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J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 7(6): 824-831, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495764


BACKGROUND: Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated noninferiority of cyanoacrylate embolization (CAE) relative to endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), little is known about the natural history of the vein or the glue that is implanted. This study provides the first description of duplex ultrasound changes of the great saphenous vein (GSV) after CAE relative to EVLA as well as a pragmatic view of outcomes in clinical practice. METHODS: Patients treated with CAE and EVLA at our institution were matched by time of procedure and vein size. GSV diameter was measured at the saphenofemoral junction, midthigh, and knee. Duplex ultrasound imaging was repeated after treatment in the same noninvasive laboratory with an identical protocol. Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Of 481 eligible patients, 119 underwent postoperative duplex ultrasound imaging. Although there was a trend toward decreased vein diameter over time in CAE patients relative to their preoperative vein diameter, this failed to reach statistical significance at the midthigh (P = .32) or at the knee (P = .511). In EVLA patients, as follow-up interval increased, the vein was less frequently visualized on ultrasound at the midthigh (P = .046) and knee (P = .038). At >2 years of follow-up, >80% of EVLA patients had no visible vein segment. Anatomic recurrence was observed in 10.5% of CAE patients and 8.2% of EVLA patients, which was not statistically significantly different (P = .60). The majority of recurrence was observed in the presence of incompetent tributaries. CONCLUSIONS: After CAE of the GSV, our results indicate that the glue cast remains for at least 3 years. Although our results suggest that the glue is broken down over time, this process is much slower than expected. In contrast, after EVLA, the vein tissue is remodeled and is no longer visible with time. In our study, which represents a pragmatic clinical population with a large (median, 9.2 mm) vein diameter, we again demonstrate no statistically significant difference in recurrence rates. Whereas CAE offers an attractive treatment option for GSV incompetence, the glue cast remains for a prolonged time, and longer follow-up studies than those currently available are indicated.

J Vasc Surg ; 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477943


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes after fenestrated and branched endovascular aneurysm repair (F-BEVAR) performed in high-risk patients to treat pararenal (PR) aneurysms and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) and to identify those patients likely to benefit from this treatment. METHODS: A prospective single-center review of patients treated electively for PR aneurysm and TAAA using F-BEVAR between 2004 and 2016 was performed. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors associated with 30-day morbidity and mortality during follow-up were determined using multivariate statistical techniques and a Cox regression model including all variables that were significant on univariate analysis (P < .05). RESULTS: There were 468 patients (median age, 71.6 years) identified, with American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 in 94.7%. There were 221 (47.2%) type I to type III TAAAs and 247 (52.8%) type IV and type V TAAAs and PR aneurysms, with a median diameter of 58 mm. Technical success for target vessel stenting was 99.1% (1493/1506). The 30-day mortality rate was 4.9% (23 patients). The spinal cord ischemia rate was 3.8% (18 patients). Twenty patients (4.3%) required postoperative dialysis and four patients (0.8%) long-term dialysis after discharge. Median follow-up was 29 months. Survival at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years was 86.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.1-89.6), 73.3% (95% CI, 68.3-77.6), and 59.6% (95% CI, 53.4-65.2), respectively. Freedom from any target vessel occlusion and freedom from secondary procedures were 96.2% (95% CI, 93.8-97.7) and 88.2% (95% CI, 84.8-90.9) at 1 year and 90.0% (95% CI, 84.5-91.9) and 70.2% (95% CI, 63.9-75.6) at 5 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, early mortality was associated with procedure time (hazard ratio [HR], 1.007 per minute; 95% CI, 1.003-1.010; P < .001), TAAA preoperative diameter (HR, 1.053 per millimeter; 95% CI, 1.020-1.087; P = .001), and chronic kidney disease (HR, 3.139; 95% CI, 1.369-7.196; P = .007). Mortality during the first 24 months of follow-up was associated with Crawford types I to III (HR, 1.526; 95% CI, 1.061-2.196; P = .023) compared with infradiaphragmatic repairs, chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.874; 95% CI, 1.294-2.712; P < .001), and TAAA preoperative diameter (HR, 1.027 per millimeter; 95% CI, 1.010-1.044; P = .002). In addition to these risk factors, mortality after 24 months of follow-up was also associated with age at repair (HR, 1.055 per year; 95% CI, 1.021-1.090; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: F-BEVAR performed in high-risk patients is associated with favorable outcomes. Judicious selection of patients should take into consideration the reported risk factors associated with early and late mortality.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 6(6): 779-787.e6, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336907


