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3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine emergency preparedness behaviors among women with a recent live birth in Hawaii. METHODS: Using the 2016 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we estimated weighted prevalence of 8 preparedness behaviors. RESULTS: Among 1010 respondents (weighted response rate, 56.3%), 79.3% reported at least 1 preparedness behavior, and 11.2% performed all 8 behaviors. The prevalence of women with a recent live birth in Hawaii reporting preparedness behaviors includes: 63.0% (95% CI: 58.7-67.1%) having enough supplies at home for at least 7 days, 41.3% (95% CI: 37.1-45.6%) having an evacuation plan for their child(ren), 38.7% (95% CI: 34.5-43.0%) having methods to keep in touch, 37.8% (95% CI: 33.7-42.1%) having an emergency meeting place, 36.6% (95% CI: 32.6-40.9%) having an evacuation plan to leave home, 34.9% (95% CI: 30.9-39.2%) having emergency supplies to take with them if they have to leave quickly, 31.8% (95% CI: 27.9-36.0%) having copies of important documents, and 31.6% (95% CI: 27.7-35.8%) having practiced what to do during a disaster. CONCLUSIONS: One in 10 women practiced all 8 behaviors, indicating more awareness efforts are needed among this population in Hawaii. The impact of preparedness interventions implemented in Hawaii can be tracked with this question over time.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have described increased risk of severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. The risk in middle-income countries where the distributions of age groups and preexisting conditions may differ is less known. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 compared to nonpregnant women in Colombia. METHODS: We analysed national surveillance data from Colombia, of women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigen testing, from 6 March 2020 to 12 December 2020. An enhanced follow-up of pregnant women with COVID-19 was established to monitor pregnancy and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Of 371,363 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1.5% (n = 5614) were reported as pregnant; among those, 2610 (46.5%) were considered a complete pregnancy for reporting purposes at the time of analysis. Hospitalisation (23.9%) and death (1.3%) occurred more frequently among pregnant symptomatic women compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women (2.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women, pregnant symptomatic women were at increased risk of hospitalisation (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07, 2.32) and death (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.60, 2.07), after adjusting for age, type of health insurance and presence of certain underlying medical conditions. Among complete pregnancies, 55 (2.1%) were pregnancy losses, 72 (2.8%) resulted in term low birthweight infants and 375 (14.4%) were preterm deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnant women were infrequently reported with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant symptomatic women with COVID-19 were at increased risk for hospitalisation and death compared to nonpregnant symptomatic women. Almost all infections we reported on were third-trimester infections; ongoing follow-up is needed to determine pregnancy outcomes among women infected earlier in pregnancy. Healthcare providers should counsel pregnant women about preventive measures to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection and when to seek care.

