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2.
Matrix Biol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839001

RESUMO

The basement membrane (BM) is a specialized layer of extracellular matrix components that plays a central role in maintaining lung and kidney functions. Although the composition of the BM is usually tissue specific, the lung and the kidney preferentially use similar BM components. Unsurprisingly, diseases with BM defects often have severe pulmonary or renal manifestations, sometimes both. Excessive remodeling of the BM, which is a hallmark of both inflammatory and fibrosing diseases in the lung and the kidney, can lead to the release of BM-derived matrikines, proteolytic fragments with distinct biological functions. These matrikines can then influence disease activity at the site of liberation. However, they are also released to the circulation, where they can directly affect the vascular endothelium or target other organs, leading to extrapulmonary or extrarenal manifestations. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of the composition and function of the BM and its matrikines in health and disease, both in the lung and in the kidney. By comparison, we will highlight, why the BM and its matrikines may be central in establishing a renal-pulmonary interaction axis.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 760708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777374

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize the incidence, type, and risk factors of severe infections (SI) in patients with autoimmune kidney diseases treated with rituximab (RTX). Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of adult patients with immune-related kidney diseases treated with at least one course of RTX between 2015 and 2019. As a part of the ABCDE Registry, detailed data on RTX application and SI were collected. SI were defined by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0 as infectious complications grade 3 and above. Patients were dichotomized between "nephrotic" and "nephritic" indications. The primary outcome was the incidence of SI within 12 months after the first RTX application. Results: A total of 144 patients were included. Twenty-five patients (17.4%) presented with SI, mostly within the first 3 months after RTX administration. Most patients in the nephritic group had ANCA-associated vasculitis, while membranous nephropathy was the leading entity in the nephrotic group. Respiratory infections were the leading SI (n= 10, 40%), followed by urinary tract (n=3, 12%) and gastrointestinal infections (n=2, 8%). On multivariable analysis, body mass index (BMI, 24.6 kg/m2 versus 26.9 kg/m2, HR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.79-0.99; p=0.039) and baseline creatinine (HR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49; p=0.017) were significantly associated with SI. All patients in the nephritic group (n=19; 100%) who experienced a SI received oral glucocorticoid (GC) treatment at the time of infection. Hypogammaglobulinemia was frequent (58.5%) but not associated with SI. Conclusions: After RTX administration, impaired kidney function and lower BMI are independent risk factors for SI. Patients with nephritic glomerular diseases having concomitant GC treatment might be at higher risk of developing SI.

4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 750887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722682

RESUMO

Background: Rising data suggest that COVID-19 affects vascular endothelium while the underlying mechanisms promoting COVID-19-associated endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory vasculopathy are largely unknown. The aim was to evaluate the contribution of COVID-19 to persisting vascular injury and to identify parameters linked to COVID-19-associated endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory vasculopathy. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerine-related dilation (NMD), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index, intima-media thickness (IMT), compounds of the arginine and kynurenine metabolism, homocysteine, von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelial microparticles (EMP), antiendothelial cell antibodies, inflammatory, and immunological parameters, as well as nailfold capillary morphology were measured in post-COVID-19 patients, patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) and healthy controls without prior or recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Post-COVID-19 patients had higher values of PWV, augmentation index, IMT, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, vWF, homocysteine, CD31+/CD42b- EMP, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, interleukin-6, and ß-2-glycoprotein antibodies as well as lower levels of homoarginine and tryptophan compared to healthy controls (all with p < 0.05). A higher total number of pathologically altered inflammatory conditions and higher rates of capillary ramifications, loss, caliber variability, elongations and bushy capillaries with an overall higher microangiopathy evolution score were also observed in post-COVID-19 patients (all with p < 0.05). Most parameters of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation were comparably altered in post-COVID-19 patients and patients with ASCVD, including FMD and NMD. Conclusion: COVID-19 may affect arterial stiffness, capillary morphology, EMP and selected parameters of arginine, kynurenine and homocysteine metabolism as well as of inflammation contributing to COVID-19-associated endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory vasculopathy.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578983

