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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e022363, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666503

RESUMO

Background Performance of existing atrial fibrillation (AF) risk prediction models in poststroke populations is unclear. We evaluated predictive utility of an AF risk model in patients with acute stroke and assessed performance of a fully refitted model. Methods and Results Within an academic hospital, we included patients aged 46 to 94 years discharged for acute ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2018. We estimated 5-year predicted probabilities of AF using the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology for Atrial Fibrillation (CHARGE-AF) model, by recalibrating CHARGE-AF to the baseline risk of the sample, and by fully refitting a Cox proportional hazards model to the stroke sample (Re-CHARGE-AF) model. We compared discrimination and calibration between models and used 200 bootstrap samples for optimism-adjusted measures. Among 551 patients with acute stroke, there were 70 incident AF events over 5 years (cumulative incidence, 15.2%; 95% CI, 10.6%-19.5%). Median predicted 5-year risk from CHARGE-AF was 4.8% (quartile 1-quartile 3, 2.0-12.6) and from Re-CHARGE-AF was 16.1% (quartile 1-quartile 3, 8.0-26.2). For CHARGE-AF, discrimination was moderate (C statistic, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.57-0.70) and calibration was poor, underestimating AF risk (Greenwood-Nam D'Agostino chi-square, P<0.001). Calibration with recalibrated baseline risk was also poor (Greenwood-Nam D'Agostino chi-square, P<0.001). Re-CHARGE-AF improved discrimination (P=0.001) compared with CHARGE-AF (C statistic, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.68-0.79]; optimism-adjusted, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.65-0.75]) and was well calibrated (Greenwood-Nam D'Agostino chi-square, P=0.97). Conclusions Covariates from an established AF risk model enable accurate estimation of AF risk in a poststroke population after recalibration. A fully refitted model was required to account for varying baseline AF hazard and strength of associations between covariates and incident AF.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e020330, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476979

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) screening is endorsed by certain guidelines for individuals aged ≥65 years. Yet many AF screening strategies exist, including the use of wrist-worn wearable devices, and their comparative effectiveness is not well-understood. Methods and Results We developed a decision-analytic model simulating 50 million individuals with an age, sex, and comorbidity profile matching the United States population aged ≥65 years (ie, with a guideline-based AF screening indication). We modeled no screening, in addition to 45 distinct AF screening strategies (comprising different modalities and screening intervals), each initiated at a clinical encounter. The primary effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life-years, with incident stroke and major bleeding as secondary measures. We defined continuous or nearly continuous modalities as those capable of monitoring beyond a single time-point (eg, patch monitor), and discrete modalities as those capable of only instantaneous AF detection (eg, 12-lead ECG). In total, 10 AF screening strategies were effective compared with no screening (300-1500 quality-adjusted life-years gained/100 000 individuals screened). Nine (90%) effective strategies involved use of a continuous or nearly continuous modality such as patch monitor or wrist-worn wearable device, whereas 1 (10%) relied on discrete modalities alone. Effective strategies reduced stroke incidence (number needed to screen to prevent a stroke: 3087-4445) but increased major bleeding (number needed to screen to cause a major bleed: 1815-4049) and intracranial hemorrhage (number needed to screen to cause intracranial hemorrhage: 7693-16 950). The test specificity was a highly influential model parameter on screening effectiveness. Conclusions When modeled from a clinician-directed perspective, the comparative effectiveness of population-based AF screening varies substantially upon the specific strategy used. Future screening interventions and guidelines should consider the relative effectiveness of specific AF screening strategies.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495297

