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1.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 951-961, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424012

RESUMO

This study examined how children's and adolescents' beliefs about the distribution of wealth in society and the fairness of economic systems informed their behavior, judgments, and reasoning about access to opportunities among peers. The sample included 136 8- to 14-year-olds (47% girls, 60% White, majority middle- to higher-socioeconomic status [SES]) in the United States. Relative to older children, early adolescents viewed economic systems as less fair and wealth as less equally distributed, but still underestimated the true magnitude of existing economic disparities. Importantly, the stronger their system justification beliefs the fewer opportunities participants directed to poor peers over rich peers in an allocation scenario, but the more equally participants believed that wealth should be distributed in society the more opportunities they directed to poor peers. Moreover, participants were more supportive of allocating opportunities to poor peers when they had direct evidence that poor peers had been excluded in the past, and 40% reasoned explicitly about the implications of economic inequality when making their decision. Finally, exploratory associations of family SES and beliefs about distributive justice suggested that experiencing greater economic security may have enabled some participants to more readily critique societal inequality. Together, these findings provide correlational, experimental, and cross-sectional developmental evidence that older children's and early adolescents' beliefs about distributive justice in society inform their decisions about how to address disparities within their sphere of influence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
2.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 651-661, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166012

RESUMO

This study investigated children's and adolescents' predictions regarding intergroup inclusion in contexts where peers differed on two dimensions of group membership: race and wealth. African American and European American participants (N = 153; age range: 8-14 years, Mage = 11.46 years) made predictions about whether afterschool clubs would prefer to include a peer based on race or wealth and reported what they personally thought should happen. Between late childhood and early adolescence, European American participants increasingly expected that afterschool clubs would include a same-wealth peer (even when this peer was of a different race) whereas African American participants increasingly expected that the afterschool clubs would include a same-race peer (even when this peer was of a different level of wealth). Both European American and African American participants themselves thought that the clubs should include a same-wealth peer over a same-race peer, and with age, were increasingly likely to reference perceived comfort when explaining their decision. Future studies on the development of racial preferences will benefit from including wealth status information given that, with age, perceived comfort was associated with same-wealth rather than same-race status. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Inclusão Social , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Humanos
3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(4): 724-738, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515373

RESUMO

Perceived economic stress and lower subjective social status (SSS) have adverse effects on parents' and adolescents' emotional well-being, but less is known about associations with academic adjustment among preadolescent youth. This study examined associations between SSS, perceived economic stress about needs and wants, and academic adjustment among preadolescents and early adolescents (n = 136, ages 8 to 14 years, 44% girls, 61% White) and their parents (n = 164, majority middle- to higher SES). Overall, youth who worried more about their family's economic needs had lower academic achievement and youth who reported lower SSS had lower academic motivation. No significant differences were observed in the strength of associations between parent and youth perceptions and academic outcomes for early adolescents versus preadolescents.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Estresse Financeiro , Adolescente , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Percepção
4.
Child Dev ; 91(2): 439-455, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370937

RESUMO

This study investigated children's ability to distinguish between resource inequalities with individual versus structural origins. Children (3- to 8-years-old; N = 93) were presented with resource inequalities based on either recipients' merit (individual factor) or gender (structural factor). Children were assessed on their expectations for others' allocations, own allocations, reasoning, and evaluations of others' allocations. Children perpetuated merit-based inequalities and either rectified or allocated equally in response to gender-based inequalities. Older, but not younger, children expected others to perpetuate both types of inequalities and differed in their evaluations and reasoning. Links between children's allocations and judgments were also found. Results reveal novel insights into children's developing consideration of the structural and individual factors leading to resource inequalities.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Alocação de Recursos , Percepção Social , Análise de Variância , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Distribuição Aleatória , Recompensa
5.
Child Dev ; 91(2): e512-e527, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144306

RESUMO

Children and adolescents (N = 153, ages 8-14 years, Mage  = 11.46 years) predicted and evaluated peer exclusion in interwealth (high-wealth and low-wealth) and interracial (African American and European American) contexts. With age, participants increasingly expected high-wealth groups to be more exclusive than low-wealth groups, regardless of their depicted race. Furthermore, children evaluated interwealth exclusion less negatively than interracial exclusion, and children who identified as higher in wealth evaluated interwealth exclusion less negatively than did children who identified as lower in wealth. Children cited explicit negative stereotypes about high-wealth groups in their justifications, while rarely citing stereotypes about low-wealth groups or racial groups. Results revealed that both race and wealth are important factors that children consider when evaluating peer exclusion.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Status Econômico , Processos Grupais , Grupo Associado , Preconceito , Isolamento Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo
6.
Curr Dir Psychol Sci ; 29(6): 610-616, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758480