RESUMO

Sepsis biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets are urgently needed. With proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, several metabolites can be assessed simultaneously. Fifty-three adult medical ICU sepsis patients and 25 ICU controls without sepsis were prospectively enrolled. 1H NMR differences between groups and associations with 28-day and ICU mortality were investigated. In multivariate metabolomic analyses, we found separate clustering of ICU controls and sepsis patients, as well as septic shock survivors and non-survivors. Lipoproteins were significantly different between sepsis and control patients. Levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine (median 43.3 [29.0-53.7] vs. 64.3 [47.7-72.3] normalized signal intensity units; p = 0.005), leucine (57.0 [38.4-71.0] vs. 73.0 [54.3-86.3]; p = 0.034) and isoleucine (15.2 [10.9-21.6] vs. 17.9 [16.1-24.4]; p = 0.048) were lower in patients with septic shock compared to those without. Similarly, BCAA were lower in ICU non-survivors compared to survivors, and BCAA were good discriminators for ICU and 28-day mortality. In uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses, higher BCAA levels were associated with decreased ICU- and 28-day mortality. In conclusion, metabolomics using 1H NMR spectroscopy showed encouraging potential for personalized medicine in sepsis. BCAA was significantly lower in sepsis non-survivors and may be used as early biomarkers for outcome prediction.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Idoso , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Isoleucina/sangue , Leucina/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Choque Séptico/sangue , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(8): 2083-2098, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) might be preventable. METHODS: This open-label, multicenter randomized trial compared 133 kidney transplant recipients given intermediate-acting insulin isophane for postoperative afternoon glucose ≥140 mg/dl with 130 patients given short-acting insulin for fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dl (control). The primary end point was PTDM (antidiabetic treatment or oral glucose tolerance test-derived 2 hour glucose ≥200 mg/dl) at month 12 post-transplant. RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat population, PTDM rates at 12 months were 12.2% and 14.7% in treatment versus control groups, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.39 to 1.76) and 13.4% versus 17.4%, respectively, at 24 months (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.34 to 1.49). In the per-protocol population, treatment resulted in reduced odds for PTDM at 12 months (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.01) and 24 months (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.20). After adjustment for polycystic kidney disease, per-protocol ORs for PTDM (treatment versus controls) were 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.62) at 12 months and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.87) at 24 months. Significantly more hypoglycemic events (mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic) occurred in the treatment group versus the control group. Within the treatment group, nonadherence to the insulin initiation protocol was associated with significantly higher odds for PTDM at months 12 and 24. CONCLUSIONS: At low overt PTDM incidence, the primary end point in the intention-to-treat population did not differ significantly between treatment and control groups. In the per-protocol analysis, early basal insulin therapy resulted in significantly higher hypoglycemia rates but reduced odds for overt PTDM-a significant reduction after adjustment for baseline differences-suggesting the intervention merits further study.Clinical Trial registration number: NCT03507829.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Isófana/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina Lispro/uso terapêutico , Insulina Isófana/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Padrão de Cuidado , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Allergo J Int ; : 1-14, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178577

RESUMO

Background: The vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) approved in the European Union represent a decisive step in the fight against the pandemic. The application of these available vaccines to patients with pre-existing immunological conditions leads to a multitude of questions regarding efficacy, side effects and the necessary patient information. Results: This review article provides insight into mechanisms of action of the currently available severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and summarises the current state of science as well as expert recommendations regarding tolerability of the vaccines. In addition, the potential to develop protective immune responses is determined. A special focus is given on patients under immunosuppression or in treatment with immunomodulatory drugs. Special groups of the population such as children, pregnant women and the elderly are also considered. Conclusion: Despite the need for a patient-specific risk-benefit assessment, the consensus among experts is that patients with immunological diseases in particular benefit from the induced immune protection after COVID-19 vaccination and do not have an increased risk of side effects.

