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1.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798025

RESUMO

CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices of spinal cord damage are predictive of future motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI): hyperintensity length, midsagittal tissue bridges, and Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) scores. Whether these indices are predictive of outdoor walking after SCI is unknown. The primary purpose was to see if these MRI indices predict the ability to walk outdoors one-year after SCI. The secondary purpose was to determine if MRI indices provide additional predictive value if initial lower extremity motor scores are available. DESIGN: Retrospective. Clinical T2-weighted MRIs were used to quantify spinal cord damage. Three MRI indices were calculated: midsagittal ventral tissue bridges, hyperintensity length, BASIC scores. SETTING: Academic hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 129 participants with cervical SCI. INTERVENTIONS: Inpatient rehabilitation. OUTCOMES MEASURES: One year after SCI, participants self-reported their outdoor walking ability. RESULTS: Midsagittal ventral tissue bridges, hyperintensity length, and BASIC scores significantly correlated with outdoor walking ability (R = 0.34, P < 0.001; R = -0.25, P < 0.01; Rs = -0.35, P < 001, respectively). Using midsagittal ventral tissue bridges and hyperintensity length, the final adjusted R2 for model 1 = 0.19. For model 2, the adjusted R2 using motor scores alone = 0.81 and MRI variables were non-significant. All five participants with observable intramedullary hemorrhage reported they were unable to walk one block outdoors. CONCLUSIONS: The MRI indices were significant predictors of outdoor walking ability, but when motor scores were available, this was the strongest predictor and neither midsagittal tissue bridges nor hyperintensity length contributed additional value. MRI indices may be a quick and convenient supplement to physical examination when motor testing is unavailable.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle characteristics between adults with and without unilateral lower-limb amputation (LLA) to determine the presence of modifiable trunk muscle deficits (i.e., impaired activity, reduced volume, increased intramuscular fat) evaluated by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We hypothesized, when compared to adults without LLA (controls), individuals with transfemoral or transtibial LLA would demonstrate reduced multifidi activity, worse multifidi and erector spinae morphology, and greater side-to-side trunk muscle asymmetries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional imaging study. SETTING: Research laboratory and imaging center. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary adults with LLA (n=9 transfemoral-level; n=14 transtibial-level) and controls without LLA (n=15). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Using US, bilateral multifidi activity was examined at levels L3/L4-L5/S1. MRI was performed using three-dimensional quantitative fat-water imaging; bilateral L1-L5 multifidi and erector spinae were manually traced, and muscle volume (normalized to body weight) and percent intramuscular fat were determined. Between-group and side-to-side differences were evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to adults without LLA, participants with LLA demonstrated reduced sound-side multifidi activity; those with transfemoral LLA had larger amputated-side multifidi volume, while those with transtibial LLA had greater sound- and amputated-side erector spinae intramuscular fat (p<.050). With transfemoral LLA, side-to-side differences in erector spinae volume, as well as multifidi and erector spinae intramuscular fat, were found (p<.050). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired trunk muscle activity and increased intramuscular fat may be modifiable targets for intervention after LLA.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Traumatic Injuries Distress Scale (TIDS) is a 12-item self-report tool intended for prognostic risk phenotyping in people with acute musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. The initial validation study showed good associations with outcomes 12 weeks later in a cohort of 72 acutely injured patients from one region in Canada. This study aims to provide further clinical utility through identification of meaningful cut scores in a larger, mixed geography sample, and expands the prediction window from 12 to 52 weeks. METHODS: Data were drawn from databanks in London, Canada and Chicago, United States. Participants were recruited within 3 weeks of non-catastrophic MSK trauma and followed for 12 months. Using outcomes trajectories, the TIDS underwent linear regression-based analysis to predict 52-week outcomes, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves to identify discriminative accuracy and meaningful cut scores. RESULTS: N = 224 participants with acute trauma were followed and both %Interference and Pain Severity were captured at intake and 3 follow-ups to establish curvilinear recovery trajectories. The TIDS explained significant variance in both the interference and severity outcomes after controlling for sex, region of injury, and baseline scores. ROC analysis revealed significant discriminative accuracy for predicting both the trajectories and the distal outcomes over 52 weeks. The TIDS was more accurate for identifying the low-risk than high-risk patients. CONCLUSION: The TIDS is a useful tool for 'ruling out' high risk of poor outcome in a mixed sample of participants from two different countries. IMPACT STATEMENT: The TIDS will be a useful tool for clinicians to predict the rate of recovery by displaying meaningful cut-scores for their patients after an acute musculoskeletal injury. This could lead to reduced burden of care for low risk patients and more informed treatment options for higher risk patients.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3140, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542428