RESUMO

Many people believe in equality of opportunity, but overlook and minimize the structural factors that shape social inequalities in the United States and around the world, such as systematic exclusion (e.g., educational, occupational) based on group membership (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). As a result, social inequalities persist, and place marginalized social groups at elevated risk for negative emotional, learning, and health outcomes. Where do the beliefs and behaviors that underlie social inequalities originate? Recent evidence from developmental science indicates that an awareness of social inequalities begins in childhood, and that children seek to explain the underlying causes of the disparities that they observe and experience. Moreover, children and adolescents show early capacities for understanding and rectifying inequalities when regulating access to resources in peer contexts. Drawing on a social reasoning developmental framework, this paper synthesizes what is currently known about children's and adolescents' awareness, beliefs, and behavior concerning social inequalities, and highlights promising avenues by which developmental science can help reduce harmful assumptions and foster a more just society.

8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 188: 104667, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430572

RESUMO

This study examined how young children's (N = 101, Mage = 4.14 years, SD = 0.57) perceptions of their families' access to resources affect their views on others' use and distribution of familiar items. Using a simple measure involving stickers, children identified their families as either lower, higher, or in the middle in access to resources. Then, children evaluated a scenario in which an individual took crayons from one person and gave them to another in order to establish equality. Children who saw themselves as higher in access to resources determined that this was "not okay" (ownership took priority). By contrast, children who saw themselves as lower in access to resources or in the middle did not consistently prioritize equality or ownership. Thus, not only did young children think about how much or how little their families had, but these perceptions also played a role in their reasoning about the fair treatment of others.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Resolução de Problemas , Alocação de Recursos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Percepção Social
9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 186: 73-82, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203108

RESUMO

This study examined young children's judgments of resource distributions that either adhered to or diverged from principles of equality, equity, or merit in straightforward, peer-based scenarios. The sample comprised 192 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse 3- to 8-year-olds. Between 3 and 8 years of age, children evaluated inequitable and anti-meritorious allocations more negatively but did not evaluate equitable and meritorious allocations more positively. Rather, between 3 and 8 years, children increasingly supported equality. Highlighting an important but often overlooked developmental distinction, these results suggest that young children are increasingly against unfairness, but do not always endorse the most complex forms of distributive fairness.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Alocação de Recursos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Dev Psychol ; 55(3): 471-481, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802099

RESUMO

This study examined how children's perceptions of economic inequalities impacted their moral judgments about access to opportunities. The sample included ethnically diverse 8- to 14-year-olds (N = 267; M = 11.61 years, SD = 1.88) of middle- to upper-middle-income backgrounds. The larger the economic inequality in access to opportunities children perceived, the more negatively they evaluated granting access to a specific opportunity (an educational summer camp) to high-wealth peers alone, and the more they reasoned about the importance of fair access to learning. Further, children were more supportive of admitting low-wealth peers when they knew they had been excluded from the opportunity in the past, and children who chose to admit low-wealth peers reasoned about the implications of broader economic inequalities. Finally, most children preferred to take an active role in determining who should receive access to this special opportunity rather than leaving the decision to chance. These findings provide evidence for how perceptions of both broad and context specific intergroup relations contribute to moral judgments in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Child Dev ; 90(1): 108-116, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273956

RESUMO

This study examined young children's contact with individuals of high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds and their behavior toward peers of these backgrounds in a resource distribution task. The sample included 72 ethnically diverse higher income children (Mage  = 6.68 years, SD = 0.98 years). Contact with individuals of low-wealth backgrounds (interwealth contact) affected children's behavior indirectly, through social-cognitive reasoning processes. The more interwealth contact children reported, the more likely they were to reason about access to resources rather than their own wealth preferences in this context. This reasoning, in turn, was associated with more resources allocated to a low-wealth peer relative to a high-wealth peer. Thus, interwealth contact early in development was associated with more equitable peer interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Renda , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 37(3): 309-322, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548276