9.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 881-893, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912740

RESUMO

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause of primary nephrotic syndrome among adults. The identification of phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) as target antigen in most patients changed the management of MN dramatically, and provided a rationale for B-cell depleting agents such as rituximab. The efficacy of rituximab in inducing remission has been investigated in several studies, including 3 randomized controlled trials, in which complete and partial remission of proteinuria was achieved in approximately two-thirds of treated patients. Due to its favorable safety profile, rituximab is now considered a first-line treatment option for MN, especially in patients at moderate and high risk of deterioration in kidney function. However, questions remain about how to best use rituximab, including the optimal dosing regimen, a potential need for maintenance therapy, and assessment of long-term safety and efficacy outcomes. In this review, we provide an overview of the current literature and discuss both strengths and limitations of "the new standard."

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670614

RESUMO

Selectively targeting the E-type prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) might be a new therapeutic option in the treatment of glomerulonephritis (GN), since the EP4 receptor is expressed on different immune cells, resident kidney cells, and endothelial cells, which are all involved in the pathogenesis of immune-complex GN. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential and to understand the mode of action of EP4 agonist in immune-complex GN using the murine model of nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTS). In vivo, NTS mice were treated two times daily with two different doses of an EP4 agonist ONO AE1-329 or vehicle for 14 days total. The effect of PGE2 and EP4 agonism and antagonism was tested on murine distal convoluted tubular epithelial cells (DCT) in vitro. In vivo, the higher dose of the EP4 agonist led to an improved NTS phenotype, including a reduced tubular injury score and reduced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. EP4 agonist treatment caused decreased CD4+ T cell infiltration into the kidney and increased proliferative capacity of tubular cells. Injection of the EP4 agonist resulted in dose-dependent vasodilation and hypotensive episodes. The low-dose EP4 agonist treatment resulted in less pronounced episodes of hypotension. In vitro, EP4 agonism resulted in cAMP production and increased distal convoluted tubular (DCT) proliferation. Taken together, EP4 agonism improved the NTS phenotype by various mechanisms, including reduced blood pressure, decreased CD4+ T cell infiltration, and a direct effect on tubular cells leading to increased proliferation probably by increasing cAMP levels.