RESUMO

Persistent neck-pain disability (PNPD) is common following traumatic stress exposures such as motor vehicle collision (MVC). Substantial literature indicates that fat infiltration into neck muscle (MFI) is associated with post-MVC PNPD. However, little is known about the molecular mediators underlying this association. In the current study, we assessed whether microRNA expression signatures predict PNPD and whether microRNA mediate the relationship between neck MFI and PNPD. A nested cohort of 43 individuals from a longitudinal study of MVC survivors, who provided blood (PAXgene RNA) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were included in the current study. Peritraumatic microRNA expression levels were quantified via small RNA sequencing, neck MFI via MRI, and PNPD via the Neck Disability Index two-weeks, three-months, and twelve-months following MVC. Repeated measures regression models were used to assess the relationship between microRNA and PNPD and to perform mediation analyses. Seventeen microRNA predicted PNPD following MVC. One microRNA, let-7i-5p, mediated the relationship between neck MFI and PNPD. Peritraumatic blood-based microRNA expression levels predict PNPD following MVC and let-7i-5p might contribute to the underlying effects of neck MFI on persistent disability. In conclusion, additional studies are needed to validate this finding.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 97, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intrinsic muscles of the foot are key contributors to foot function and are important to evaluate in lower limb disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides a non-invasive option to measure muscle morphology and composition, which are primary determinants of muscle function. Ultra-high-field (7-T) magnetic resonance imaging provides sufficient signal to evaluate the morphology of the intrinsic foot muscles, and, when combined with chemical-shift sequences, measures of muscle composition can be obtained. Here we aim to provide a proof-of-concept method for measuring intrinsic foot muscle morphology and composition with high-field MRI. METHODS: One healthy female (age 39 years, mass 65 kg, height 1.73 m) underwent MRI. A T1-weighted VIBE - radio-frequency spoiled 3D steady state GRE - sequence of the whole foot was acquired on a Siemens 7T MAGNETOM scanner, as well as a 3T MAGNETOM Prisma scanner for comparison. A high-resolution fat/water separation image was also acquired using a 3D 2-point DIXON sequence at 7T. Coronal plane images from 3T and 7T scanners were compared. Using 3D Slicer software, regions of interest were manually contoured for each muscle on 7T images. Muscle volumes and percentage of muscle fat infiltration were calculated (muscle fat infiltration % = Fat/(Fat + Water) x100) for each muscle. RESULTS: Compared to the 3T images, the 7T images provided superior resolution, particularly at the forefoot, to facilitate segmentation of individual muscles. Muscle volumes ranged from 1.5 cm3 and 19.8 cm3, and percentage muscle fat infiltration ranged from 9.2-15.0%. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates a feasible method of quantifying muscle morphology and composition for individual intrinsic foot muscles using advanced high-field MRI techniques. This method can be used in future studies to better understand intrinsic foot muscle morphology and composition in healthy individuals, as well as those with lower disorders.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481725

