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1.
Angiology ; 71(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129986

RESUMO

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to premature (≤55 years in men; ≤65 years in women) myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite this, the prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting with premature MI or ACS is incompletely described. We compared lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers associated with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region with selected non-MENA high-income countries. We identified English-language, peer-reviewed publications through PubMed (up to March 2018). We used the World Bank classification system to categorize countries. Patients with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region had a higher prevalence of smoking than older patients with MI/ACS but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Men with premature MI/ACS had a higher prevalence of smoking than women but a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. The MENA region had sparse data on lifestyle, diet, psychological stress, and physical activity. To address these knowledge gaps, we initiated the ongoing Gulf Population Risks and Epidemiology of Vascular Events and Treatment (Gulf PREVENT) case-control study to improve primary and secondary prevention of premature MI in the United Arab Emirates, a high-income country in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
2.
J Clin Transl Endocrinol ; 16: 100192, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080742

RESUMO

Background: The United Arab Emirates is experiencing increasing rates of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications. As soluble levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, (sRAGE), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), the latter an alternatively spliced form of AGER (the gene encoding RAGE), have been reported to be associated with T2D and its complications, we tested for potential relationships between these factors and T2D status in Emirati subjects. Methods: In a case-control study, we recruited Emirati subjects with T2D and controls from the Sheikh Khalifa Medical City in Abu Dhabi. Anthropomorphic characteristics, levels of plasma sRAGE and esRAGE, and routine chemistry variables were measured. Results: Two hundred and sixteen T2D subjects and 215 control subjects (mean age, 57.4 ±â€¯12.1 vs. 50.7 ±â€¯15.4 years; P < 0.0001, respectively) were enrolled. Univariate analyses showed that levels of sRAGE were significantly lower in the T2D vs. control subjects (1033.9 ±â€¯545.3 vs. 1169.2 ±â€¯664.1 pg/ml, respectively; P = 0.02). Multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, pulse, body mass index, Waist/Hip circumference ratio, fasting blood glucose, HDL, LDL, insulin, triglycerides, Vitamin D and urea levels revealed that the difference in sRAGE levels between T2D and control subjects remained statistically-significant, P = 0.03, but not after including estimated glomerular filtration rate in the model, P = 0.14. There were no significant differences in levels of esRAGE. Levels of plasma insulin were significantly higher in the control vs. the T2D subjects (133.6 ±â€¯149.9 vs. 107.6 ±â€¯93.3 pg/L. respectively; P = 0.01, after adjustment for age and sex). Conclusion/discussion: Levels of sRAGE, but not esRAGE, were associated with T2D status in Abu Dhabi, but not after correction for eGFR. Elevated levels of plasma insulin in both control and T2D subjects suggests the presence of metabolic dysfunction, even in subjects without diabetes.

3.
J Obes ; 2018: 8626818, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009050

RESUMO

Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide concern. It is associated with morbidity such as dyslipidemia and liver disease. Childhood obesity has dramatically increased, particularly in the Gulf region. We aim to assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and fatty liver disease (FLD) in overweight and obese children and analyze the association between different anthropometric measures with dyslipidemia and fatty liver disease. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on children referred with obesity. BMI percentiles were plotted and standardized waist circumference (WC) was generated. Family history of metabolic syndrome was recorded. Fasting lipid, liver transaminases, and ultrasound scans (US) for those with elevated enzymes were performed. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative parameters. Results: 216 participants were recruited. Mean ± SD age was 10.58 ± 2.996 years. 55.3% had dyslipidemia; 11.7% had high cholesterol, 28.6% high triglyceride, 32.7% high LDL, and 18.0% low HDL. 51 (84%) had either elevated transaminases. All had liver US, and 43 had FLD. WC was strongly associated with dyslipidemia and FLD (P=0.04 and 0.003). Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is common in overweight, obese children. FLD is prevalent in those with elevated liver transaminases. WC is an easy tool that can be utilized to screen for dyslipidemia and FLD in overweight and obese children.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Prevalência , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 10(1): 19-24, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism with significant morbidity and mortality. Its presentation is nonspecific leading to delayed or missed diagnosis. Low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a diagnostic test. Unlike high ALP, low level is commonly not flagged by laboratories as abnormal. A new treatment was shown to be effective in HPP. In this study we aimed to establish the frequency of low ALP levels requiring notification to physicians by the laboratory and also to describe the clinical manifestations of patients presenting with low ALP for a possible diagnosis of HPP. METHODS: Patients under age 18 years with low ALP levels were identified from biochemistry records over a period of 6 months. Reference ranges were used as per the Associated Regional and University Pathologists Reference Laboratory (Utah, USA). Electronic results for patients with low levels were checked for flagging as abnormal/low ALP results. Charts of identified patients were reviewed. Presenting features were categorized under groups of disorders. RESULTS: ALP levels were tested in 2890 patients. 702 had values less than 160 U/L. Of these patients, 226 (32%) had age/gender specific low ALP. None of the low ALP results was flagged as low. Twenty-one had more than one low reading and their charts were reviewed. Four patients in the neuromuscular and four in the miscellaneous group presented with features consistent with HPP despite these patients having no specific diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Laboratories do not alert physicians in cases with low ALP levels. A persistently low level in patients with unspecified diagnoses could be a key to diagnose HPP. Implementing lab-specific ranges and alerting for low levels could prompt physicians to investigate for undiagnosed HPP.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Diagnóstico Precoce , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Hipofosfatasia/sangue , Hipofosfatasia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 9(12): CR511-4, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14646972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease (CHD). Low plasma concentrations of NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrate), the stable oxidation products of NO have been reported in patients with CHD but this is controversial. Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations during symptomatic myocardial ischaemia and in response to exercise in subjects with CHD have not been studied. We therefore measured plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations in subjects before and after an exercise tolerance test (ETT). MATERIAL/METHODS: Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were measured before and after an ETT in 24 subjects with symptomatic exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia (positive ETT) and in 27 subjects without exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia (negative ETT). RESULTS: Plasma nitrate concentrations were higher (p<0.002) before and after the ETT in subjects with a positive ETT (31.51+/-21.80 mol/L and 30.86+/-21.42 mol/L respectively) than in the subjects with a negative ETT (14.75+/-6.71 mol/L and 15.64+/-6.50 mol/L respectively). Plasma nitrite concentrations before and after the ETT were similar in both groups. Within each group, plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were not altered by exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia have higher plasma nitrate concentration than subjects without exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia. This is consistent with either a compensatory or an inflammatory response of the vascular endothelium to endothelial damage. Symptomatic exercise-induced ischaemia is not associated with altered plasma NO metabolite concentrations.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/sangue
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