5.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): e149-e155, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites. Because Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, reproductive-aged women need protection from Zika virus infection. This report describes Zika virus prevention behaviors among women aged 18-49 years and assesses whether pregnancy status and healthcare provider counseling increases Zika virus prevention behaviors. METHODS: A population-based cell phone survey of women aged 18-49 years living in Puerto Rico was conducted in July-November 2016. Data were analyzed in 2018-2019. Prevalence estimates and 95% CIs were calculated for Zika virus prevention behaviors. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated to examine the association of pregnancy status with healthcare provider counseling on Zika virus prevention behaviors, controlling for age, education, and health insurance status. RESULTS: Most women reported using screens on open doors/windows (87.7%) and eliminating standing water in/around their homes (92.3%). Other Zika virus prevention behaviors were less common (<33%). In adjusted analysis, pregnant women were more likely than women not at risk for unintended pregnancy to report using mosquito repellent every/most days (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.44, 95% CI=1.13, 1.85). Healthcare provider counseling was associated with receiving professional spraying/larvicide treatment (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.42, 95% CI=1.17, 1.74), sleeping under a bed net (adjusted prevalence ratio=2.37, 95% CI=1.33, 4.24), using mosquito repellent (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.57, 95% CI=1.40, 1.77), and wearing long sleeves/pants (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.32, 95% CI=1.12, 1.55). CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of healthcare provider counseling was more consistently associated with Zika virus prevention behaviors than pregnancy status. Healthcare provider counseling is an important strategy for increasing the uptake of Zika virus prevention behaviors among women aged 18-49 years.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gravidez não Planejada , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(2): 198-206, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Public health responses often lack the infrastructure to capture the impact of public health emergencies on pregnant women and infants, with limited mechanisms for linking pregnant women with their infants nationally to monitor long-term effects. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in close collaboration with state, local, and territorial health departments, began a 5-year initiative to establish population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance, the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this report is to describe an expanded surveillance approach that leverages and modernizes existing surveillance systems to address the impact of emerging health threats during pregnancy on pregnant women and their infants. METHODS: Mother-baby pairs are identified through prospective identification during pregnancy and/or identification of an infant with retrospective linking to maternal information. All data are obtained from existing data sources (e.g., electronic medical records, vital statistics, laboratory reports, and health department investigations and case reporting). RESULTS: Variables were selected for inclusion to address key surveillance questions proposed by CDC and health department subject matter experts. General variables include maternal demographics and health history, pregnancy and infant outcomes, maternal and infant laboratory results, and child health outcomes up to the second birthday. Exposure-specific modular variables are included for hepatitis C, syphilis, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The system is structured into four relational datasets (maternal, pregnancy outcomes and birth, infant/child follow-up, and laboratory testing). DISCUSSION: SET-NET provides a population-based mother-baby linked longitudinal surveillance approach and has already demonstrated rapid adaptation to COVID-19. This innovative approach leverages existing data sources and rapidly collects data and informs clinical guidance and practice. These data can help to reduce exposure risk and adverse outcomes among pregnant women and their infants, direct public health action, and strengthen public health systems.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/métodos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Defesa Civil/instrumentação , Feminino , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Gravidez , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151917

RESUMO

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(18): 1450-1460, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815300

RESUMO

In 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established surveillance of pregnant women with Zika virus infection and their infants in the U.S. states, territories, and freely associated states. To identify cases of Zika-associated birth defects, subject matter experts review data reported from medical records of completed pregnancies to identify findings that meet surveillance case criteria (manual review). The volume of reported data increased over the course of the Zika virus outbreak in the Americas, challenging the resources of the surveillance system to conduct manual review. Machine learning was explored as a possible method for predicting case status. Ensemble models (using machine learning algorithms including support vector machines, logistic regression, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, gradient boosted trees, and decision trees) were developed and trained using data collected from January 2016-October 2017. Models were developed separately, on data from the U.S. states, non-Puerto Rico territories, and freely associated states (referred to as the U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry [USZPIR]) and data from Puerto Rico (referred to as the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System [ZAPSS]) due to differences in data collection and storage methods. The machine learning models demonstrated high sensitivity for identifying cases while potentially reducing volume of data for manual review (USZPIR: 96% sensitivity, 25% reduction in review volume; ZAPSS: 97% sensitivity, 50% reduction in review volume). Machine learning models show potential for identifying cases of Zika-associated birth defects and for reducing volume of data for manual review, a potential benefit in other public health emergency response settings.

11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 262-272, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To inform the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, we conducted a systematic literature review of case reports of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, during pregnancy and summarized clinical presentation, course of illness, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to April 23, 2020. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included articles reporting case-level data on MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women. Course of illness, indicators of severe illness, maternal health outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from included articles. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We identified 1,328 unique articles, and 1,253 articles were excluded by title and abstract review. We completed full-text review on 75, and 29 articles were excluded by full-text review. Among 46 publications reporting case-level data, eight described 12 cases of MERS-CoV infection, seven described 17 cases of SARS-CoV infection, and 31 described 98 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical presentation and course of illness ranged from asymptomatic to severe fatal disease, similar to the general population of patients. Severe morbidity and mortality among women with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, or SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm delivery, and laboratory evidence of vertical transmission, were reported. CONCLUSION: Understanding whether pregnant women may be at risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes from severe coronavirus infections is imperative. Data from case reports of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SAR-CoV-2 infections during pregnancy are limited, but they may guide early public health actions and clinical decision-making for COVID-19 until more rigorous and systematically collected data are available. The capture of critical data is needed to better define how this infection affects pregnant women and neonates. This review was not registered with PROSPERO.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Resultado da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/virologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 998-1001, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310074