RESUMO

Importance: Early-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) can be the initial manifestation of a more serious underlying inherited cardiomyopathy or arrhythmia syndrome. Objective: To examine the results of genetic testing for early-onset AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, observational cohort study enrolled participants from an academic medical center who had AF diagnosed before 66 years of age and underwent whole genome sequencing through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. Participants were enrolled from November 23, 1999, to June 2, 2015. Data analysis was performed from October 24, 2020, to March 11, 2021. Exposures: Rare variants identified in a panel of 145 genes that are included on cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia panels used by commercial clinical genetic testing laboratories. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sequencing data were analyzed using an automated process followed by manual review by a panel of independent, blinded reviewers. The primary outcome was classification of rare variants using American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria: benign, likely benign, variant of undetermined significance, likely pathogenic, or pathogenic. Disease-associated variants were defined as pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in genes associated with autosomal dominant or X-linked dominant disorders. Results: Among 1293 participants (934 [72.2%] male; median [interquartile range] age at enrollment, 56 [48-61] years; median [interquartile range] age at AF diagnosis, 50 [41-56] years), genetic testing identified 131 participants (10.1%) with a disease-associated variant, 812 (62.8%) with a variant of undetermined significance, 92 (7.1%) as heterozygous carriers for an autosomal recessive disorder, and 258 (20.0%) with no suspicious variant. The likelihood of a disease-associated variant was highest in participants with AF diagnosed before the age of 30 years (20 of 119 [16.8%; 95% CI, 10.0%-23.6%]) and lowest after the age of 60 years (8 of 112 [7.1%; 95% CI, 2.4%-11.9%]). Disease-associated variants were more often associated with inherited cardiomyopathy syndromes compared with inherited arrhythmias. The most common genes were TTN (n = 38), MYH7 (n = 18), MYH6 (n = 10), LMNA (n = 9), and KCNQ1 (n = 8). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, genetic testing identified a disease-associated variant in 10% of patients with early-onset AF (the percentage was higher if diagnosed before the age of 30 years and lower if diagnosed after the age of 60 years). Most pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants are in genes associated with cardiomyopathy. These results support the use of genetic testing in early-onset AF.

4.
Circulation ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587750

RESUMO

Background: The most prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) is chronological age, however underlying mechanisms are unexplained. Algorithms using epigenetic modifications to the human genome effectively predict chronological age. Chronological and epigenetic predicted ages may diverge, a phenomenon termed epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), which may reflect accelerated biological aging. We sought to evaluate for associations between epigenetic age measures and incident AF. Methods: Measures for 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge) and an epigenetic predictor of PAI-1 levels (DNAm PAI-1) were determined for study participants from 3 population-based cohort studies. Cox models evaluated for associations with incident AF and results were combined via random-effects meta-analysis. Two-sample summary-level Mendelian randomization analyses evaluated for associations between genetic instruments of the EAA measures and AF. Results: Among 5,600 individuals (mean age: 65.5 years; 60.1% female; 50.7% black), there were 905 incident AF cases during a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed all 4 epigenetic clocks and the DNAm PAI-1 predictor were associated with statistically significant higher hazards of incident AF, though the magnitudes of their point estimates were smaller relative to the associations observed for chronological age. The pooled EAA estimates for each epigenetic measure, with the exception of Horvath EAA, were associated with incident AF in models adjusted for chronological age, race, sex, and smoking variables. Following multivariable adjustment for additional known AF risk factors that could also potentially function as mediators, pooled EAA measures for 2 clocks remained statistically significant. Five year increases in EAA measures for DNAm GrimAge and DNAm PhenoAge were associated with 19% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09-1.31; p<0.01) and 15% (adjusted HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.25; p<0.01) higher hazards of incident AF, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses for the 5 EAA measures did not reveal statistically significant associations with AF. Conclusions: Our study identified adjusted associations between EAA measures and incident AF, suggesting biological aging plays an important role independent of chronological age, though a potential underlying causal relationship remains unclear. These aging processes may be modifiable and not constrained by the immutable factor of time.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e003355, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk estimation using clinical factors with or without genetic information may identify AF screening candidates more accurately than the guideline-based age threshold of ≥65 years. METHODS: We analyzed 4 samples across the United States and Europe (derivation: UK Biobank; validation: FINRISK, Geisinger MyCode Initiative, and Framingham Heart Study). We estimated AF risk using the CHARGE-AF (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF) score and a combination of CHARGE-AF and a 1168-variant polygenic score (Predict-AF). We compared the utility of age, CHARGE-AF, and Predict-AF for predicting 5-year AF by quantifying discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: Among 543 093 individuals, 8940 developed AF within 5 years. In the validation sets, CHARGE-AF (C index range, 0.720-0.824) and Predict-AF (0.749-0.831) had largely comparable discrimination, both favorable to continuous age (0.675-0.801). Calibration was similar using CHARGE-AF (slope range, 0.67-0.87) and Predict-AF (0.65-0.83). Net reclassification improvement using Predict-AF versus CHARGE-AF was modest (net reclassification improvement range, 0.024-0.057) but more favorable among individuals aged <65 years (0.062-0.11). Using Predict-AF among 99 530 individuals aged ≥65 years across each sample, 70 849 had AF risk <5%, of whom 69 067 (97.5%) did not develop AF, whereas 28 681 had AF risk ≥5%, of whom 2264 (7.9%) developed AF. Of 11 379 individuals aged <65 years with AF risk ≥5%, 435 (3.8%) developed AF before age 65 years, with roughly half (46.9%) meeting anticoagulation criteria. CONCLUSIONS: AF risk estimation using clinical factors may prioritize individuals for AF screening more precisely than the age threshold endorsed in current guidelines. The additional value of genetic predisposition is modest but greatest among younger individuals.

