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1.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 122-129, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in paranoid thinking has been reported internationally. The development of the Pandemic Paranoia Scale (PPS) has provided a reliable assessment of various facets of pandemic paranoia. This study aimed to (i) identify classes of individuals with varying levels of general paranoia and pandemic paranoia, and (ii) examine associations between classification and worry, core beliefs, and pro-health behaviours. METHODS: An international sample of adults (N = 2510) across five sites completed the Revised-Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale and the PPS. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using these two paranoia variables. Classes were compared on trait worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), beliefs about self/others (Brief Core Schema Scales), and pro-health behaviour. RESULTS: Three latent classes emerged: Class 1 with low R-GPTS and PPS scores, Class 2 with a high R-GPTS score and a moderate PPS score, and Class 3 with high R-GPTS and PPS scores. Compared to Class 1, Classes 2-3 were associated with more worry and negative self- and other-beliefs. Class 3 was further characterised by greater positive-self beliefs and less engagement in pro-health behaviours. Engagement in pro-health behaviours was positively correlated with interpersonal mistrust and negatively correlated with paranoid conspiracy and persecutory threat. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with a general paranoia tendency were more likely to respond to the global health threats in a suspicious and distrusting way. Our findings suggested that worry and negative self/other beliefs may contribute to not just general paranoia but also pandemic paranoia. The preliminary finding of a link between pro-health behaviours and interpersonal mistrust warrants further examination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Paranoides/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2055, 2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136120

RESUMO

Understanding factors driving vaccine hesitancy is crucial to vaccination success. We surveyed adults (N = 2510) from February to March 2021 across five sites (Australia = 502, Germany = 516, Hong Kong = 445, UK = 512, USA = 535) using a cross-sectional design and stratified quota sampling for age, sex, and education. We assessed willingness to take a vaccine and a comprehensive set of putative predictors. Predictive power was analysed with a machine learning algorithm. Only 57.4% of the participants indicated that they would definitely or probably get vaccinated. A parsimonious machine learning model could identify vaccine hesitancy with high accuracy (i.e. 82% sensitivity and 79-82% specificity) using 12 variables only. The most relevant predictors were vaccination conspiracy beliefs, various paranoid concerns related to the pandemic, a general conspiracy mentality, COVID anxiety, high perceived risk of infection, low perceived social rank, lower age, lower income, and higher population density. Campaigns seeking to increase vaccine uptake need to take mistrust as the main driver of vaccine hesitancy into account.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Alemanha , Hong Kong , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
3.
Psychol Psychother ; 95(2): 467-476, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is growing evidence for the benefit of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) for people with psychosis. However, research is yet to evaluate the clinical benefit of delivering MBI groups online. We examine engagement, clinical outcomes, participant experience and therapeutic process of delivering therapy groups online in routine clinical practice. METHODS: The study used an uncontrolled pre-post design to examine engagement, therapeutic benefits (depression, anxiety, beliefs about voices) and group process in a 12-session online mindfulness group for individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis with current distressing voices. Qualitative data on participant experience of online group therapy were analysed using Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: 17/21 participants (81%) completed one of three consecutively run therapy groups. For completers there were significant reductions pre-post in depression, anxiety, beliefs about voices and voice-related negative affect, with medium to large effect sizes. There were individuals showing reliable and clinically significant improvements in each clinical outcome, and none showing reliable or clinically significant deterioriation. Participants' rankings of the importance of different group therapeutic factors were very similar to those observed in face-to-face mindfulness for psychosis groups. Qualitative analysis of participant feedback identified three themes: 'experience of online delivery', 'therapeutic benefits' and 'feeling connected to people in the group'. CONCLUSIONS: Findings in relation to therapy engagement, clinical benefits, participant experience and group process offer encouragement that online delivery of mindfulness for psychosis groups may be a useful addition to mental health services for people with distressing voices.