11.
Kidney Int ; 100(2): 336-348, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785369

RESUMO

Co-stimulation is a prerequisite for pathogenic activity in T cell-mediated diseases and has been demonstrated to achieve tolerance in organ-specific autoimmunity as a therapeutic target. Here, we evaluated the involvement of the tumor necrosis factor family members CD30 and OX40 in immune-complex mediated kidney disease. In vitro stimulation and proliferation studies were performed with CD4+ cells from wild type and CD30/OX40 double knock-out (CD30OX40-/-) mice. In vivo studies were performed by induction of nephrotoxic serum nephritis in wild type, CD30OX40- /- , CD30-/-, OX40-/-, reconstituted Rag1-/- and C57Bl/6J mice treated with αCD30L αOX40L antibodies. CD30, OX40 and their ligands were upregulated on various leukocytes in nephrotoxic serum nephritis. CD30OX40-/- mice, but not CD30-/- or OX40-/- mice were protected from nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Similar protection was found in Rag1-/- mice injected with CD4+ T cells from CD30OX40-/- mice compared to Rag1-/- mice injected with CD4+ T cells from wild type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ T cells deficient in CD30OX40-/- displayed decreased expression of CCR6 in vivo. CD30OX40-/- cells were fully capable of differentiating into disease mediating T helper cell subsets, but showed significantly decreased levels of proliferation in vivo and in vitro compared to wild type cells. Blocking antibodies against CD30L and OX40L ameliorated nephrotoxic serum nephritis without affecting pan-effector or memory T cell populations. Thus, our results indicate disease promotion via CD30 and OX40 signaling due to facilitation of exaggerated T cell proliferation and migration of T helper 17 cells in nephrotoxic serum nephritis. Hence, co-stimulation blockade targeting the CD30 and OX40 signaling pathways may provide a novel therapeutic strategy in autoimmune kidney disease.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite , Receptores OX40 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Glomerulonefrite/genética , Antígeno Ki-1 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral
12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(6): e14069, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a rare but one of the most recognised complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Corticosteroid (CS) use has been considered as a major risk factor for SRC. Several studies reported the efficacy of rituximab (RTX) with an acceptable safety profile in SSc. However, data on the long-term effect of high-dose CS concomitant to RTX on kidney function are lacking. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed SSc patients (n = 35) treated with a lower dosage and short-interval RTX and concomitant high-dose CS at the Department of Internal Medicine at the Medical University of Graz between 2010 and 2019. The kidney function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at every RTX admission. The annual decline of kidney function was evaluated by linear mixed model analysis. RESULTS: At the RTX initiation, one patient had a decreased kidney function indicated by eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (median: 96 mL/min/1.73 m2 ; interquartile range (IQR): 43-136). Patients received RTX and complementary high-dose CS for a median follow-up time of 3.4 years (range 0.6-9.5). A linear mixed model analysis with the patient as random effect and time from first RTX as fixed effect estimated an annual decline of 1.98 mL/min/1.73 m2 of the eGFR (95% confidence interval: [-2.24, -1.72]; P <.001). During the follow-up period, no patient experienced SRC or a significant drop in kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: A regular, high-dose CS given contemporary to RTX seems to be a safe option for kidney function in patients with SSc. Our findings provide additional knowledge in risk evaluation and planning of individualised therapies or designing clinical studies using RTX.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Corticosteroides , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is only limited clinical data on the benefit of intense immunosuppression in patients with severe interstitial pneumonia associated with autoimmune features or new-onset connective tissue disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We here report a series of three consecutive patients suffering from severe interstitial lung disease necessitating endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The first two patients fulfilled many diagnostic criteria for new-onset antisynthetase syndrome, the third patient for systemic lupus erythematosus. We decided to implement aggressive immunosuppressive strategies in these critically-ill patients including therapeutic plasma exchange, immunoadsorption, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. All three patients improved from respiratory failure, were successfully weaned from the respirator, and eventually dismissed from hospital with ongoing immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients suffering from severe connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease and respiratory failure may benefit from an aggressive immunosuppressive regimen and extracorporeal blood purification with rapid reduction of circulating autoantibodies. The impressive clinical responses in this small case series warrant a controlled clinical trial.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Ciclofosfamida , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/imunologia , Rituximab , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Transpl Int ; 34(1): 27-48, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135259

RESUMO

Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) shows a relationship with risk factors including obesity and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression, which decreases pancreatic insulin secretion. Several of the sodium-glucose-linked transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) dramatically improve outcomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without chronic kidney disease, which is, as heart failure and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, differentially affected by both drug classes (presumably). Here, we discuss SGLT2is and GLP1-RAs in context with other PTDM management strategies, including modification of immunosuppression, active lifestyle intervention, and early postoperative insulin administration. We also review recent studies with SGLT2is in PTDM, reporting their safety and antihyperglycemic efficacy, which is moderate to low, depending on kidney function. Finally, we reference retrospective case reports with GLP1-RAs that have not brought forth major concerns, likely indicating that GLP1-RAs are ideal for PTDM patients suffering from obesity. Although our article encompasses PTDM after solid organ transplantation in general, data from kidney transplant recipients constitute the largest proportion. The PTDM research community still requires data that treating and preventing PTDM will improve clinical conditions beyond hyperglycemia. We therefore suggest that it is time to collaborate, in testing novel antidiabetics among patients of all transplant disciplines.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 579677, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195328