6.
Science ; 373(6558): 1030-1035, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385354

RESUMO

Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpretation for seven of these processes. We associate one process with bulky DNA lesions that are resolved asymmetrically with respect to transcription and replication. Two processes track direction of replication fork and replication timing, respectively. We identify a mutagenic effect of active demethylation primarily acting in regulatory regions and a mutagenic effect of long interspersed nuclear elements. We localize a mutagenic process specific to oocytes from population sequencing data. This process appears transcriptionally asymmetric.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG , Dano ao DNA , Desmetilação do DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Mutagênese , Oócitos/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética
7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003300, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals are well-known markers for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk. While the genetics of arrhythmia syndromes have been studied, relations between electrocardiographic intervals and rare genetic variation at a population level are poorly understood. METHODS: Using a discovery sample of 29 000 individuals with whole-genome sequencing from Trans-Omics in Precision Medicine and replication in nearly 100 000 with whole-exome sequencing from the UK Biobank and MyCode, we examined associations between low-frequency and rare coding variants with 5 routinely measured electrocardiographic traits (RR, P-wave, PR, and QRS intervals and corrected QT interval). RESULTS: We found that rare variants associated with population-based electrocardiographic intervals identify established monogenic SCD genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A), a controversial monogenic SCD gene (KCNE1), and novel genes (PAM and MFGE8) involved in cardiac conduction. Loss-of-function and pathogenic SCN5A variants, carried by 0.1% of individuals, were associated with a nearly 6-fold increased odds of the first-degree atrioventricular block (P=8.4×10-5). Similar variants in KCNQ1 and KCNH2 (0.2% of individuals) were associated with a 23-fold increased odds of marked corrected QT interval prolongation (P=4×10-25), a marker of SCD risk. Incomplete penetrance of such deleterious variation was common as over 70% of carriers had normal electrocardiographic intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that large-scale high-depth sequence data and electrocardiographic analysis identifies monogenic arrhythmia susceptibility genes and rare variants with large effects. Known pathogenic variation in conventional arrhythmia and SCD genes exhibited incomplete penetrance and accounted for only a small fraction of marked electrocardiographic interval prolongation.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(6): e012281, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classical methods for detecting left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) using 12-lead ECGs are insensitive. Deep learning models using ECG to infer cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived LV mass may improve LVH detection. METHODS: Within 32 239 individuals of the UK Biobank prospective cohort who underwent CMR and 12-lead ECG, we trained a convolutional neural network to predict CMR-derived LV mass using 12-lead ECGs (left ventricular mass-artificial intelligence [LVM-AI]). In independent test sets (UK Biobank [n=4903] and Mass General Brigham [MGB, n=1371]), we assessed correlation between LVM-AI predicted and CMR-derived LV mass and compared LVH discrimination using LVM-AI versus traditional ECG-based rules (ie, Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell, lead aVL rule, or any ECG rule). In the UK Biobank and an ambulatory MGB cohort (MGB outcomes, n=28 612), we assessed associations between LVM-AI predicted LVH and incident cardiovascular outcomes using age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression. RESULTS: LVM-AI predicted LV mass correlated with CMR-derived LV mass in both test sets, although correlation was greater in the UK Biobank (r=0.79) versus MGB (r=0.60, P<0.001 for both). When compared with any ECG rule, LVM-AI demonstrated similar LVH discrimination in the UK Biobank (LVM-AI c-statistic 0.653 [95% CI, 0.608 -0.698] versus any ECG rule c-statistic 0.618 [95% CI, 0.574 -0.663], P=0.11) and superior discrimination in MGB (0.621; 95% CI, 0.592 -0.649 versus 0.588; 95% CI, 0.564 -0.611, P=0.02). LVM-AI-predicted LVH was associated with incident atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and ventricular arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning-inferred LV mass estimates from 12-lead ECGs correlate with CMR-derived LV mass, associate with incident cardiovascular disease, and may improve LVH discrimination compared to traditional ECG rules.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado Profundo , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 1012-1024, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099924