4.
J Pers ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Three studies tested a novel model of the narcissism-paranoia link, whereby narcissism (primarily its socially maladaptive facets) is associated with paranoia via over-use of defensive self-protection and/or under-use of self-affirmation. METHODS: In Study 1, 245 online volunteers (87% female; MAGE  = 20.92; 44% White-British) completed trait measures of narcissism, self-enhancement/protection strategies and paranoia. In Study 2, 116 students (82% female; MAGE  = 20.23; 70% White-British) completed baseline measures, then reported state reactions and paranoia following two difficult and two pleasant interpersonal events after 3-10 days. In Study 3, 517 online volunteers (64% female; MAGE  = 22.76; 77% White/Caucasian) completed baseline measures, experienced a standardized social exclusion (vs. neutral) manipulation (Cyberball), then reported state reactions and paranoia. RESULTS: In Study 1, narcissism was associated with higher paranoia via defensiveness. In Study 2, this was replicated in difficult but not pleasant events, and was driven by the Entitlement/Exploitativeness facet of narcissism. In Study 3, narcissistic rivalry and vulnerable narcissism, but not admiration, were associated with Cyberball-related paranoia via general defensiveness and denigration of others. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals high in narcissism-especially its socially maladaptive facets-who over-rely on defensive self-protection strategies in response to threat, are particularly vulnerable to paranoia. Findings help to understand individual differences in paranoia.

5.
Br J Psychiatry ; 219(6): 629-631, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048869

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in potential harmful effects of mindfulness-based interventions. In relation to psychosis, inconsistency and shortcomings in how harm is monitored and reported are holding back our understanding. We offer eight recommendations to help build a firmer evidence base on potential harm in mindfulness for psychosis.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia
7.
Learn Behav ; 48(1): 66-83, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170595

RESUMO

Polymorphous concepts are hard to learn, and this is perhaps surprising because they, like many natural concepts, have an overall similarity structure. However, the dimensional summation hypothesis (Milton and Wills Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 30, 407-415 2004) predicts this difficulty. It also makes a number of other predictions about polymorphous concept formation, which are tested here. In Experiment 4, we confirm the theory's prediction that polymorphous concept formation should be facilitated by deterministic pretraining on the constituent features of the stimulus. This facilitation is relative to an equivalent amount of training on the polymorphous concept itself. In further experiments, we compare the predictions of the dimensional summation hypothesis with a more general strategic account (Experiment 2), a seriality of training account (Experiment 3), a stimulus decomposition account (also Experiment 3), and an error-based account (Experiment 4). The dimensional summation hypothesis provides the best account of these data. In Experiment 5, a further prediction is confirmed-the single feature pretraining effect is eliminated by a concurrent counting task. The current experiments suggest the hypothesis that natural concepts might be acquired by the deliberate serial summation of evidence. This idea has testable implications for classroom learning.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem , Animais , Cognição , Memória , Tempo de Reação
8.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 65: 101500, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Paranoia is a common, distressing, and persistent experience that can negatively impact on health, wellbeing, and functioning. This study examined the immediate and short term (2-weeks) effects of two values-based interventions, versus a non-values control, on paranoia, as well as the moderating effect of self-esteem. METHODS: 171 non-clinical adults were randomised to a value-affirmation and goals task (VAG: clarifying and reflecting on core values and setting value-based goals) (n = 57), a value-affirmation task (VA: clarifying and reflecting on core values without setting value-based goals) (n = 57), or a non-affirmation control task (NAC) (n = 57). Paranoia was assessed at baseline (T1), post-intervention (T2), and two weeks post-intervention (T3). Self-esteem was measured at baseline. RESULTS: VAG participants had significantly lower state paranoia scores at T3 than VA (d = .34) and NAC (d = .31) participants. This effect was moderated by trait self-esteem: At follow-up, the differential effect of condition on state paranoia was greatest amongst those with low self-esteem, with the VAG condition being most beneficial for participants with low self-esteem and the VA condition being least beneficial. LIMITATIONS: Without a goals only control group it is possible that the benefits of VAG over VA were attributable to setting and achieving goals. Use of a nonclinical sample limits generalisability to clinical groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that focusing on a deeply held value and setting goals in line with that value reduced paranoia. This intervention may be most beneficial for individuals with low self-esteem.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Transtornos Paranoides/terapia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicoterapia Breve , Autoimagem , Valores Sociais , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 62: 30-37, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal stress is key to the development and maintenance of paranoia. Much attention has been given to the impact of interpersonal stressors, such as criticism, on outcomes in psychosis. Less attention has been given to the potentially protective effects of positive interpersonal factors. This study tested experimentally whether criticism and warm comments elicited changes in state paranoia. Whether warm comments provided protective effects when participants faced subsequent social exclusion was also examined. METHOD: A nonclinical sample (N = 97) was randomised to criticism, warm comments, or neutral comments conditions. Participants then played a virtual ball game (Cyberball), during which they were systematically excluded from the game. State paranoia was measured before and after the affective stimuli and after social exclusion. Self-esteem and trait paranoia were also measured. RESULTS: Paranoia levels increased following exposure to criticism (p = .011). Paranoia was not significantly lower following exposure to warm comments (p = .203). Warm comments did not provide protection against the effects of subsequent social exclusion. The warm comments condition was the only condition in which significant increases in paranoia were seen following social exclusion (p = .004). LIMITATIONS: Use of a non-clinical sample limits generalisation to clinical populations. CONCLUSIONS: Criticism is sufficient to elicit increases in paranoia in non-clinical participants. Warm comments are insufficient to significantly reduce paranoia or provide protective effects against subsequent negative interpersonal experiences, highlighting the need to balance therapeutic warmth with amelioration of social stressors in paranoia.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Paranoides/fisiopatologia , Distância Psicológica , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 62: 15-21, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality of reasoning within non-clinical paranoia and mental simulation of future paranoia themed events was investigated by use of a simulation task to determine whether paranoid individuals would be restricted or more adept at reasoning about paranoia relevant material in comparison to a social anxiety group and a group with low paranoia and social anxiety. METHOD: Participants (N = 63) were divided into the three groups based on paranoia and social anxiety scores. They were presented with the beginning and end of an imaginary situation and were asked to describe, step-by-step, what they imagined would happen between those two points. They were also administered a beads task to evaluate the jumping to conclusion decision making bias. RESULTS: The prediction of more adept reasoning was not supported for paranoia. However, the social anxiety comparison group on average better simulated a scenario with congruent (socially anxious) thematic content compared to ones with non-congruent content. Further, in an exploratory analysis, jumping to conclusions bias was found to be positively related to goodness of simulation for paranoia themed scenarios within the paranoia group. LIMITATIONS: Study groups were relatively small and so power was an issue. CONCLUSION: The results are discussed in the context of the sometimes paradoxical findings in the area of cognitive biases and paranoia.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Transtornos Paranoides/fisiopatologia , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Heurística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 266: 341-344, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609986