RESUMO

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition resulting from threatening or horrifying events. We hypothesized that circadian rhythm changes, measured by a wrist-worn research watch are predictive of post-trauma outcomes. APPROACH: 1618 post-trauma patients were enrolled after admission to emergency departments (ED). Three standardized questionnaires were administered at week eight to measure post-trauma outcomes related to PTSD, sleep disturbance, and pain interference with daily life. Pulse activity and movement data were captured from a research watch for eight weeks. Standard and novel movement and cardiovascular metrics that reflect circadian rhythms were derived using this data. These features were used to train different classifiers to predict the three outcomes derived from week-eight surveys. Clinical surveys administered at ED were also used as features in the baseline models. RESULTS: The highest cross-validated performance of research watch-based features was achieved for classifying participants with pain interference by a logistic regression model, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70. The ED survey-based model achieved an AUC of 0.77, and the fusion of research watch and ED survey metrics improved the AUC to 0.79. SIGNIFICANCE: This work represents the first attempt to predict and classify post-trauma symptoms from passive wearable data using machine learning approaches that leverage the circadian desynchrony in a potential PTSD population.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479509

RESUMO

Neurobiological markers of future susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may facilitate identification of vulnerable individuals in the early aftermath of trauma. Variability in resting-state networks (RSNs), patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity across the brain, has previously been linked to PTSD, and may thus be informative of PTSD susceptibility. The present data are part of an initial analysis from the AURORA study, a longitudinal, multisite study of adverse neuropsychiatric sequalae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 109 recently (i.e., ~2 weeks) traumatized individuals were collected and PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed at 3 months post trauma. We assessed commonly reported RSNs including the default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), and salience network (SN). We also identified a proposed arousal network (AN) composed of a priori brain regions important for PTSD: the amygdala, hippocampus, mamillary bodies, midbrain, and pons. Primary analyses assessed whether variability in functional connectivity at the 2-week imaging timepoint predicted 3-month PTSD symptom severity. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to AN connectivity at 2 weeks post trauma was negatively related to 3-month PTSD symptoms. Further, right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) to DMN connectivity was positively related to 3-month PTSD symptoms. Both DLPFC-AN and ITG-DMN connectivity also predicted depression symptoms at 3 months. Our results suggest that, following trauma exposure, acutely assessed variability in RSN connectivity was associated with PTSD symptom severity approximately two and a half months later. However, these patterns may reflect general susceptibility to posttraumatic dysfunction as the imaging patterns were not linked to specific disorder symptoms, at least in the subacute/early chronic phase. The present data suggest that assessment of RSNs in the early aftermath of trauma may be informative of susceptibility to posttraumatic dysfunction, with future work needed to understand neural markers of long-term (e.g., 12 months post trauma) dysfunction. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with neural models suggesting that decreased top-down cortico-limbic regulation and increased network-mediated fear generalization may contribute to ongoing dysfunction in the aftermath of trauma.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044145, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous burns can have a catastrophic effect on people's lives and may restrict opportunities for employment due to physical impairment and psychosocial deficits. Failure or delay in return to work can result in loss of income and support for the family unit. It can also negatively affect life role and identity and present difficulties with future opportunities. Current literature indicates multiple discrete influences on return to work as a result of burn injury but an understanding of how working-aged adults resume employment after burn injury is lacking. This scoping review will provide a comprehensive overview of the current literature by mapping and consolidating knowledge in this area of burn recovery and thus provide an informative basis for developing return-to-work programmes for survivors of burn injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review protocol will follow the Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) methodological framework. A comprehensive search strategy has been developed with subject expert librarians. These databases were used: OvidSP: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EBSCOhost: CINAHL and Scopus. Reference lists of selected full text will be hand searched for additional literature. To enhance consistency and rigour, all reviewers will undertake a calibration exercise before paired reviewers independently screen all records using Rayyan. Full-text articles meeting the study inclusion criteria will be retrieved and examined. Extracted data will be analysed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is generally not required for scoping reviews. Findings of this scoping review will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22221, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335188

