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1.
Behav Res Ther ; 121: 103413, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491689

RESUMO

The majority of those who experience clinical anxiety and/or depressive symptoms in the population do not receive treatment. Studies investigating inequalities in treatment outcomes rarely consider that individuals respond differently to their experience of the environment. Much of our environment is under genetic influence, via our behaviour, whereby individuals actively select their experiences. If genes influence who seeks and receives treatment, selection bias will confound genomic studies of treatment response. Furthermore, if some individuals are at high genetic risk of needing but not commencing treatment, then greater efforts could be made to engage them. The role of common genetic variation on four lifetime treatment-seeking behaviours (treatment-seeking, treatment-receipt, self-help, self-medication with alcohol/drugs) was examined in participants of the UK Biobank (sample size range: 48,106 - 75,322). Treatment-related behaviours were only modestly heritable in these data. Nonetheless, genetic correlations reveal substantial genetic overlap between lifetime treatment-related behaviours and psychiatric disorders, symptoms and behavioural traits. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine genetic influences on treatment-related behaviours. Further work is required to determine whether genetic factors could be used alongside clinical, social and demographic factors to identify at risk groups and inform strategies which target early intervention.

2.
Biol Psychol ; 148: 107764, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518598

RESUMO

There is growing interest in interoception, the perception of the body's internal state, and its relevance for health across development. Most evidence linking interoception to health has used the heartbeat counting task. However, the temporal stability of the measure, particularly during childhood, and the etiological factors that underlie stability, remain largely unexamined. Using data from the ECHO twin sample we estimated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on the stability of heartbeat counting across two years (age 8-10), the longest time-frame examined. Heartbeat counting accuracy was modestly correlated across time, (r = .35) and accuracy improved with age. Non-shared environmental factors accounted for the most variance at both time points and were the main contributors to temporal stability of heartbeat counting. Future research should seek to identify these non-shared environmental factors and elucidate whether this relatively modest stability reflects variability of interoception across development or unreliability of the heartbeat counting task.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse behaviour problems in childhood correlate phenotypically, suggesting a general dimension of psychopathology that has been called the p factor. The shared genetic architecture between childhood psychopathology traits also supports a genetic p. This study systematically investigates the manifestation of this common dimension across self-, parent- and teacher-rated measures in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: The sample included 7,026 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). First, we employed multivariate twin models to estimate common genetic and environmental influences on p based on diverse measures of behaviour problems rated by children, parents and teachers at ages 7, 9, 12 and 16 (depressive traits, emotional problems, peer problems, autism traits, hyperactivity, antisocial behaviour, conduct problems and psychopathic tendencies). Second, to assess the stability of genetic and environmental influences on p across time, we conducted longitudinal twin modelling of the first phenotypic principal components of childhood psychopathological measures across each of the four ages. Third, we created a genetic p factor in 7,026 unrelated genotyped individuals based on eight polygenic scores for psychiatric disorders to estimate how a general polygenic predisposition to mostly adult psychiatric disorders relates to childhood p. RESULTS: Behaviour problems were consistently correlated phenotypically and genetically across ages and raters. The p factor is substantially heritable (50%-60%) and manifests consistently across diverse ages and raters. However, residual variation in the common factor models indicates unique contributions as well. Genetic correlations of p components across childhood and adolescence suggest stability over time (49%-78%). A polygenic general psychopathology factor derived from studies of psychiatric disorders consistently predicted a general phenotypic p factor across development (0.3%-0.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Diverse forms of psychopathology generally load on a common p factor, which is highly heritable. There are substantial genetic influences on the stability of p across childhood. Our analyses indicate genetic overlap between general risk for psychiatric disorders in adulthood and p in childhood, even as young as age 7. The p factor has far-reaching implications for genomic research and, eventually, for diagnosis and treatment of behaviour problems.