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Pneumonia/genética , Sepse/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/genética , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Anormalidades Urogenitais/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(25): 2472-2483, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037209

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity may be an important modifiable risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), but associations have been variable and generally based on self-reported activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 93 669 participants of the UK Biobank prospective cohort study without prevalent AF who wore a wrist-based accelerometer for 1 week. We categorized whether measured activity met the standard recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and World Health Organization [moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) ≥150 min/week]. We tested associations between guideline-adherent activity and incident AF (primary) and stroke (secondary) using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and each component of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF (CHARGE-AF) risk score. We also assessed correlation between accelerometer-derived and self-reported activity. The mean age was 62 ± 8 years and 57% were women. Over a median of 5.2 years, 2338 incident AF events occurred. In multivariable adjusted models, guideline-adherent activity was associated with lower risks of AF [hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.89; incidence 3.5/1000 person-years, 95% CI 3.3-3.8 vs. 6.5/1000 person-years, 95% CI 6.1-6.8] and stroke (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90; incidence 1.0/1000 person-years, 95% CI 0.9-1.1 vs. 1.8/1000 person-years, 95% CI 1.6-2.0). Correlation between accelerometer-derived and self-reported MVPA was weak (Spearman r = 0.16, 95% CI 0.16-0.17). Self-reported activity was not associated with incident AF or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Greater accelerometer-derived physical activity is associated with lower risks of AF and stroke. Future preventive efforts to reduce AF risk may be most effective when targeting adherence to objective activity thresholds.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acelerometria , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
12.
Europace ; 23(23 Suppl 2): ii4-ii8, 2021 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837754

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) management has significantly improved during the career of professor Crijns. Research was implemented into guidelines and clinical practice. However, despite advances in AF management, large differences between individual treatment responses still exist and the mechanisms underlying initiation and perpetuation of AF are not completely understood. International collaborations have revealed the genetic contribution to AF and steps towards improving AF management are being made. In this short review, the most important paradigms shifts in the field of AF genetics are recognized and the future role of genetics in personalized management of AF is discussed.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Humanos
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(10): 1977-1992, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861317

RESUMO

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase statistical power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data-set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data-sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which is generating genomic and other -omics data for more than 80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants (recruited in 1948-2012) from up to 17 studies per phenotype. Here we discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include 1) the software code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify, or extend these harmonizations to additional studies, and 2) the results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Fenômica/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Agregação de Dados , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
14.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 44-51, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617814