RESUMO

Each year, whiplash injuries from motor vehicle collisions (MVC) affect millions worldwide, with no strong evidence of pathology. While the majority recover soon after the injury, the same is not true for roughly 20% reporting higher levels of pain and distress, without diagnostic options. This study used magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to quantify white matter integrity in 78 subjects with varying levels of pain, 1 year after MVC. MT images of the cervical spinal cord were collected parallel to the intervertebral disks. MT ratios (MTR) were calculated in select white matter tracts along with MTR homogeneity (MTRh) at each level. Significant differences were observed between clinical outcome groups in the left and right spinothalamic tracts (p = 0.003 and 0.020) and MTRh (p = 0.009). MTRh was elevated in females with poor recovery versus females reporting recovery (p < 0.001) or milder symptoms (p < 0.001), and in males reporting recovery (p = 0.007) or no recovery (p < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between recovery status and sex (p = 0.015). MT imaging identified tract specific and regional changes in white matter integrity suggesting potential insults to the cord. Additionally, significant MTRh differences between sexes were observed, characterizing the heterogeneity of whiplash recovery and worse outcomes in females.

10.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 56: 102488, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189075

RESUMO

The deep posterior cervical muscles (DPCM), specifically the semispinalis cervicis and cervical multifidus, are often impaired in patients with neck disorders and have been assessed by several imaging techniques. Prior ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging and reliability assessments of the DPCM were performed utilizing similar positioning as assessments for the more superficial cervical extensors. Our objectives were to describe an SWE imaging technique for the DPCM, establish intra-rater reliability of DPCM SWE, and compare DPCM shear modulus during rest and submaximal contraction in both prone and seated positions in individuals without spinal pain. In sixteen participants, the DPCM was located using B-mode ultrasound, then muscle shear modulus was assessed via SWE at both rest and with contraction against a 2-kg resistance applied at the C2 spinous process. Within-day intra-rater reliability was moderate to good (ICC = 0.70-0.88). The DPCM were stiffer during contraction than at rest in the prone position (p = 0.002), and at rest in sitting versus at rest in prone (p = 0.003). Further research is needed to assess DPCM-specific SWE in symptomatic individuals and compare DPCM shear modulus to electromyography across contraction intensities.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 144: e939-e947, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prognostic value of the preoperative magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and morphometrics of the spinal cord in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) in a longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Thirteen subjects with DCM underwent 3T magnetization transfer imaging. The MTR was calculated for the spinal cord regions and specific white matter tracts. Morphometric measures were extracted. Clinical (modified Japanese Orthopaedics Association [mJOA] and Nurick scale scores) and health-related quality of life scores were assessed before and after cervical decompression surgery. The association between the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics and postoperative recovery was assessed (Spearman's correlation). Receiver operating characteristics were used to assess the accuracy of MRI metrics in identifying ≥50% recovery in function. RESULTS: Preoperative anterior cord MTRs were associated with recovery in mJOA scores (ρ = 0.608; P = 0.036; area under the curve [AUC], 0.66). Preoperative lateral cord MTR correlated with the neck disability index (ρ = 0.699; P = 0.011) and pain interference scale (ρ = 0.732; P = 0.007). Preoperative rubrospinal tract MTR was associated with mJOA score recovery (ρ = 0.573; P = 0.041; AUC, 0.86). Preoperative corticospinal tract and reticulospinal MTRs were related to recovery in pain interference scores (ρ = 0.591; P = 0.033; and ρ = 0.583; P = 0.035, respectively). Eccentricity of the cord was associated with Nurick scores (ρ = 0.606; P = 0.028) and mJOA scores (ρ = 0.651; P = 0.025; AUC, 0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative MTR and eccentricity measurements of the spinal cord have prognostic value in assessing the response to surgery and recovery in patients with DCM. Advanced MRI and atlas-based postprocessing techniques can inform interventions and advance the healthcare received by patients with DCM.

