Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 441
Filtrar
1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of research on within-person relationships between tobacco price and cigarette smoking initiation and progression in young adulthood. This project examines the within-person association between cigarette pack price and smoking initiation and progression between age 18 and 21/22, focusing on differences across subgroups. METHODS: Data came from the longitudinal Monitoring the Future (MTF) project. MTF examines drug use behaviors with nationally representative samples of 12th graders annually. Subsamples of 12th graders are annually selected and followed longitudinally. Among 12 th graders from baseline years 2000-2014, we examined past 30-day cigarette smoking initiation among baseline never smokers (N=15,280) and progression to daily smoking among youth who were not daily smokers at baseline (N=26,998). We used hierarchical logistic regression and interaction terms to assess differences across sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education. RESULTS: The within-person relationship between pack price and smoking indicated that a one-dollar increase in pack price corresponded with an 72% decrease in the odds of initiation (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.18, 0.44) and 70% decrease in the odds of progression to daily smoking (AOR=0.30, 95% CI=0.21, 0.44). There was a linear age trend for both smoking initiation and progression. There were no statistically significant interactions between price and demographics, making it difficult to disentangle differences across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to increased cigarette prices during young adulthood was associated with a lower odds of cigarette smoking initiation and progression. Additional policies and programs beyond cigarettes prices could help reduce tobacco-related disparities in smoking initiation and progression among young adults. IMPLICATIONS: There is a strong, within-person relationship between cigarette prices and smoking initiation and progression during the transition to young adulthood: higher prices are associated with decreased odds of both initiation and progression. Cigarette taxation can help to prevent smoking initiation and progression among youth, but it is less clear how taxes are associated with disparities in smoking experienced by certain subgroups. We could not draw definitive conclusions about the impact of cigarette prices on tobacco-related disparities. Tobacco taxes should be increased on a regular basis to ensure young adults experience within-person increases in prices, and complementary programs geared toward reducing tobacco-related disparities among young adults should be promoted.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To analyze the impact of Truth and state-sponsored anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking in the U.S., and their potential to reduce tobacco-related health disparities. METHODS: Our study included data from the 2000-2015 Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally representative survey of youth in 8 th (n=201,913), 10 th (n=194,468), and 12 th grades (n=178,379). Our primary exposure was Gross Ratings Points (GRPS) of Truth or state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertisements, from Nielsen Media Research. Modified Poisson regression was used to assess the impact of a respondent's GRPs on smoking intentions, past 30-day smoking participation, and first and daily smoking initiation. Additive interactions with sex, parental education, college plans, and race/ethnicity were used to test for differential effects of campaign exposure on each outcome. RESULTS: Greater campaign exposure (80 th vs. 20 th GRP percentile) was associated with lower probabilities of smoking intentions among 8 th graders, smoking participation among 8 th and 12 th graders, and initiation among 8 th graders. Greater exposure was associated with a greater reduction in the likelihood of smoking participation among 10 th and 12 th grade males than females; 10 th and 12 th graders with parents of lower education versus those with a college degree; and 12 th graders who did not definitely plan to go to college relative to those who did. CONCLUSIONS: Media campaign exposure was associated with a lower likelihood of youth smoking behaviors. Associations were more pronounced for groups disproportionately affected by smoking, including youth of lower socioeconomic status. Media campaigns may be useful in reducing smoking disparities and improving health equity. IMPLICATIONS: Few recent studies have investigated the impact of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and their potential to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in the U.S. We found media campaigns - specifically state-sponsored media campaigns - reduced the likelihood of several smoking outcomes among youth, with some evidence that they mitigate disparities for disproportionately affected groups.

3.
J Lipid Res ; : 100145, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710431

RESUMO

Despite the association of cholesterol with debilitating pressure-related diseases such as glaucoma, heart disease, and diabetes, its role in mechanotransduction is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between mechanical strain, free membrane cholesterol, actin cytoskeleton, and the stretch-activated TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid isoform 4) channel in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Physiological levels of cyclic stretch resulted in time-dependent decreases in membrane cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine ratio and upregulation of stress fibers. Depleting free membrane cholesterol with m-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) augmented TRPV4 activation by the agonist GSK1016790A, swelling and strain, with the effects reversed by cholesterol supplementation. MßCD increased membrane expression of TRPV4, caveolin-1, and flotillin. TRPV4 did not colocalize or interact with caveolae or lipid rafts, apart from a truncated ∼75 kDa variant partially precipitated by a caveolin-1 antibody. MßCD induced currents in TRPV4-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, membrane cholesterol regulates trabecular transduction of mechanical information, with TRPV4 channels mainly located outside of cholesterol-enriched membrane domains. Moreover, the biomechanical milieu itself shapes the lipid content of TM membranes. Diet, cholesterol metabolism, and mechanical stress might modulate the conventional outflow pathway and intraocular pressure in glaucoma and diabetes.