RESUMO

We characterized monitor utilization in stroke survivors and assessed associations with underlying clinical atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke 10/2018-6/2019 without prevalent AF and assessed the 6-month incidence of monitor utilization (Holter/ECG, event/patch, implantable loop recorder [ILR]) using Fine-Gray models accounting for the competing risk of death. We assessed for predictors of monitor utilization using cause-specific hazards regression adjusted for the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology AF (CHARGE-AF) score, stroke subtype, and discharge disposition. Of 493 patients with acute ischemic stroke (age 65±16; 47% women), the 6-month incidence of monitor utilization was 36.5% (95% CI 31.7, 41.3), and 6-month mortality was 13.6% (10.4, 16.8). Monitoring was performed with Holter/event (n = 107; 72.3%), ILR (n = 34; 23.0%) or both (n = 7; 4.7%). Monitoring was more likely after cryptogenic (hazard ratio [HR] 4.53 [3.22, 6.39]; 6-month monitor incidence 70.6%) and cardioembolic (HR 2.43 [1.28, 4.62]; incidence 47.7%) stroke, versus other/undocumented (incidence 22.7%). Among patients with cryptogenic stroke, the 6-month incidence of ILR was 27.5% [18.5, 36.5]. Monitoring was more likely after discharge home (HR 1.80 [1.29, 2.52]; incidence 46.1%) versus facility (incidence 24.9%). Monitoring was not associated with CHARGE-AF score (HR 1.08 per 1-SD increase [0.91, 1.27]), even though CHARGE-AF was associated with incident AF (HR 1.56 [1.03, 2.35]). In conclusion, rhythm monitors are utilized after one-third of ischemic strokes. Monitoring is more frequent after cryptogenic strokes, though ILR use is low. Monitor utilization is not associated with AF risk.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(5): 1392-1401, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) recommend use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) over warfarin, yet clinical trials excluded individuals with post cardiac surgery AF. We sought to compare outcomes with NOACs vs warfarin for new onset post cardiac surgery AF. METHODS: We examined 26,522 patients from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons' database with post cardiac surgery AF who were discharged on oral anticoagulation from July 2017-December 2018. Three primary outcomes were evaluated: 30-day mortality, major bleeding complications, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. Secondary outcomes included postoperative length of stay, 30-day myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and pericardial effusion/tamponade. RESULTS: A total of 9769 (36.8%) participants were prescribed NOACs and 16,753 (63.2%) warfarin. In multivariable analysis, there was no association between type of anticoagulant and 30-day major bleeding complications (odds ratio [OR]NOAC/warfarin 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.18), stroke/transient ischemic attack (ORNOAC/warfarin 0.94, 95% CI 0.53-1.67) or mortality (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.08, 95% CI 0.80-1.45). After stratification by renal function or isolated coronary bypass vs valve surgery, there remained no difference in the primary outcomes. Additionally, there was no difference in 30-day myocardial infarction (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.17, 95% CI 0.62-2.22), venous thromboembolism (ORNOAC/warfarin 0.91, 95% CI 0.47-1.78), or pericardial effusion/tamponade (ORNOAC/warfarin 1.09, 95% CI 0.80-1.47) between the 2 groups. NOAC therapy was associated with a half-day reduction in postoperative length of stay (ßNOAC/warfarin -0.47, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.33). CONCLUSIONS: NOACs are associated with a reduction in postoperative length of stay, without excess bleeding or other short-term complications, compared with warfarin. These findings support the broader use of NOACs as a safe alternative to warfarin in patients with post cardiac surgery AF at elevated stroke risk and acceptable bleeding risk.

17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003006, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and has a known genetic contribution. We tested the performance of a genetic risk score for its ability to predict VTE in 3 cohorts of patients with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: We included patients from the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Elevated Risk), PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin), and SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus) trials (history of a major atherosclerotic cardiovascular event, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, respectively) who consented for genetic testing and were not on baseline anticoagulation. We calculated a VTE genetic risk score based on 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms with established genome-wide significance. Patients were divided into tertiles of genetic risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios for VTE across genetic risk groups. The polygenic risk score was compared with available clinical risk factors (age, obesity, smoking, history of heart failure, and diabetes) and common monogenic mutations. RESULTS: A total of 29 663 patients were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 2.4 years, of whom 174 had a VTE event. There was a significantly increased gradient of risk across VTE genetic risk tertiles (P-trend <0.0001). After adjustment for clinical risk factors, patients in the intermediate and high genetic risk groups had a 1.88-fold (95% CI, 1.23-2.89; P=0.004) and 2.70-fold (95% CI, 1.81-4.06; P<0.0001) higher risk of VTE compared with patients with low genetic risk. In a continuous model adjusted for clinical risk factors, each standard deviation increase in the genetic risk score was associated with a 47% (95% CI, 29-68) increased risk of VTE (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In a broad spectrum of patients with cardiometabolic disease, a polygenic risk score is a strong, independent predictor of VTE after accounting for available clinical risk factors, identifying 1/3 of patients who have a risk of VTE comparable to that seen with established monogenic thrombophilia.