12.
Spinal Cord ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024298

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. OBJECTIVES: Primary: to assess if axial damage ratios are predictors of future walking after spinal cord injury (SCI), and if they add any predictive value if initial neurological impairment grades are available. Secondary: to determine if lateral spinal cord regions are predictors of future lower extremity motor scores (LEMS). SETTING: University/hospital. METHODS: Axial T2-weighted MRIs were used. Axial damage ratios and non-damaged lateral cord volumes were calculated. Each participant answered at 1 year after SCI, "Are you able to walk for 150 feet? (45.72 meters)" For the secondary aim, right and left LEMS were used. RESULTS: In total, 145 participants were selected. Individuals that could walk had smaller ratios than those that were unable. Walking and axial damage ratios were negatively correlated. A 0.374 ratio cut-off showed optimal sensitivity/specificity. When initial neurological grades were used, axial damage ratios did not add predictive value. Forty-two participants had LEMS available and were included for the secondary aim. Right cord regions and right LEMS were positively correlated and left regions and left LEMS, but these variables were also correlated with each other. CONCLUSIONS: Axial damage ratios were significant predictors of walking ability 1 year after SCI. However, this measure did not add predictive value over initial neurological grades. Lateral cord regions correlated with same-side LEMS, but the opposite was also found, calling this biomarker's specificity into question. Axial damage ratios may be useful in predicting walking after SCI if initial neurological grades are unavailable. SPONSORSHIP: This research was funded by a National Institutes of Health award, National Institute of Child Health and Development-NIH R03HD094577.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077855

RESUMO

This is the initial report of results from the AURORA multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience. We focus on n = 666 participants presenting to EDs following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and examine associations of participant socio-demographic and participant-reported MVC characteristics with 8-week posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) adjusting for pre-MVC PTSD and mediated by peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week acute stress disorder (ASD). Peritraumatic Symptoms, ASD, and PTSD were assessed with self-report scales. Eight-week PTSD prevalence was relatively high (42.0%) and positively associated with participant sex (female), low socioeconomic status (education and income), and several self-report indicators of MVC severity. Most of these associations were entirely mediated by peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, ASD, suggesting that the first 2 weeks after trauma may be a uniquely important time period for intervening to prevent and reduce risk of PTSD. This observation, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated with more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA data.

14.
Sleep ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975289

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Many patients in Emergency Departments (ED) after motor vehicle collisions (MVC) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episodes (MDE). This report from the AURORA study focuses on associations of pre-MVC sleep problems with these outcomes 8 weeks after MVC mediated through peritraumatic distress and dissociation and 2-week outcomes. METHODS: 666 AURORA patients completed self-report assessments in the ED and at 2 and 8 weeks after MVC. Peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation and pre-MVC sleep characteristics (insomnia, nightmares, daytime sleepiness and sleep duration in the 30 days before the MVC, trait sleep stress reactivity) were assessed retrospectively in the ED. The survey assessed acute stress disorder (ASD) and MDE at 2 weeks and at 8 weeks assessed PTSD and MDE (past 30 days). Control variables included demographics, MVC characteristics, and retrospective reports about PTSD and MDE in the 30 days before the MVC. RESULTS: Prevalence estimates were 41.0% for 2-week ASD, 42.0% for 8-week PTSD, 30.5% for 2-week MDE, and 27.2% for 8-week MDE. Pre-MVC nightmares and sleep stress reactivity predicted 8-week PTSD (mediated through 2-week ASD) and MDE (mediated through the transition between 2-week and 8-week MDE). Pre-MVC insomnia predicted 8-week PTSD (mediated through 2-week ASD). Estimates of population attributable risk suggest that blocking effects of sleep disturbance might reduce prevalence of 8-week PTSD and MDE by as much as one-third. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting disturbed sleep in the immediate aftermath of MVC might be one effective way of reducing MVC-related PTSD and MDE.