RESUMO

Consistent with a continuum approach to mental health, a growing body of research has established that paranoia occurs in the general population. The stress-vulnerability model would predict an association between environments high in threat and the presence of state paranoia, even in those with low dispositional trait paranoia. The present research examines whether urban cycling, a naturalistic environment high in interpersonal threat, is associated with state paranoia - operationalised as an explicit perception that other road users intend the agent harm. 323 members of the general population who regularly cycled in London completed measures of state and trait paranoia, anxiety, depression and stress. The majority of the general population sample (70%) reported experiencing state paranoia during urban cycling, and there was no association between state paranoia and trait paranoia. Reported state paranoia was higher during urban cycling than when using the London underground (a lower threat environment) and reported state paranoia on the underground was associated with trait paranoia. The findings are consistent with the stress-vulnerability model of everyday paranoia.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; 9(1): 294-302, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387267

RESUMO

Paranoia is common and distressing in the general population and can impact on health, emotional well-being and social functioning, such that effective interventions are needed. Brief online mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in non-clinical samples; however, at present, there is no research investigating whether they can reduce paranoia. The current study explored whether a brief online MBI increased levels of mindfulness and reduced levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population. The mediating effect of mindfulness on any changes in paranoia was also investigated. One hundred and ten participants were randomly allocated to either a 2-week online MBI including 10 min of daily guided mindfulness practice or to a waitlist control condition. Measures of mindfulness and paranoia were administered at baseline, post-intervention and 1-week follow-up. Participants in the MBI group displayed significantly greater reductions in paranoia compared to the waitlist control group. Mediation analysis demonstrated that change in mindfulness skills (specifically the observe, describe and non-react facets of the FFMQ) mediated the relationship between intervention type and change in levels of paranoia. This study provides evidence that a brief online MBI can significantly reduce levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population. Furthermore, increases in mindfulness skills from this brief online MBI can mediate reductions in non-clinical paranoia. The limitations of the study are discussed.