4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496451

RESUMO

The Children of the Twins Early Development Study (CoTEDS) is a new prospective children-of-twins study in the UK, designed to investigate intergenerational associations across child developmental stages. CoTEDS will enable research on genetic and environmental factors that underpin parent-child associations, with a focus on mental health and cognitive-related traits. Through CoTEDS, we will have a new lens to examine the roles that parents play in influencing child development, as well as the genetic and environmental factors that shape parenting behavior and experiences. Recruitment is ongoing from the sample of approximately 20,000 contactable adult twins who have been enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) since infancy. TEDS twins are invited to register all offspring to CoTEDS at birth, with 554 children registered as of May 2019. By recruiting the second generation of TEDS participants, CoTEDS will include information on adult twins and their offspring from infancy. Parent questionnaire-based data collection is now underway for 1- and 2-year-old CoTEDS infants, with further waves of data collection planned. Current data collection includes the following primary constructs: child mental health, temperament, language and cognitive development; parent mental health and social relationships; parenting behaviors and feelings; and other socioecological factors. Measurement tools have been selected with reference to existing genetically informative cohort studies to ensure overlap in phenotypes measured at corresponding stages of development. This built-in study overlap is intended to enable replication and triangulation of future analyses across samples and research designs. Here, we summarize study protocols and measurement procedures and describe future plans.

5.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-6, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544730

RESUMO

The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a longitudinal twin study that recruited over 16,000 twin-pairs born between 1994 and 1996 in England and Wales through national birth records. More than 10,000 of these families are still engaged in the study. TEDS was and still is a representative sample of the population in England and Wales. Rich cognitive and emotional/behavioral data have been collected from the twins from infancy to emerging adulthood, with data collection at first contact and at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 21, enabling longitudinal genetically sensitive analyses. Data have been collected from the twins themselves, from their parents and teachers, and from the UK National Pupil Database. Genotyped DNA data are available for 10,346 individuals (who are unrelated except for 3320 dizygotic co-twins). TEDS data have contributed to over 400 scientific papers involving more than 140 researchers in 50 research institutions. TEDS offers an outstanding resource for investigating cognitive and behavioral development across childhood and early adulthood and actively fosters scientific collaborations.

7.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116379

RESUMO

Importance: Anxiety and stress-related disorders are among the most common mental disorders. Although family and twin studies indicate that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role underlying their etiology, the genetic underpinnings of anxiety and stress-related disorders are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of anxiety and stress-related disorders; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to evaluate the association of psychiatric comorbidities with genetic findings. Design, Setting, Participants: This genome-wide association study included individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and controls derived from the population-based Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) study. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and stress-related disorders were obtained through the national Danish registers. Genes of interest were further evaluated in mice exposed to chronic social defeat. The study was conducted between June 2016 and November 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnoses of a relatively broad diagnostic spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Results: The study sample included 12 655 individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and 19 225 controls. Overall, 17 740 study participants (55.6%) were women. A total of 7308 participants (22.9%) were born between 1981-1985, 8840 (27.7%) between 1986-1990, 8157 (25.6%) between 1991-1995, 5918 (18.6%) between 1996-2000, and 1657 (5.2%) between 2001-2005. Standard association analysis revealed variants in PDE4B to be associated with anxiety and stress-related disorder (rs7528604; P = 5.39 × 10-11; odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92). A framework of sensitivity analyses adjusting for mental comorbidity supported this result showing consistent association of PDE4B variants with anxiety and stress-related disorder across analytical scenarios. In mouse models, alterations in Pde4b expression were observed in those mice displaying anxiety-like behavior after exposure to chronic stress in the prefrontal cortex (P = .002; t = -3.33) and the hippocampus (P = .001; t = -3.72). We also found a single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability of 28% (standard error = 0.027) and that the genetic signature of anxiety and stress-related overlapped with psychiatric traits, educational outcomes, obesity-related phenotypes, smoking, and reproductive success. Conclusions and Relevance: This study highlights anxiety and stress-related disorders as complex heritable phenotypes with intriguing genetic correlations not only with psychiatric traits, but also with educational outcomes and multiple obesity-related phenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the candidate gene PDE4B as a robust risk locus pointing to the potential of PDE4B inhibitors in treatment of these disorders.

8.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1006-1018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070449