15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 615, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recovery trajectories support early identification of delayed recovery and can inform personalized management or phenotyping of risk profiles in patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the trajectories in pain severity and functional interference following non-catastrophic musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma in an international, mixed injury sample. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 241) was formed from patients identified within four weeks of trauma, from attendance at emergency or urgent care centres located in London, ON, Canada, or Chicago, IL, USA. Pain interference was measured via the Brief Pain Inventory (London cohort) or the Neck Disability Index (Chicago cohort). Pain severity was captured in both cohorts using the numeric pain rating scale. Growth mixture modeling and RM repeated measures ANOVA approaches identified distinct trajectories of recovery within pain interference and pain severity data. RESULTS: For pain interference, the three trajectories were labeled accordingly: Class 1 = Rapid recovery (lowest intercept, full or near full recovery by 3 months, 32.0% of the sample); Class 2 = Delayed recovery (higher intercept, recovery by 12 months, 26.7% of the sample); Class 3 = Minimal or no recovery (higher intercept, persistently high interference scores at 12 months, 41.3% of the sample). For pain severity, the two trajectories were labeled: Class 1 = Rapid recovery (lower intercept, recovery by 3 months, 81.3% of the sample); and Class 2 = Minimal or no recovery (higher intercept, flat curve, 18.7% of the sample). The "Minimal or No Recovery" trajectory could be predicted by female sex and axial (vs. peripheral) region of trauma with 74.3% accuracy across the 3 classes for the % Interference outcome. For the Pain Severity outcome, only region (axial trauma, 81.3% accuracy) predicted the "Minimal or No Recovery" trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that three meaningful recovery trajectories can be identified in an international, mixed-injury sample when pain interference is the outcome, and two recovery trajectories emerge when pain severity is the outcome. Females in the sample or people who suffered axial injuries (head, neck, or low back) were more likely to be classed in poor outcome trajectories. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Institutes of Health - clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02711085 ; Retrospectively registered Mar 17, 2016).

16.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 50(8): 415-417, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736496

RESUMO

SYNOPSIS: Repeated purposeful heading in soccer has come under increased scrutiny as concerns surrounding the association with long-term neurodegenerative disorders in retired players continue to grow. Although a causal link between heading and brain health has not been established, the "precautionary principle" supports the notion that soccer governing bodies and associations should consider implementing pragmatic strategies that can reduce head impact during purposeful heading in youth soccer while this relationship is being investigated. This Viewpoint discusses the current evidence to support low-risk head impact reduction strategies during purposeful heading to protect young, developing players, and how such strategies could be implemented now while research and debate continue on this topic. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020;50(8):415-417. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.0608.


Assuntos
Cabeça/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Futebol/lesões , Equipamentos Esportivos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11471, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651447

RESUMO

Previous preliminary work mapped the distribution of neck muscle fat infiltration (MFI) in the deep cervical extensor muscles (multifidus and semispinalis cervicis) in a small cohort of participants with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), recovered, and healthy controls. While MFI was reported to be concentrated in the medial portion of the muscles in all participants, the magnitude was significantly greater in those with chronic WAD. This study aims to confirm these results in a prospective fashion with a larger cohort and compare the findings across a population of patients with varying levels of WAD-related disability one-year following the motor vehicle collision. Sixty-one participants enrolled in a longitudinal study: Recovered (n = 25), Mild (n = 26) and Severe WAD (n = 10) were studied using Fat/Water magnetic resonance imaging, 12-months post injury. Bilateral measures of MFI in four quartiles (Q1-Q4; medial to lateral) at cervical levels C4 through C7 were included. A linear mixed model was performed, controlling for covariates (age, sex, body mass index), examining interaction effects, and comparing MFI distribution between groups. The recovered group had significantly less MFI in Q1 compared to the two symptomatic groups. Group differences were not found in the more lateral quartiles. Results at 12 months are consistent with the preliminary study, indicating that MFI is spatially concentrated in the medial portions of the deep cervical extensors regardless of WAD recovery, but the magnitude of MFI in the medial portions of the muscles is significantly larger in those with severe chronic WAD.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484835