13.
Psychiatry Res ; 259: 340-344, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120840

RESUMO

Recent research implicates cognitive processes traditionally linked to anxiety disorders in the maintenance of paranoia. Responsibility beliefs have traditionally been associated with OCD, and recent research suggests they may be transdiagnostic. The present study reports the first data on responsibility beliefs in individuals with persecutory delusions. 30 people with persecutory delusions completed measures of psychotic symptoms and responsibility beliefs. Participants were also asked to identify who they held responsible for their persecution. Quantitative data on responsibility beliefs were compared with 29 matched non-clinical control participants, and with published data from patients with OCD and anxiety disorders. People with persecutory delusions identified a number of different entities responsible for harm. The persecutory delusions group had higher responsibility beliefs than those with OCD, anxiety disorders and nonclinical controls. The results suggest that responsibility beliefs are a facet of the phenomenology of persecutory beliefs. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis might usefully draw from OCD interventions and focus on responsibility beliefs, perhaps especially in Bad Me paranoia.


Assuntos
Delusões/psicologia , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Responsabilidade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 254: 133-134, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460283

RESUMO

Goals motivated by avoidance, rather than approach, and by external, rather than internal, motivations, have been implicated in the persistence of depression. This paper reports the first empirical investigation of the goals and motivations of individuals experiencing persecutory delusions. Participants completed assessments of goals and motivations, depression and paranoia. Higher levels of depression were associated with more avoidant motivations and lower goal self-concordance, but not with numbers of approach motivations. More avoidant motivations were also associated with greater paranoia. The findings are consistent with proposals that avoidant and externally-motivated goal pursuit could contribute to symptom persistence.


Assuntos
Delusões/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Objetivos , Motivação , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Delusões/diagnóstico , Delusões/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Paranoides/epidemiologia
15.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 56(3): 303-309, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Command hallucinations are considered to be one of the most distressing and disturbing symptoms of schizophrenia. Building on earlier studies, we compare key attributes in the symptomatic, affective, and cognitive profiles of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and hearing voices that do (n = 77) or do not (n = 74) give commands. METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional design, in which we assessed voice severity, distress and control (PSYRATs), anxiety and depression (HADS), beliefs about voices (BAVQ-R), and responsibility beliefs (RIQ). Clinical and demographic variables were also collected. RESULTS: Command hallucinations were found to be more distressing and controlling, perceived as more omnipotent and malevolent, linked to higher anxiety and depression, and resisted more than hallucinations without commands. Commanding voices were also associated with higher conviction ratings for being personally responsible for preventing harm. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest key differences in the affective and cognitive profiles of people who hear commanding voices, which have important implications for theory and psychological interventions. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Command hallucinations are associated with higher distress, malevolence, and omnipotence. Command hallucinations are associated with higher responsibility beliefs for preventing harm. Responsibility beliefs are associated with voice-related distress. Future psychological interventions for command hallucinations might benefit from focussing not only on omnipotence, but also on responsibility beliefs, as is done in psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder. Limitations The cross-sectional design does not assess issues of causality. We did not measure the presence or severity of delusions.


Assuntos
Alucinações/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 17(1): 54, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of first episode psychosis (FEP) is highly variable and difficult to predict. Cognitive insight measured at illness onset has previously been found to predict psychopathology 12-months later. The aims of this study were to examine whether the prospective relationship between cognitive insight and symptom severity is evident at four-years following FEP and to examine some psychological correlates of cognitive insight. METHODS: FEP participants (n = 90) completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) at illness onset, and associations between BCIS scores with symptom severity outcomes (4-years after FEP) were assessed. The BCIS scales (self-reflectiveness and self-certainty) were examined as a composite score, and individually compared to other cognitive measures (IQ and jumping to conclusions (JTC) bias). RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed that the cognitive insight composite did not predict 4-year symptom remission in this study while the self-reflection subscale of the BCIS predicted severity of symptoms at 4-years. Self-certainty items of the BCIS were not associated with symptom severity. Significant correlations between the JTC bias, self-certainty and IQ were found, but self-reflection did not correlate with these other cognitive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reflective capacity is a more relevant and independent cognitive construct than self-certainty for predicting prospective symptom severity in psychosis. Improving self-reflection may be a useful target for early intervention research.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Cognição , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Análise de Regressão
17.
Schizophr Res ; 175(1-3): 168-173, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27146475