RESUMO

Questionnaire measures offer a time and cost-effective alternative to full diagnostic assessments for identifying and differentiating between potential anxiety disorders and are commonly used in clinical practice. Little is known, however, about the capacity of questionnaire measures to detect specific anxiety disorders in clinically anxious preadolescent children. This study aimed to establish the ability of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) subscales to identify children with specific anxiety disorders in a large clinic-referred sample (N = 1,438) of children aged 7 to 12 years. We examined the capacity of the Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety, and Physical Injury Fears (phobias) subscales to discriminate between children with and without the target disorder. We also identified optimal cutoff scores on subscales for accurate identification of children with the corresponding disorder, and examined the contribution of child, mother, and father reports. The Separation Anxiety subscale was able to accurately identify children with separation anxiety disorder, and this was replicated across all 3 reporters. Mother- and father-reported Social Phobia subscales also accurately identified children with social anxiety disorder, although child report was only able to accurately detect social anxiety disorder in girls. Using 2 or more reporters improved the sensitivity of the Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia subscales but reduced specificity. The Generalized Anxiety and Physical Injury Fears subscales failed to accurately identify children with the corresponding disorders. These findings have implications for the potential use of mother-, father-, and child-report SCAS subscales to detect specific disorders in preadolescent children in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety in parents is associated with anxiety in offspring, although little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these intergenerational associations. We conducted the first genetically sensitive study to simultaneously examine the effects of mother, father and child anxiety symptoms on each other over time. METHOD: Adoptive parent and child symptoms were measured at child ages 6, 7 and 8 years from 305 families involved in the Early Growth and Development Study, using a prospective adoption design. Children were adopted at birth to nonrelatives, and composite data on internalising problems within birth families were used as a proxy measure of offspring inherited risk for anxiety. Structural equation models were fitted to the data to examine prospective associations between adoptive mother, father and child symptoms, whilst accounting for individuals' symptom stability over time. RESULTS: Child anxiety symptoms at age 7 predicted adoptive mothers' anxiety symptoms at age 8. No mother-to-child or child-to-father effects were observed. These results were consistent in sensitivity analyses using only paternal offspring reports and using a second measure of child anxiety symptoms. Fathers' anxiety symptoms at child age 6 prospectively predicted child symptoms, but only when paternal offspring reports were included in the model. Composite data on birth family internalising problems were not associated with child anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results show environmentally mediated associations between parent and child anxiety symptoms. Results support developmental theories suggesting that child anxiety symptoms can exert influence on caregivers, and mothers and fathers may play unique roles during the development of child symptoms. Further research is needed on the role of genetic transmission associated with anxiety symptoms in biologically related families. In the meantime, researchers and clinicians should strive to include fathers in assessments and consider the effects of child symptoms on caregivers.

10.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(9): 1521-1532, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891678

RESUMO

The transition from primary to secondary school is often associated with a period of heightened anxiety and worry. For most children, any feelings of anxiety subside relatively quickly but for a small minority, emotional difficulties can continue into the first year of secondary school and beyond. This study recruited 109 children and measured their anxiety symptoms and school concerns toward the end of primary school and again at the end of their first term of secondary school. We investigated for the first time whether pre-transition measures of attentional and interpretation bias, and the magnitude of change in attentional bias toward and away from threat stimuli were associated with pre- and post-transition measures of anxiety and school concerns, and the change in these measures over time. Over 50% of the current sample exceeded clinical levels of anxiety at pre-transition. However, anxiety symptoms and school concerns had significantly reduced by post-transition. Higher levels of pre-transition anxiety or school concerns, and a greater magnitude of change in attentional bias towards threat stimuli predicted a larger reduction in anxiety symptoms and school concerns across the transition period. A greater interpretation bias toward threat was associated with higher pre-transition anxiety symptoms and school concerns but not post-transition scores, or the change in these scores. While many children experience heightened anxiety prior to school transition, this appears to be largely temporary and self-resolves. Nonetheless, the current findings highlight the importance of monitoring children's anxiety and concerns, and related cognitive processes during this important transition period.

11.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(5): 554-563, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of common and symptom-specific genetic and environmental influences in maintaining eating disorder symptoms across development remains unclear. This study investigates the continuity and change of etiological influences on drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction symptoms and their co-occurrence, across adolescence and emerging adulthood. METHOD: In total, 2,629 adolescent twins (mean age = 15.20, SD = 1.95) reported eating disorders symptoms across three waves of data collection. Biometric common pathways model was fitted to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to the continuity of each symptom over time, as well as time- and symptom-specific influences. RESULTS: Drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction symptoms showed a pattern of high continuity across development and high correlations with each other, whereas bulimia symptoms were moderately stable and less associated with the other two symptoms. Latent factors reflecting continuity of each symptom were largely under genetic influence (Al = 0.60-0.82). New genetic influences contributing to change in the developmental course of symptoms were observed in emerging adulthood. Genetic influences correlated considerably between the three symptoms. Non-shared environmental influences were largely time-and symptom-specific, but some contributed moderately to the continuity across development (El = 0.18-0.40). The etiological overlap was larger between drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction symptoms than with bulimia symptoms. DISCUSSION: The results provide preliminary evidence that stable as well as newly emerging genetic influences contribute to the co-occurrence of drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction symptoms across adolescence and emerging adulthood. Conversely, environmental influences were less stable and contributed to change in symptoms over time.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Child Dev ; 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536534

