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1.
Homo ; 68(5): 378-392, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032963

RESUMO

Sex and temporal differences are assessed in relation to dietary habits and activity patterns in three ancient populations from Corinth, Greece. The skeletal sample spans time from the Geometric to the Early Byzantine Period (9th c. BCE-5th c. CE). Dental caries and tooth wear have been proven to be reliable dietary indicators. Similarly, spinal osteoarthritis, spinal facet remodeling and Schmorl's nodes, have been used to infer activity patterns.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/história , Dieta/história , Caracteres Sexuais , Desgaste dos Dentes/história , Remodelação Óssea , Exercício , Feminino , Fósseis , Grécia , História Antiga , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/história , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/história , Masculino , Osteoartrite/história , Paleodontologia , Paleopatologia
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 210(1-3): 154-63, 2011 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21450424

RESUMO

As the body decays shortly after death, a variety of gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) constantly emanate. Ethical and practical reasons limit the use of human corpses in controlled, time-dependent, intervening experiments for monitoring the chemistry of body decay. Therefore the utilization of pig carcasses serves as a potential surrogate to human models. The aim of this work was to study buried body decay in conditions of entrapment in collapsed buildings. Six domestic pigs were used to study carcass decay. They were enclosed in plastic body bags after being partially buried with rubbles, resembling entrapment in collapsed buildings. Three experimental cycles were performed, employing two pig carcasses in each cycle; VOCs and inorganic gases were measured daily, along with daily visible and thermal images. VOCs were collected in standard sorbent tubes and subsequently analyzed using a Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatograph/high sensitivity bench-top Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TD/GC/TOF-MS). A comprehensive, stage by stage, detailed information on the decay process is being presented based on the experimental macroscopic observations, justifying thus the use of pig carcasses as surrogate material. A variety of VOCs were identified including almost all chemical classes: sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters), hydrocarbons, fluorides and chlorides. Carcasses obtained from a pig farm resulted in more sulfur and nitrogen cadaveric volatiles. Carbon dioxide was by far the most abundant inorganic gas identified along with carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Visual monitoring was based on video captured images allowing for macroscopic observations, while thermal camera monitoring which is mostly temperature dependent, resulted in highlighting the local micro-changes on the carcasses, as a result of the intense microbial activity. The combination of chemical and optical methods proved very useful and informative, uncovering hidden aspects of the early stages of decay and also guiding in the development of combined chemical and imaging methods for the detection of dead bodies.


Assuntos
Gases/análise , Modelos Animais , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Sepultamento , Espaços Confinados , Patologia Legal , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Gravação de Videoteipe
3.
Homo ; 58(3): 221-8, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17574249

RESUMO

The University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection has been created recently and consists of 225 skeletons. The Athens Collection is housed at the Department of Animal and Human Physiology, at the University of Athens, Greece. Documentation that includes age, sex, occupation, and cause of death exists for almost all of the remains in the collection. The remains belong to individuals who lived mainly in the second half of the twentieth century and come from cemeteries in the area of Athens. The demographic composition of the collection, and a description of the documentary and supporting data are presented. This recently established modern collection is of high value for palaeopathologists, skeletal biologists and forensic anthropologists. The importance of such collections for teaching and research is discussed.


Assuntos
Anatomia/métodos , Antropologia Física/métodos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Esqueleto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Universidades
9.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 45(1): 208-11, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11120967

RESUMO

Currently, there exist few satisfactory alternatives to vancomycin for therapy of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We employed a rat model of aortic valve endocarditis to assess the potential efficacy of evernimicin (SCH 27899) compared with vancomycin against infection with a strain susceptible to both agents (MICs of 0.25 and 0.50 microg/ml, respectively). Infected animals were assigned to one of three groups: controls (no treatment), evernimicin at 60 mg/kg of body weight by intravenous (i.v.) infusion once daily, or vancomycin at 150 mg/kg of body weight per day by continuous i.v. infusion. Therapy was administered for 5.5 days. At the start of therapy, colony counts in vegetations were 6.63 +/- 0.44 log(10) CFU/g. In both treatment groups, bacterial density within vegetations was significantly reduced in comparison with control animals that had not been treated. Final colony counts were as follows (mean +/- standard deviation): controls, 10.12 +/- 1.51 log(10) CFU/g of vegetation; evernimicin, 7.22 +/- 2.91 log(10) CFU/g of vegetation; vancomycin, 5.65 +/- 1.76 log(10) CFU/g of vegetation. The difference between the evernimicin and vancomycin groups was not significant. These results confirmed the bacteriostatic activity of evernimicin in vivo in an experimental model of severe MRSA infection.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
13.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 44(10): 2733-9, 2000 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10991853