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the nontumescent-based endovenous therapies with the standard tumescent-based endovenous therapies in regard to clinical effectiveness and procedural outcomes in patients with saphenofemoral incompetence and varicose veins. METHODS: The following databases were searched for studies that were randomized or quasi-randomized trials comparing nontumescent-based endovenous procedures with those requiring tumescence: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1950-January 2017), MEDLINE (1946-January 2017), and Embase (1950-January 2017). There were no restrictions based on language or publication status. In the case of ongoing studies, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the online registry were also searched. We also reviewed reference lists of articles relevant to our study to ensure a more complete review. Two authors independently screened and selected studies to be included. These two authors also independently assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were extracted and pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of nine studies were found in the literature search, of which five were included in analysis. Four outcomes were reviewed. A significant difference was found between the comparator groups for mean intraprocedural pain score (effect estimate, -0.66), favoring nontumescent-based therapies. There was no difference for Venous Clinical Severity Score (effect estimate, -0.21) for clinical assessment and the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire score (effect estimate, 0.27) for the disease-specific quality of life between the groups. The outcome of failure of truncal ablation at 30 days had no significant difference between the groups (risk ratio, 1.27), although a subgroup analysis demonstrated a trend toward improved results with the novel nontumescent-based treatments (risk ratio, 0.21) compared with the old nontumescent-based treatments (risk ratio, 8.6). CONCLUSIONS: Currently available evidence from reasonable-quality clinical trials comparing tumescent-based with non-tumescent-based endovenous therapies shows no overall difference between the groups on a number of outcomes. Mean intraprocedural pain score appears to favor nontumescent-based interventions. Newer randomized trials comparing the treatment modalities are needed to further clarify the benefits of nontumescent-based therapies, particularly with regard to long-term outcomes.

Ann Surg ; 268(2): 357-363, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486392


OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic relevance, clinical characteristics, and 30-day outcomes associated with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) in vascular surgical patients. BACKGROUND: MINS has been independently associated with 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery. The characteristics and prognostic importance of MINS in vascular surgery patients are poorly described. METHODS: This was an international prospective cohort study of 15,102 noncardiac surgery patients 45 years or older, of whom 502 patients underwent vascular surgery. All patients had fourth-generation plasma troponin T (TnT) concentrations measured during the first 3 postoperative days. MINS was defined as a TnT of 0.03 ng/mL of higher secondary to ischemia. The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) if MINS is prognostically important in vascular surgical patients, (ii) the clinical characteristics of vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, (iii) the 30-day outcomes for vascular surgery patients with and without MINS, and (iv) the proportion of MINS that probably would have gone undetected without routine troponin monitoring. RESULTS: The incidence of MINS in the vascular surgery patients was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 15.7%-22.6%). 30-day all-cause mortality in the vascular cohort was 12.5% (95% CI 7.3%-20.6%) in patients with MINS compared with 1.5% (95% CI 0.7%-3.2%) in patients without MINS (P < 0.001). MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality in vascular patients (odds ratio, 9.48; 95% CI, 3.46-25.96). The 30-day mortality was similar in MINS patients with (15.0%; 95% CI, 7.1-29.1) and without an ischemic feature (12.2%; 95% CI, 5.3-25.5, P = 0.76). The proportion of vascular surgery patients who suffered MINS without overt evidence of myocardial ischemia was 74.1% (95% CI, 63.6-82.4). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 in 5 patients experienced MINS after vascular surgery. MINS was independently associated with 30-day mortality. The majority of patients with MINS were asymptomatic and would have gone undetected without routine postoperative troponin measurement.