RESUMO

Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Child internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 1.5, 3, and 5, and modeled using multilevel analyses with repeated measures nested within siblings, nested within mothers. Maternal pre- and postnatal anxiety were no longer associated with child internalizing or externalizing problems after adjusting for maternal depression and familial confounding. Maternal anxiety when the children were in preschool age, however, remained significantly associated with child internalizing but not externalizing problems.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 223, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333497

RESUMO

Twin studies have shown that emotional problems (anxiety and depression) in childhood and adolescence are moderately heritable (~20-50%). In contrast, DNA-based 'SNP heritability' estimates are generally <15% and non-significant. One notable feature of emotional problems is that they can be somewhat transient, but the moderate stability seen across time and across raters is predominantly influenced by stable genetic influences. This suggests that by capturing what is in common across time and across raters, we might be more likely to tap into any underlying genetic vulnerability. We therefore hypothesised that a phenotype capturing the pervasive stability of emotional problems would show higher heritability. We fitted single-factor latent trait models using 12 emotional problems measures across ages 7, 12 and 16, rated by parents, teachers and children themselves in the Twins Early Development Study sample. Twin and SNP heritability estimates for stable emotional problems (N = 6110 pairs and 6110 unrelated individuals, respectively) were compared to those for individual measures. Twin heritability increased from 45% on average for individual measures to 76% (se = 0.023) by focusing on stable trait variance. SNP heritability rose from 5% on average (n.s.) to 14% (se = 0.049; p = 0.002). Heritability was also higher for stable within-rater composites. Polygenic scores for both adult anxiety and depression significantly explained variance in stable emotional problems (0.4%; p = 0.0001). The variance explained was more than in most individual measures. Stable emotional problems also showed significant genetic correlation with adult depression and anxiety (average = 52%). These results demonstrate the value of examining stable emotional problems in gene-finding and prediction studies.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334356

RESUMO

Differential DNA methylation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis related gene FKBP5 has recently been shown to be associated with varying response to environmental influences and may play a role in how well people respond to psychological treatments. Participants (n = 111) received exposure-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for agoraphobia with or without panic disorder, or specific phobias. Percentage DNA methylation levels were measured for the promoter region and intron 7 of FKBP5. The association between percentage reduction in clinical severity and change in DNA methylation was tested using linear mixed models. The effect of genotype (rs1360780) was tested by the inclusion of an interaction term. The association between change in DNA methylation and FKBP5 expression was examined. Change in percentage DNA methylation at one CpG site of intron 7 was associated with percentage reduction in severity (ß = -4.26, p = 3.90 × 10-4 ), where a decrease in DNA methylation was associated with greater response to therapy. An interaction was detected between rs1360780 and changes in DNA methylation in the promoter region of FKBP5 on treatment outcome (p = .045) but did not survive correction for multiple testing. Changes in DNA methylation were not associated with FKBP5 expression. Decreasing DNA methylation at one CpG site of intron 7 of FKBP5 was strongly associated with decreasing anxiety severity following exposure-based CBT. In addition, there was suggestive evidence that allele-specific methylation at the promoter region may also be associated with treatment response. The results of this study add to the growing literature demonstrating the role of biological processes such as DNA methylation in response to environmental influences.

16.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 5(10): 808-815, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal depression is a known risk factor for early-life psychopathology among offspring; however, potential risk transmission mechanisms need to be distinguished. We aimed to test the relative importance of passive genetic transmission, direct exposure, and indirect exposure in the association between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and early-life internalising and externalising psychopathology in offspring. METHODS: We used structural equation modelling of phenotypic data and genetically informative relationships from the families of participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort Study (MoBa). The analytic subsample of MoBa used in the current study comprises 22 195 mothers and 35 299 children. We used mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms during pregnancy, as captured by the Symptom Checklist, and their reports of symptoms of psychopathology in their offspring during the first few years of life (measured at 18, 36, and 60 months using the Child Behavior Checklist). FINDINGS: Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms were found to be associated with early-life psychopathology primarily via intergenerationally shared genetic factors, which explained 41% (95% CI 36-46) of variance in children's internalising problems and 37% (30-44) of variance in children's externalising problems. For internalising problems, phenotypic transmission also contributed significantly, accounting for 14% (95% CI 5-19) of the association, but this contribution was found to be explained by exposure to concurrent maternal depressive symptoms, rather than by direct exposure in utero. INTERPRETATION: Associations between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and offspring behavioural outcomes in early childhood are likely to be at least partially explained by shared genes. This genetic confounding should be considered when attempting to quantify risks posed by in-utero exposure to maternal depressive symptoms. FUNDING: UK Economic and Social Research Council, Norwegian Research Council, Norwegian Ministries of Health and Care Services, and Education & Research, Wellcome Trust, Royal Society, and National Institute for Health Research.