RESUMO

We surveyed women with a recent live birth who resided in 16 US states and 1 city during the 2016 Zika outbreak. We found high awareness about the risk of Zika virus infection during pregnancy and about advisories to avoid travel to affected areas but moderate levels of discussions with healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
13.
Contraception ; 101(6): 405-411, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to 1) estimate prevalence of contraceptive use among women at risk for unintended pregnancy and 2) identify correlates of contraceptive use among women with ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services in Puerto Rico during the 2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cell-phone survey July-November, 2016. Women aged 18-49 years living in Puerto Rico were eligible. We completed 3059 interviews; the overall response rate was 69.2%. After weighting, the data provide population-based estimates. For this analysis, we included women at risk for unintended pregnancy, and assessed ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services in this group, excluding women using permanent contraceptive methods. RESULTS: Most women reported using contraception (82.8%), and use increased with age. Female sterilization and male condoms were most frequently reported (40.8% and 17.1%, respectively). Among women with ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services, 24.7% talked to a healthcare provider about ZIKV, and 31.2% reported a change in childbearing intentions due to ZIKV. Most women were at least a little worried about getting infected with ZIKV (74.3%) or having a baby with a birth defect (80.9%). Being very worried about getting infected with ZIKV and already having Zika were significantly associated with use of any contraception (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.38 and 1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.72, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need for regular contraceptive prevalence studies to inform programs about contraceptive needs, especially during public health emergencies. IMPLICATIONS: When the 2016 Zika virus outbreak began in Puerto Rico there were no recent population-based data available on contraceptive prevalence. To fill this information gap, we conducted a population-based survey. Our findings provided baseline contraceptive prevalence estimates to support response planning and allocation of health resources.

14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(5): 508-512, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate potential risk factors for perinatal (intrauterine and intrapartum) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in women unexposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy. METHODS: We compared factors according to perinatal MTCT outcome among 2275 ART-naive (until the onset of labor) HIV-infected women in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study (2004-2010) in Lilongwe, Malawi. Factors included HIV viral load during pregnancy, food security, demographic characteristics, hematologic and blood chemistry measures, medical history and physical factors. Associations with perinatal MTCT and interactions with maternal viral load were assessed using simple and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 119 (115 intrauterine and 4 intrapartum) cases of perinatal MTCT, only one to a mother with <1000 HIV copies/mL. Maternal viral loads >10,000 copies/mL were common (63.1%). Lower maternal viral load (<1000 copies/mL and 1000.1-10,000 copies/mL) was associated with reduced odds of perinatal MTCT [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.4 and aOR, 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.4, respectively), compared with maternal viral load >10,000 copies/mL. Low CD4+ T cell count (≤350 cells/µL) was only associated with perinatal MTCT in unadjusted models. Food shortage (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6), sexually transmitted infection (STI) (past year; aOR, 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0-3.7), histories of herpes zoster (aOR, 3.0; 95% CI: 1.6-5.6) and tuberculosis (aOR, 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.7) were associated with increased odds of perinatal MTCT. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that lowering maternal HIV viral load is most important in preventing perinatal MTCT and support efforts to address food shortage, STI and tuberculosis prevention, while informing programs to improve ART coverage in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(32): 898-902, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114001