RESUMO

To assess the potential efficacy of evernimicin (SCH 27899) against serious enterococcal infections, we used a rat model of aortic valve endocarditis established with either a vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis or a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain. Animals infected with either one of the test strains were assigned to receive no treatment (controls) or 5-day therapy with one of the following regimens: evernimicin 60-mg/kg of body weight intravenous (i.v.) bolus once daily, 60-mg/kg i.v. bolus twice daily (b.i.d.), 60 mg/kg/day i.v. by continuous infusion, or 120 mg/kg/day i.v. by continuous infusion. These regimens were compared with vancomycin at 150 mg/kg/day. In animals infected with E. faecalis, evernimicin at 120 mg/kg/day by continuous infusion significantly reduced bacterial counts in vegetations (final density, 5.75+/-3.38 log(10) CFU/g) compared with controls (8.51+/-1.11 log(10) CFU/g). In animals infected with 0.5 ml of an 8 x 10(7)-CFU/ml inoculum of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, both 60-mg/kg bolus once a day and b.i.d. dose regimens of evernimicin were very effective (viable counts, 3.45+/-1.44 and 3.81+/-1.98 log(10) CFU/g, respectively). Vancomycin was unexpectedly active against infections induced with that inoculum. In animals infected with a 10(9)-CFU/ml inoculum of the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, the evernimicin 60-mg/kg i.v. bolus b.i.d. reduced viable counts in vegetations compared with controls (6.27+/-1.63 versus 8.34+/-0.91 log(10) CFU/g; P<0.05), whereas vancomycin was ineffective. Although resistant colonies could be selected in vitro, we were not able to identify evernimicin-resistant clones from cardiac vegetations. An unexplained observation from these experiments was the great variability in final bacterial densities within cardiac vegetations from animals in each of the evernimicin treatment groups.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Vancomicina , Animais , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 44(6): 1720-4, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10817739

RESUMO

In vitro, the antimicrobial agent taurolidine inhibited virtually all of the bacteria tested, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, oxacillin-resistant staphylococci, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, at concentrations between 250 and 2,000 microg/ml. Taurolidine was not effective in experimental endocarditis. While it appears unlikely that this antimicrobial would be useful for systemic therapy, its bactericidal activity and the resistance rates found (<10(-9)) are favorable indicators for its possible development for topical use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/análogos & derivados , Tiadiazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Resistência às Penicilinas , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia
16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 43(12): 2873-6, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10582874

RESUMO

The in vivo effectiveness of oxazolidinones eperezolid (U-100592) and linezolid (U-100766) against one strain each of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was examined in a rat model of intra-abdominal abscess. MICs of both drugs were 2 microg/ml for each strain. At doses of 25 mg/kg of body weight twice daily intravenously or orally, linezolid produced small but statistically significant reductions in abscess bacterial density for E. faecalis. The reduction in viable cells observed would not likely be clinically relevant. Eperezolid was ineffective at this dose. At a dosage of 100 mg/kg/day, linezolid treatment led to an approximately 100-fold reduction in viable cells per gram of abscess. Against E. faecium infections, intravenous eperezolid and oral linezolid were effective, reducing densities approximately 2 log(10) CFU/g. Both oxazolidinones demonstrated activity against enterococci in this model. However, results were modest with the dosing regimens employed.


Assuntos
Abscesso Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Oxazóis/uso terapêutico , Oxazolidinonas , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Abscesso Abdominal/microbiologia , Acetamidas/sangue , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Linezolida , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxazóis/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Infect Dis ; 180(4): 1177-85, 1999 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10479146

RESUMO

VanD-mediated glycopeptide resistance has been reported for an isolate of Enterococcus faecium, BM4339. Three clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium collected from 3 patients during a 6-week period in 1993 had agar dilution MICs of vancomycin and teicoplanin of 128 and 4 microg/mL, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers complementary to genes encoding d-Ala-d-X ligases yielded a 630-bp product that was similar to the published partial sequence of vanD. By use of inverse PCR, vanD, vanHD, and two partial flanking open-reading frames were sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of VanD showed 67% identity with VanA and VanB. vanD appeared to be located on the chromosome and was not transferable to other enterococci. The 3 isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and differed from BM4339. No other isolates carrying vanD were found in a subset of 875 recent US isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Resistência a Vancomicina , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Primers do DNA , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Vancomicina/farmacologia
19.
Lippincotts Prim Care Pract ; 3(2): 194-203, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10426065

RESUMO

Growing numbers of clients are using complementary and alternative therapies as a supplement or substitute for prescribed medical care of chronic conditions. Selective integration of these therapies into long-term care is appropriate because they can carry lower risk and cost than conventional medical treatments, are effective, and empower clients with the opportunity to be involved actively in the care of their chronic conditions. However, some of these therapies not only are ineffective, but could subject the client to serious risks if inappropriately used. Clinicians need to become knowledgeable of complementary and alternative therapies to ensure that they can be integrated safely into care.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/organização & administração , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Enfermagem Geriátrica/organização & administração , Enfermagem Holística/organização & administração , Humanos , Serviços de Informação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Geriatr Nurs ; 20(3): 139-42; quiz 143, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10661103

RESUMO

Growing numbers of consumers are using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Many of these therapies offer effective approaches to the management of chronic conditions and the promotion of health. However, they are not without risks. This article discusses the risks associated with common CAM therapies and offers practical suggestions to promote the safe integration of CAM with conventional care.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Enfermagem Geriátrica/métodos , Enfermagem Holística/métodos , Idoso , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Humanos
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