RESUMO

Here we present a secondary analysis from a parent database of 97 acutely injured participants enrolled in a prospective inception cohort study of whiplash recovery after motor vehicle collision (MVC). The purpose was to investigate the deep and superficial neck extensor muscles with peri-traumatic computed tomography (CT) and longitudinal measures of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in participants with varying levels of whiplash-related disability. Thirty-six underwent standard care imaging of the cervical spine with CT at a level-1 trauma designated emergency department. All 36 participants were assessed with MRI of the cervical spine at <1-week, 2-weeks, 3-, and 12-months post-injury and classified into three groups using initial pain severity and percentage scores on the Neck Disability Index (recovered (NDI of 0-8%), mild (NDI of 10-28%), or severe (NDI ≥ 30%)) at 3-months post MVC. CT muscle attenuation values were significantly correlated to muscle fat infiltration (MFI) on MRI at one-week post MVC. There was no significant difference in muscle attenuation across groups at the time of enrollment. A trend of lower muscle attenuation in the deep compared to the superficial extensors was observed in the severe group. MFI values in the deep muscles on MRI were significantly higher in the severe group when compared to the mild group at 1-year post MVC. This study provides further evidence that the magnitude of 1) deep MFI appears unique to those at risk of and eventually transitioning to chronic WAD and that 2) pre- or peri-traumatic muscular health, determined by CT muscle attenuation, may be contribute to our understanding of long-term recovery.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Músculos/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traumatismos em Chicotada/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos em Chicotada/patologia , Adulto , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/complicações , Autorrelato , Traumatismos em Chicotada/complicações
19.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; : 1-8, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441193

RESUMO

SYNOPSIS: Repeated purposeful heading in soccer has come under increased scrutiny as concerns surrounding the association with long-term neurodegenerative disorders in retired players continues to grow. Whilst a causal link between heading and brain health has not been established, the 'Precautionary Principle' supports the notion that soccer governing bodies and associations should consider implementing pragmatic strategies, which can reduce head impact during purposeful heading in youth soccer whilst this relationship is being investigated. This viewpoint discusses the current evidence to support low-risk head impact reduction strategies during purposeful heading to protect young developing players; and how such strategies could be implemented now while research and debate continues on this topic. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 22 May 2020. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.9680.

20.
Clin J Pain ; 36(3): 197-202, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Differences in pain severity among acutely injured people may be related to the perceived stress of the event and pre-existing vulnerabilities. In this study, we test the hypotheses that pretrauma life stress influences posttrauma pain severity, and 2 potential mediating pathways, 1 biological (C-reactive protein, CRP) and 1 contextual (sleep quality). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data collected from participants within 3 weeks of a noncatastrophic musculoskeletal trauma were used in this observational cross-sectional mediation analysis. The primary outcome was pain severity as measured using the Brief Pain Inventory. Predictors were posttrauma CRP assayed from plasma, sleep interference measured by the Brief Pain Inventory, and a study-specific "General Life Stressors" scale. First, the sample was split into low and high life-stress groups, and mean differences in the pain and the predictor variables were explored by t test. Next, a mediation model was tested through a regression-based path analysis. The base model explored the predictive association between pretrauma life stress and posttrauma pain. Sleep quality and CRP concentration were then entered as possible mediators of the association. RESULTS: The sample of 112 participants was 54.6% female, and 52.7% reported high pretrauma life stress. Mean differences in pain severity, sleep interference, and CRP was significant between the high-stress and low-stress groups. In path analysis, life stress explained 8.0% of the variance in acute pain severity, 6.3% of the variance in sleep interference, and 8.0% of the variance in CRP concentration, all P-value <0.05. In mediation analysis, the association between life stress and pain severity was fully mediated by sleep interference. CRP did not mediate the association. DISCUSSION: Pretrauma life stress predicted pain severity, sleep interference, and plasma CRP. In mediation analysis, pretrauma stress was associated with pain severity only through its association with sleep interference, while CRP did not mediate the association. Implications of these results are discussed.

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