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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5574-5582, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal use of feed resources must be considered by most livestock farmers. The use of low-cost agricultural by-products and the processing of these materials is one possible solution in this respect. One such compound is edible button mushroom waste (EM), a large amount of which is produced annually in the mushroom production cycle worldwide. RESULTS: Bulk density 100 of EM was smaller than the other groups. These changes also applied to alfalfa for bulk density, which was higher than the replaced waste. The dry matter solubility of EM was higher than that of alfalfa hay, whereas the ash solubility rate for EM was greater compared to alfalfa. Replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen, although the organic matter digestibility (OMD) increased, whereas the crude protein digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased (P < 0.05). Fermentation potential, gas production rate, metabolizable energy and short-chain fatty acids were increased. On replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM, the diet OMD increased, whereas the crude protein and NDF digestibility decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EM usage in the experimental diets did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen. The physical properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of EM, as well as its low cost, show that it can be used as an alternative part of the diet forage in the ruminant's diet. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Nutrientes/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/microbiologia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(8): 3803-3810, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary fats, fed to ruminant animals, have been observed to improve reproductive function. Sunflower oil is one of the richest sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), over 60% of which is linoleic acid (C18:2). With regard to recommendations for increased consumption of PUFAs, special emphasis has been given to the importance of consuming more antioxidants to prevent lipid peroxide formation. This study evaluated the effects of dietary n-6 PUFAs and vitamin C (VC) in rams - in particular, on semen quality, blood metabolites, sperm lipids and overall fertility. RESULTS: Diets supplemented with SFO and VC increased the proportion of motile sperms and their progressive motility improved (P < 0.01). Rams fed a diet containing SFO had an increased proportion of sperms with normal acrosomes in their semen samples (P < 0.01). The highest levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) enzyme were found in control rams (2.60 U mL-1 ). Feeding SFO significantly affected blood triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05). Diets containing SFO increased the proportion of C18:2c, C20:4, C20:3 and C22 in the sperm lipid composition (P < 0.05). Semen of SFO and VC-fed rams was more fertile than that of control rams when it was artificially inseminated to ewes. CONCLUSION: Feeding rams with supplemental SFO and VC increased semen quality and improved fertility rates. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Sêmen/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(13): 5089-5094, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of phytase supplementation with respect to a high sorghum grain diet on sheep voluntary feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, phosphorus (P) excretion and blood serum P concentration was evaluated. RESULTS: Phytase supplementation significantly decreased fecal P excretion (P = 0.003), resulting in a 26% decrease in relation to the phytase free diet. Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal butyrate and serum P were not (P > 0.10) affected by the phytase level. Neutral detergent digestibility showed a tendency to increase linearly (P = 0.10) with increasing phytase levels. Ruminal pH was lower for phytase supplemented sheep, with a significant decrease (P = 0.007) at 9 h post feeding, whereas ruminal ammonia-N at 3 h post feeding was lower (P = 0.004) for the phytase treatment groups, resulting in a decreasing linear response (P = 0.001) with an increasing phytase dose. Duodenal pH was significantly reduced at 6 h post feeding. Propionate tended (P = 0.051) to be increased linearly as the phytase supplementation level increased. CONCLUSION: Exogenous phytase supplementation of high sorghum grain diets significantly decreased fecal P excretion in Rambouillet rams. Phytase supplementation appears to affect neutral detergent fiber digestibility, duodenal and ruminal pH, ammonia and propionate. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fósforo/sangue , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Sorghum/metabolismo
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