18.
Genet Med ; 23(1): 47-58, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stringent variant interpretation guidelines can lead to high rates of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for genetically heterogeneous disease like long QT syndrome (LQTS) and Brugada syndrome (BrS). Quantitative and disease-specific customization of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines can address this false negative rate. METHODS: We compared rare variant frequencies from 1847 LQTS (KCNQ1/KCNH2/SCN5A) and 3335 BrS (SCN5A) cases from the International LQTS/BrS Genetics Consortia to population-specific gnomAD data and developed disease-specific criteria for ACMG/AMP evidence classes-rarity (PM2/BS1 rules) and case enrichment of individual (PS4) and domain-specific (PM1) variants. RESULTS: Rare SCN5A variant prevalence differed between European (20.8%) and Japanese (8.9%) BrS patients (p = 5.7 × 10-18) and diagnosis with spontaneous (28.7%) versus induced (15.8%) Brugada type 1 electrocardiogram (ECG) (p = 1.3 × 10-13). Ion channel transmembrane regions and specific N-terminus (KCNH2) and C-terminus (KCNQ1/KCNH2) domains were characterized by high enrichment of case variants and >95% probability of pathogenicity. Applying the customized rules, 17.4% of European BrS and 74.8% of European LQTS cases had (likely) pathogenic variants, compared with estimated diagnostic yields (case excess over gnomAD) of 19.2%/82.1%, reducing VUS prevalence to close to background rare variant frequency. CONCLUSION: Large case-control data sets enable quantitative implementation of ACMG/AMP guidelines and increased sensitivity for inherited arrhythmia genetic testing.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada , Síndrome do QT Longo , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Mutação , Controle da População
19.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 7(FI1): f3-f10, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531029

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the risk of stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) based on risk factor combinations of the CHA2DS2-VASc score. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using nationwide Danish registries, patients with AF were included from 1997 to 2015 in this retrospective observational study. A multiple logistic regression, including interactions of history of stroke with age at AF, calendar year of AF, and the CHA2DS2-VASc score risk factors (congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, vascular disease, and female sex) were used to predict the personalized risks of stroke within 1 year. A total of 147 842 patients with AF were included in the study cohort (median age 76 years, range 20-100 years, 51% females). Within the first year, 6% of the cohort were diagnosed with stroke. The predicted personalized 1-year absolute risk of stroke varied widely within each CHA2DS2-VASc score. To estimate the personalized risk of stroke an online calculator was created, the Calculator of Absolute Stroke Risk (CARS), which allows calculation of all the possible combinations of the CHA2DS2-VASc score (https://hjerteforeningen.shinyapps.io/riskvisrr/). CONCLUSION: Calculation of the individual risk using a risk factor-based approach as opposed to using average risk for a particular CHA2DS2-VASc score can improve risk estimates. Furthermore, CARS can assist in the communication of the stroke risk for a more evidence-based shared decision-making of whether to initiate oral anticoagulation therapy.

20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 465-474, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lp(a) (lipoprotein[a]) concentrations are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and new therapies that enable potent and specific reduction are in development. In the largest study conducted to date, we address 3 areas of uncertainty: (1) the magnitude and shape of ASCVD risk conferred across the distribution of lipoprotein(a) concentrations; (2) variation of risk across racial and clinical subgroups; (3) clinical importance of a high lipoprotein(a) threshold to guide therapy. Approach and Results: Relationship of lipoprotein(a) to incident ASCVD was studied in 460 506 middle-aged UK Biobank participants. Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years, incident ASCVD occurred in 22 401 (4.9%) participants. Median lipoprotein(a) concentration was 19.6 nmol/L (25th-75th percentile 7.6-74.8). The relationship between lipoprotein(a) and ASCVD appeared linear across the distribution, with a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.10-1.12) per 50 nmol/L increment. Substantial differences in concentrations were noted according to race-median values for white, South Asian, black, and Chinese individuals were 19, 31, 75, and 16 nmol/L, respectively. However, risk per 50 nmol/L appeared similar-hazard ratios of 1.11, 1.10, and 1.07 for white, South Asian, and black individuals, respectively. A high lipoprotein(a) concentration defined as ≥150 nmol/L was present in 12.2% of those without and 20.3% of those with preexisting ASCVD and associated with hazard ratios of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.44-1.56) and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05-1.27), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations predict incident ASCVD among middle-aged adults within primary and secondary prevention contexts, with a linear risk gradient across the distribution. Concentrations are variable across racial subgroups, but the associated risk appears similar.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Fatores Raciais , Medição de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
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