RESUMO

Ensuring access to and promoting use of effective contraception have been identified as important strategies for preventing unintended pregnancy (1). The importance of ensuring resources to prevent unintended pregnancy in the context of public health emergencies was highlighted during the 2016 Zika virus outbreak when Zika virus infection during pregnancy was identified as a cause of serious birth defects (2). Accordingly, CDC outlined strategies for state, local, and territorial jurisdictions to consider implementing to ensure access to contraception (3). To update previously published contraceptive use estimates* among women at risk for unintended pregnancy† and to estimate the number of women with ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services,§,¶ data on contraceptive use were collected during September-December 2016 through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Results from 21 jurisdictions indicated that most women aged 18-49 years were at risk for unintended pregnancy (range across jurisdictions = 57.4%-76.8%). Estimates of the number of women with ongoing or potential need for contraceptive services ranged from 368 to 617 per 1,000 women aged 18-49 years. The percentage of women at risk for unintended pregnancy using a most or moderately effective contraceptive method** ranged from 26.1% to 65.7%. Jurisdictions can use this information to estimate the number of women who might seek contraceptive services and to plan and evaluate efforts to increase contraceptive use. This information is particularly important in the context of public health emergencies, such as the recent Zika virus outbreak, which have been associated with increased risk for adverse maternal-infant outcomes (2,4-6) and have highlighted the importance of providing women and their partners with resources to prevent unintended pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(31): 858-867, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091967

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus infection during pregnancy causes serious birth defects and might be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children. Early identification of and intervention for neurodevelopmental problems can improve cognitive, social, and behavioral functioning. METHODS: Pregnancies with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection and infants resulting from these pregnancies are included in the U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry (USZPIR) and followed through active surveillance methods. This report includes data on children aged ≥1 year born in U.S. territories and freely associated states. Receipt of reported follow-up care was assessed, and data were reviewed to identify Zika-associated birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection. RESULTS: Among 1,450 children of mothers with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and with reported follow-up care, 76% had developmental screening or evaluation, 60% had postnatal neuroimaging, 48% had automated auditory brainstem response-based hearing screen or evaluation, and 36% had an ophthalmologic evaluation. Among evaluated children, 6% had at least one Zika-associated birth defect identified, 9% had at least one neurodevelopmental abnormality possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection identified, and 1% had both. CONCLUSION: One in seven evaluated children had a Zika-associated birth defect, a neurodevelopmental abnormality possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection, or both reported to the USZPIR. Given that most children did not have evidence of all recommended evaluations, additional anomalies might not have been identified. Careful monitoring and evaluation of children born to mothers with evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy is essential for ensuring early detection of possible disabilities and early referral to intervention services.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/virologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Samoa Americana/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/virologia , Micronésia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Infect Dis ; 216(12): 1534-1540, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240922

RESUMO

Background: Genital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA shedding can continue despite HIV being undetectable in blood, and can be associated with transmission. Methods: We included African women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Linear and generalized linear mixed models were used to compare the magnitude and prevalence of genital shedding, respectively, by time since ART initiation. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess predictors of genital shedding among women with undetectable plasma viral load (VL). Results: Among 1114 women, 5.8% of visits with undetectable plasma VL and 23.6% of visits with detectable VL had genital shedding. The proportion of visits with genital shedding decreased with time since ART initiation but the magnitude of shedding remained unchanged when plasma VL was undetectable (P = .032). Prevalence of shedding did not vary by time since ART initiation when plasma VL was detectable (P = .195), though the magnitude of shedding significantly increased (P = .04). Predictors of genital shedding were HIV disease stage, antiretroviral regimen, and genital ulcers or cervical tenderness. Discussion: In addition to ART, reducing immune activation through prevention and treatment of HIV-related conditions and genital tract infections may decrease the risk of HIV-1 shedding and potential transmission.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Genitália Feminina/virologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Sangue/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Carga Viral
18.
mBio ; 8(5)2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066544