RESUMO

Background: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an essential role in the immune system and shows effective antioxidative properties. We investigated correlations of lipid parameters with the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and the prognostic association with mortality in sepsis patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We prospectively recruited consecutive adult patients with sepsis and septic shock, according to sepsis-3 criteria as well as non-sepsis ICU controls. Results: Fifty-three patients with sepsis (49% with septic shock) and 25 ICU controls without sepsis were enrolled. Dyslipidemia (HDL-C < 40 mg/l) was more common in sepsis compared to non-sepsis patients (85 vs. 52%, p = 0.002). Septic patients compared to controls had reduced HDL-C (14 vs. 39 mg/l, p < 0.0001), lower arylesterase activity of the antioxidative paraoxonase of HDL (AEA) (67 vs. 111 mM/min/ml serum, p < 0.0001), and a non-significant trend toward reduced cholesterol efflux capacity (9 vs. 10%, p = 0.091). We observed a strong association between higher AEA and lower risk of 28-day [per 10 mM/min/ml serum increase in AEA: odds ratio (OR) = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.94; p = 0.01) and ICU mortality (per 10 mM/min/ml serum increase in AEA: OR = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.56-0.90, p = 0.004) in the sepsis cohort in univariable logistic regression analysis. AEA was confirmed as an independent predictor of 28-day and ICU mortality in multivariable analyses. AEA discriminated well-regarding 28-day/ICU mortality in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analyses. In survival analysis, 28-day mortality estimates were 40 and 69% with AEA ≥/< the 25th percentile of AEA's distribution, respectively (log-rank p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Both compositional and functional HDL parameters are profoundly altered during sepsis. In particular, the functionality parameter AEA shows promising prognostic potential in sepsis patients.

16.
Cells ; 9(11)2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203124

RESUMO

Ion-exchange resins are commonly used to manage complications of chronic kidney disease, such as hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Occasionally, these drugs can irritate the gastrointestinal lining and cause life-threatening intestinal necrosis. Currently, the pathophysiology of drug crystal-induced intestinal necrosis is not well understood. We hypothesized that crystals of ion-exchange resins like sevelamer, polystyrene sulfonate, and cholestyramine can trigger the formation of neutrophil and monocyte extracellular traps by contributing to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Light and fluorescence microscopy of the colonic resection specimen from a patient with chronic kidney disease revealed severe intestinal necrosis, ulceration, sevelamer crystals, and inflammation upon oral intake of sevelamer, as well as the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in proximity to small sevelamer crystals. Indeed, drug crystals reduced metabolic activity and induced barrier dysfunction and cell death in human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, drug crystals triggered the release of neutrophil and monocyte extracellular traps. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that besides other factors including chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, drug crystals may further amplify a pre-existing barrier dysfunction and necroinflammation in a crescendo of local intestinal necrosis and systemic inflammation/infection, as occasionally observed in patients on ion-exchange resin therapy.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo
18.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(11): 102671, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942039

RESUMO

Primary forms of minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are rare podocytopathies and clinically characterized by nephrotic syndrome. Glucocorticoids are the cornerstone of the initial immunosuppressive treatment in these two entities. Especially among adults with minimal change disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, relapses, steroid dependence or resistance are common and necessitate re-initiation of steroids and other immunosuppressants. Effective steroid-sparing therapies and introduction of less toxic immunosuppressive agents are urgently needed to reduce undesirable side effects, in particular for patients whose disease course is complex. Rituximab, a B cell depleting monoclonal antibody, is increasingly used off-label in these circumstances, despite a low level of evidence for adult patients. Hence, critical questions concerning drug-safety, long-term efficacy and the optimal regimen for rituximab-treatment remain unanswered. Evidence in the form of large, multicenter studies and randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to overcome these limitations.


Assuntos
Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal , Nefrose Lipoide , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Nefrose Lipoide/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica , Recidiva
20.
Pharmacol Ther ; 207: 107459, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863818

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which affects >10% of the population worldwide, is associated with a dramatically increased rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD). More people with CKD will die from CVD than develop end-stage renal disease with dialysis-dependency. However, the contribution of classical atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors is less evident than in the general population. Particularly, the relationship between dyslipidemia and CVD morbidity and mortality in CKD patients is not as evident as in the general population. While LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins significantly reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in the general population, their role in patients with end-stage renal disease has been questioned. This could be caused by a shift from atherosclerotic to non-atherosclerotic CVD in patients with advanced CKD, which cannot be effectively prevented by lipid-lowering drugs. In addition, many lines of evidence suggest that impaired renal function directly affects the metabolism, composition and functionality of lipoproteins, which may affect their responsiveness to pharmacological interventions. In this review, we highlight the challenges for the therapeutic application of lipid-lowering treatment strategies in CKD and discuss why treatment strategies used in the general population cannot be applied uncritically to CKD patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
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