RESUMO

Group Person-Based Cognitive Therapy (PBCT) integrates cognitive therapy and mindfulness to target distinct sources of distress in psychosis. The present study presents data from the first randomised controlled trial investigating group PBCT in people distressed by hearing voices. One-hundred and eight participants were randomised to receive either group PBCT and Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU only. While there was no significant effect on the primary outcome, a measure of general psychological distress, results showed significant between-group post-intervention benefits in voice-related distress, perceived controllability of voices and recovery. Participants in the PBCT group reported significantly lower post-treatment levels of depression, with this effect maintained at six-month follow-up. Findings suggest PBCT delivered over 12weeks effectively impacts key dimensions of the voice hearing experience, supports meaningful behaviour change, and has lasting effects on mood.


Assuntos
Alucinações/terapia , Atenção Plena , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alucinações/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Autorrelato , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 241: 309-14, 2016 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232552

RESUMO

Despite a consensus that psychosocial adversity plays a role in the onset of psychosis, the nature of this role in relation to persecutory paranoia remains unclear. This study examined the complex relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoid ideation in individuals at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis using a virtual reality paradigm to objectively measure paranoia. Data from 64 UHR participants and 43 healthy volunteers were analysed to investigate the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory ideation in a virtual reality environment. Perceived ethnic discrimination was higher in young adults at UHR in comparison to healthy controls. A positive correlation was observed between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoid persecutory ideation in the whole sample. Perceived ethnic discrimination was not a significant predictor of paranoid persecutory ideation in the VR environment. Elevated levels of perceived ethnic discrimination are present in individuals at UHR and are consistent with current biopsychosocial models in which psychosocial adversity plays a key role in the development of psychosis and attenuated symptomatology.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Percepção , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Paranoides/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 230(3): 899-904, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26619917

RESUMO

Trauma exposure and intrusive thoughts are commonly reported in both schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Information processing accounts suggest that intrusions occur in the two conditions as a result of insufficient state and/or trait contextual processing in long-term memory. Most research has focused on intrusions about past events, while growing evidence suggests that intrusions about prospective imagined events warrants further investigation. Prospective intrusive imagery has yet to be examined in psychotic disorders but could provide crucial information regarding the aetiology and maintenance of psychotic symptoms. The current study examines the role of prospective intrusive imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. Fifty-seven participants (30 patients and 27 healthy controls) completed measures of trauma, PTSD, anxiety, general non-affective use of imagery, and intrusive prospective imagery. Patients reported significantly more intrusive prospective imagery relative to control participants but, importantly, not greater use of general non-affective imagery. Intrusive prospective imagery was associated with posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with information processing models of intrusions and psychosis, and provide novel insights for theoretical accounts, clinical formulation and therapeutic targets for psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Imaginação , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações
20.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 203(11): 878-82, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26513511

RESUMO

Previous studies have identified a positive relationship between aggression and paranoia, yet the relationship between the emotion of anger and paranoia in forensic populations has not been examined. Possible confounding variables, such as social desirability and mood, should also be considered. Sixty-six participants who had a violent conviction and mental disorder completed self-report questionnaires that measured anger, paranoid ideation, socially desirable responding, anxiety, and depression. The findings indicated that increased anger was associated with increased paranoia. Partial correlations showed that anger remained significantly associated with paranoia after socially desirable responding, anxiety, depression, gender, and violence history were controlled, suggesting anger and paranoia were not associated due to indirect relationships with these constructs. This could suggest that integrative psychological interventions that consider experiences of both anger and paranoia may be beneficial with forensic populations.


Assuntos
Ira , Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
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