H1-5, H1-2, H1-3 and H1-4, respectively) are highly recurrent in B cell lymphomas, but the pathogenic relevance of these mutations to cancer and the mechanisms that are involved are unknown. Here we show that lymphoma-associated H1 alleles are genetic driver mutations in lymphomas. Disruption of H1 function results in a profound architectural remodelling of the genome, which is characterized by large-scale yet focal shifts of chromatin from a compacted to a relaxed state. This decompaction drives distinct changes in epigenetic states, primarily owing to a gain of histone H3 dimethylation at lysine 36 (H3K36me2) and/or loss of repressive H3 trimethylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). These changes unlock the expression of stem cell genes that are normally silenced during early development. In mice, loss of H1c and H1e (also known as H1f2 and H1f4, respectively) conferred germinal centre B cells with enhanced fitness and self-renewal properties, ultimately leading to aggressive lymphomas with an increased repopulating potential. Collectively, our data indicate that H1 proteins are normally required to sequester early developmental genes into architecturally inaccessible genomic compartments. We also establish H1 as a bona fide tumour suppressor and show that mutations in H1 drive malignant transformation primarily through three-dimensional genome reorganization, which leads to epigenetic reprogramming and derepression of developmentally silenced genes.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6195, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273457

RESUMO

The prevalence and biological consequences of deleterious germline variants in urothelial cancer (UC) are not fully characterized. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of germline DNA and 157 primary and metastatic tumors from 80 UC patients. We developed a computational framework for identifying putative deleterious germline variants (pDGVs) from WES data. Here, we show that UC patients harbor a high prevalence of pDGVs that truncate tumor suppressor proteins. Deepening somatic loss of heterozygosity in serial tumor samples is observed, suggesting a critical role for these pDGVs in tumor progression. Significant intra-patient heterogeneity in germline-somatic variant interactions results in divergent biological pathway alterations between primary and metastatic tumors. Our results characterize the spectrum of germline variants in UC and highlight their roles in shaping the natural history of the disease. These findings could have broad clinical implications for cancer patients.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(49): 31448-31458, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229571

RESUMO

Adult neural stem cells (NSC) serve as a reservoir for brain plasticity and origin for certain gliomas. Lineage tracing and genomic approaches have portrayed complex underlying heterogeneity within the major anatomical location for NSC, the subventricular zone (SVZ). To gain a comprehensive profile of NSC heterogeneity, we utilized a well-validated stem/progenitor-specific reporter transgene in concert with single-cell RNA sequencing to achieve unbiased analysis of SVZ cells from infancy to advanced age. The magnitude and high specificity of the resulting transcriptional datasets allow precise identification of the varied cell types embedded in the SVZ including specialized parenchymal cells (neurons, glia, microglia) and noncentral nervous system cells (endothelial, immune). Initial mining of the data delineates four quiescent NSC and three progenitor-cell subpopulations formed in a linear progression. Further evidence indicates that distinct stem and progenitor populations reside in different regions of the SVZ. As stem/progenitor populations progress from neonatal to advanced age, they acquire a deficiency in transition from quiescence to proliferation. Further data mining identifies stage-specific biological processes, transcription factor networks, and cell-surface markers for investigation of cellular identities, lineage relationships, and key regulatory pathways in adult NSC maintenance and neurogenesis.

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