RESUMO

A significant number of infants acquire HIV-1 through their infected mother's breast milk, primarily due to limited access to antiretrovirals. Passive immunization with neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) may prevent this transmission. Previous studies, however, have generated conflicting results about the ability of nAbs to halt mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and their impact on infant outcomes. This study compared plasma neutralizing activity in exposed infants and the infected mothers (n = 63) against heterologous HIV-1 variants and the quasispecies present in the mother. HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEU) (n = 42), compared to those that eventually acquired infection (n = 21), did not possess higher nAb responses against heterologous envelopes (P = 0.46) or their mothers' variants (P = 0.45). Transmitting compared to nontransmitting mothers, however, had significantly higher plasma neutralizing activity against heterologous envelopes (P = 0.03), although these two groups did not have significant differences in their ability to neutralize autologous strains (P = 0.39). Furthermore, infants born to mothers with greater neutralizing breadth and potency were significantly more likely to have a serious adverse event (P = 0.03). These results imply that preexisting anti-HIV-1 neutralizing activity does not prevent breast milk transmission. Additionally, high maternal neutralizing breadth and potency may adversely influence both the frequency of breast milk transmission and subsequent infant morbidity.IMPORTANCE Passive immunization trials are under way to understand if preexisting antibodies can decrease mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission and improve infant outcomes. We examined the influence of preexisting maternal and infant neutralizing activity on transmission and infant morbidity in a breastfeeding mother-infant cohort. Neutralization was examined against both the exposure strains circulating in the infected mothers and a standardized reference panel previously used to estimate breadth. HIV-exposed uninfected infants did not possess a broader and more potent response against both the exposure and heterologous strains compared to infants that acquired infection. Transmitting, compared to nontransmitting, mothers had significantly higher neutralization breadth and potency but similar responses against autologous variants. Infants born to mothers with higher neutralization responses were more likely to have a serious adverse event. Our results suggest that preexisting antibodies do not protect against breast milk HIV-1 acquisition and may have negative consequences for the baby.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano/imunologia , Leite Humano/virologia , Morbidade , Testes de Neutralização , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(29): 781-793, 2017 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28749921

RESUMO

CDC has updated the interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure in response to 1) declining prevalence of Zika virus disease in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) and 2) emerging evidence indicating prolonged detection of Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Zika virus cases were first reported in the Americas during 2015-2016; however, the incidence of Zika virus disease has since declined. As the prevalence of Zika virus disease declines, the likelihood of false-positive test results increases. In addition, emerging epidemiologic and laboratory data indicate that, as is the case with other flaviviruses, Zika virus IgM antibodies can persist beyond 12 weeks after infection. Therefore, IgM test results cannot always reliably distinguish between an infection that occurred during the current pregnancy and one that occurred before the current pregnancy, particularly for women with possible Zika virus exposure before the current pregnancy. These limitations should be considered when counseling pregnant women about the risks and benefits of testing for Zika virus infection during pregnancy. This updated guidance emphasizes a shared decision-making model for testing and screening pregnant women, one in which patients and providers work together to make decisions about testing and care plans based on patient preferences and values, clinical judgment, and a balanced assessment of risks and expected outcomes.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 36(10): 981-987, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses. We also examined trends in the prevalence of select discharge diagnoses and procedures using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: During 2003-2012, the number of hospitalizations for HIV-infected children declined 58% versus 17% for uninfected, but the odds of having discharge codes for most of the diagnoses and procedures studied, including death during hospitalization, remained higher among HIV-infected compared with uninfected children. Among HIV-infected children, the prevalence of discharge diagnoses for pneumonia, pneumococcal disease and varicella/herpes zoster infections and odds of death during hospitalization decreased over time, while bacterial infections/sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased. Among HIV-uninfected children, there was no increase in diagnoses of bacterial infection/sepsis, but otherwise trends were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The number of hospitalizations for HIV-infected children declined from 2003 to 2012. The decreased prevalence of several discharge diagnoses and lower risk of death during hospitalization likely reflect improvements in HIV therapies and increased uptake of other preventive strategies. However, the increasing prevalence of discharge diagnoses for bacterial infections/sepsis warrants further attention and monitoring.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Adolescente , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Bacteriana/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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