17.
Mol Med ; 24(1): 7, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to retrieve episodic past events, the missing information needs to be reconstructed using information stored in semantic memory. Failures in these reconstructive processes are expressed as false memories. KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism (rs17070145) has been linked to episodic memory performance as well as an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Here, the role of KIBRA rs17070145 polymorphism (male and female CC vs. CT/TT carriers) in reconstructive episodic memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was investigated in N = 219 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Female participants outperformed males in the free recall condition. Furthermore, a trend towards a gender x genotype interaction was found for false recognition rates. Female CT/TT carriers exhibited a lower proportion of false recognition rates for associated critical lures as compared to male CT/TT. Additionally, an association between KIBRA rs17070145 genotype, familiarity and recollection based recognition performance was found. In trials with correct recognition of listed items CT/TT carriers showed more "remember", but fewer "know" responses as compared to CC carriers. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the T-allele of KIBRA rs17070145 supports recollection based episodic memory retrieval and contributes to memory accuracy in a gender dependent manner. Findings are discussed in the context of the specific contribution of KIBRA related SNPs to reconstructive episodic memory and its implications for cognitive and emotional symptoms in dementia and PTSD.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6344, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679049

RESUMO

Juvenile obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes. Understanding genetic and environmental influences on body mass index (BMI) during adolescence could inform interventions. We investigated independent and interactive effects of parenting, socioeconomic status (SES) and polygenic risk on BMI pre-adolescence, and on the rate of change in BMI across adolescence. Genome-wide genotype data, BMI and child perceptions of parental warmth and punitive discipline were available at 11 years old, and parental SES was available from birth on 3,414 unrelated participants. Linear models were used to test the effects of social environment and polygenic risk on pre-adolescent BMI. Change in BMI across adolescence was assessed in a subset (N = 1943). Sex-specific effects were assessed. Higher genetic risk was associated with increased BMI pre-adolescence and across adolescence (p < 0.00417, corrected for multiple tests). Negative parenting was not significantly associated with either phenotype, but lower SES was associated with increased BMI pre-adolescence. No interactions passed correction for multiple testing. Polygenic risk scores from adult GWAS meta-analyses are associated with BMI in juveniles, suggesting a stable genetic component. Pre-adolescent BMI was associated with social environment, but parental style has, at most, a small effect.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 668-681, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700475

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(7): 763-772, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several delivery formats of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety have been proposed, however, there is little consensus on the optimal delivery format. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on changes in clinical severity (of the primary problem) during individual CBT, group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The secondary goal was to investigate the impact of the child's primary anxiety diagnosis on rates of remission for the three treatment formats. METHODS: A sample of 1,253 children (5-12 years; Mage = 9.3, SD = 1.7) was pooled from CBT trials carried out at 10 sites. Children had a primary diagnosis of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SoAD), specific phobia (SP) or separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Children and parents completed a semistructured clinical interview to assess the presence and severity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders at preintervention, postintervention and follow-up. Linear mixture modelling was used to evaluate the primary research question and logistic modelling was used to investigate the secondary research question. RESULTS: In children with primary GAD, SAD or SoAD, there were no significant differences between delivery formats. However, children with primary SP showed significantly larger reductions in clinical severity following individual CBT compared to group CBT and guided parent-led CBT. The results were mirrored in the analysis of remission responses with the exception that individual CBT was no longer superior to group CBT for children with a primary SP. The difference between individual and group was not significant when follow-up data were examined separately. CONCLUSIONS: Data show there may be greater clinical benefit by allocating children with a primary SP to individual CBT, although future research on cost-effectiveness is needed to determine whether the additional clinical benefits justify the additional resources required.

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