RESUMO

Children's and adolescents' resource allocation was examined in a context of inequality between schools and a peer group norm of either equality or equity. Participants (N = 257; children, 7-11 years old and adolescents, 13-16 years old) were inducted into groups with either a lot (advantaged) or few (disadvantaged) art resources, in the context of an art competition. Participants were prescribed an equality (equal distribution) or equity (more resources for disadvantaged groups) norm, before allocating resources between groups. Adolescents, but not children, allocated significantly more resources to their disadvantaged in-group than they did to a disadvantaged out-group, particularly when prescribed an in-group norm of equity. Participants who rectified the inequality referred to the unfair nature of the initial disparity. The findings revealed an important developmental shift between middle childhood and early adolescence regarding the influence of group status and norms on intergroup resource allocation in a competitive context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children have the capacity to challenge intergroup resource allocation inequalities. Peer group norms can guide resource allocation in situations where inequality is not made salient. What does this study add? A peer group equity norm can guide adolescents to rectify an intergroup inequality. Relative peer group advantage plays an increasingly important role in adolescence. For children, maintaining equality can supersede adherence to a peer group norm.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Processos Grupais , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Child Dev ; 90(5): 1632-1649, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29333602

RESUMO

Children (N = 267, ages 8-14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high- and low-wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high-wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low-wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality. Finally, the higher children's family income, the more they expected group-serving tendencies. These findings revealed children's perceptions of exclusive preferences between economic groups, negative stereotypes about high-wealth children, and awareness of some of the constraints faced by low-wealth children.


Assuntos
Motivação , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Estereotipagem
14.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 165: 19-36, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645542

RESUMO

Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Moral , Grupo Associado , Distância Psicológica , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social , Normas Sociais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança
15.
J Appl Dev Psychol ; 48: 49-58, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717258

RESUMO

Children's perceptions of social resource inequalities were investigated by measuring spontaneous explanations for race-based disparities in access to societal resources. Fifth graders (N = 139, M = 11.14 years, SD = .61 years) viewed animated vignettes depicting hypothetical resource inequalities between institutions serving children of African-American and European-American background. Children frequently explained disparities in terms of institutions' differing financial resources, revealing awareness that economic inequalities often underlie groups' differential access to societal resources. Further, children attributed inequalities to preferential treatment more often when they witnessed African-Americans at a disadvantage than when they witnessed European-Americans at a disadvantage, demonstrating awareness that racial minority groups are more likely to experience restricted access to resources. Finally, children who reasoned about preferential treatment judged inequality, and actions that perpetuated inequality, more negatively than children who attributed inequalities to institutions' differing needs, revealing a link between awareness of discrimination and rejection of social inequalities.

16.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 51: 103-29, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27474424

RESUMO

Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.


Assuntos
Pais , Grupo Associado , Preconceito , Distância Psicológica , Professores Escolares , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Amigos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Identificação Social
17.
Front Psychol ; 7: 884, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378981

RESUMO

Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race.

18.
Dev Psychol ; 52(8): 1307-17, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455189

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Cooperativo , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Alocação de Recursos , Recompensa , Pensamento
19.
Dev Psychol ; 52(8): 1318-29, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455190

RESUMO

Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies, evaluated different resource allocation strategies, and completed a measure of status awareness based on race. With age, children were increasingly aware of wealth status disparities between African Americans and European Americans, and judged a medical resource inequality between groups more negatively. Further, with age, children rectified the resource inequality over perpetuating it, but only when African American children were disadvantaged. With age, children also referenced rights when reasoning about their judgments concerning the disadvantaged African American group. When European American children were disadvantaged, children did not systematically allocate more resources to one group over another. The results are discussed in terms of social inequalities, disadvantaged status, moral judgments, and intergroup attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Julgamento , Alocação de Recursos , Comportamento Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Cognition ; 155: 176-187, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27423813

RESUMO

To investigate whether children rectify social inequalities in a resource allocation task, participants (N=185 African-American and European-American 5-6year-olds and 10-11year-olds) witnessed an inequality of school supplies between peers of different racial backgrounds. Assessments were conducted on how children judged the wrongfulness of the inequality, allocated new resources to racial ingroup and outgroup recipients, evaluated alternative allocation strategies, and reasoned about their decisions. Younger children showed ingroup favorability; their responses differed depending on whether they had witnessed their ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. With age, children increasingly reasoned about the importance of equal access to school supplies and correcting past disparities. Older children judged the resource inequality negatively, allocated more resources to the disadvantaged group, and positively evaluated the actions of others who did the same, regardless of whether they had seen their racial ingroup or an outgroup at a disadvantage. Thus, balancing moral and social group concerns enabled individuals to rectify inequalities and ensure fair access to important resources regardless of racial group membership.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Alocação de Recursos , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Identificação Social
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