4.
J Off Stat ; 37(1): 71-95, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483435

RESUMO

Standard randomization-based inference conditions on the data in the population and makes inference with respect to the repeating sampling properties of the sampling indicators. In some settings these estimators can be quite unstable; Bayesian model-based approaches focus on the posterior predictive distribution of population quantities, potentially providing a better balance between bias correction and efficiency. Previous work in this area has focused on estimation of means and linear and generalized linear regression parameters; these methods do not allow for a general estimation of distributional functions such as quantile or quantile regression parameters. Here we adapt an extended Dirichlet Process Mixture model that allows the DP prior to be a mixture of DP random basis measures that are a function of covariates. These models allow many mixture components when necessary to accommodate the sample design, but can shrink to few components for more efficient estimation when the data allow. We provide an application to the estimation of relationships between serum dioxin levels and age in the US population, either at the mean level (via linear regression) or across the dioxin distribution (via quantile regression) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt A): 112951, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534931

RESUMO

As sites of floating marine material deposition, sandy beaches accumulate marine litter. While research and assessment on beach litter is increasing and involves various actors (scientists, society and NGOs), there is the need to assess current and future dominant trends, directions and priorities in that research. As such, a textural co-occurrence analysis was applied to published scientific literature. Words were considered both singly and as part of compound terms related to concepts relevant to sandy beach ecology: morphodynamic state; Littoral Active Zone; indicator fauna. Litter as a compound term was also included. The main co-occurrences were found within compounds, with scarce interaction of "morphodynamic state" with the others, indicating the need for further integration of beach ecology paradigms into beached plastics studies. Three approaches are proposed to overcome the research limits highlighted: the unequivocation of terms, the consideration of adequate scales, and the attention to dynamics rather than just patterns.

6.
Adv Mar Biol ; 89: 79-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583816

RESUMO

It is axomatic that a system cannot be managed unless it is measured and that the measurements occur in a rigorous, defendable manner covering relevant spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, it is not possible to predict the future direction of a system unless any predictive approach or model is supported by empirical evidence from monitoring. The marine system is no different from any other system in these regards. This review indicates the nature and topics of marine monitoring, its constraints in times of economic austerity, the sequence of topics subject to monitoring and the amount of monitoring of various topics carried out as indicated by the number of publications and researchers. We discuss the way in which the nature of monitoring is decided and we use examples to comment on the way monitoring leads to and responds to marine management and governance.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Recessão Econômica , Pandemias
7.
Stat Med ; 40(29): 6605-6618, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528260

RESUMO

A surrogate endpoint S in a clinical trial is an outcome that may be measured earlier or more easily than the true outcome of interest T. In this work, we extend causal inference approaches to validate such a surrogate using potential outcomes. The causal association paradigm assesses the relationship of the treatment effect on the surrogate with the treatment effect on the true endpoint. Using the principal surrogacy criteria, we utilize the joint conditional distribution of the potential outcomes T, given the potential outcomes S. In particular, our setting of interest allows us to assume the surrogate under the placebo, S ( 0 ) , is zero-valued, and we incorporate baseline covariates in the setting of normally distributed endpoints. We develop Bayesian methods to incorporate conditional independence and other modeling assumptions and explore their impact on the assessment of surrogacy. We demonstrate our approach via simulation and data that mimics an ongoing study of a muscular dystrophy gene therapy.

8.
Prev Med ; 153: 106762, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358593

RESUMO

A persistent challenge is characterizing patterns of tobacco use in terms of product combinations and frequency. Using Wave 4 (2016-17) Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study adult data, we conducted latent class analyses (LCA) of past 30-day frequency of use for 9 tobacco products. One-step LCA with joint multinomial logistic regression models compared sociodemographic factors between users (n = 13,716) and non-users (n = 17,457), and between latent classes of users. We accounted for survey design and weights. Our analyses identified 6 classes: in addition to non-users (C0: 75.7%), we found 5 distinct latent classes of users: daily exclusive cigarette users (C1: 15.5%); occasional cigarette and polytobacco users (C2: 3.8%); frequent e-product and occasional cigarette users (C3: 2.2%); daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) and infrequent cigarette users (C4: 2.0%); and occasional cigar users (C5: 0.8%). Compared to C1: C2 and C3 had higher odds of being male (versus female), younger (especially 18-24 versus 55 years), and having higher education; C2 had higher, while C3 and C4 had lower, odds of being a racial/ethnic minority (versus Non-Hispanic White); C4 and C5 had much higher odds of being male (versus female) and heterosexual (versus sexual minority) and having higher income; and C5 had higher odds of college or more education. We identified three classes of daily or frequent users of a primary product (cigarettes, SLT or e-products) and two classes of occasional users (cigarettes, cigars and polytobacco). Sociodemographic differences in class membership may influence tobacco-related health disparities associated with specific patterns of use.

9.
Addiction ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tobacco control policies may differentially impact smoking initiation among socio-demographic groups. We measured longitudinal associations between exposure to smoke-free laws in grade 12 (modal age 18 years) and patterns of smoking initiation in the United States. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data on US young adults sampled at modal age 18 years from the Monitoring the Future Survey. Baseline data were collected between 2000 and 2017, with the last year of follow-up in 2018. The sample number varied by outcome and time-point, ranging from 7314 to 17 702. MEASUREMENTS: Smoke-free law coverage in work-places and hospitality venues (restaurants/bars) was measured as the percentage of the county population covered by each type of law. We examined associations with any past 30-day smoking initiation and daily smoking initiation at modal ages 19/20, 21/22 and 23/24, using Poisson regression and calculating average marginal effects. We explored effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity and parental education by testing the significance of interaction terms. FINDINGS: Work-place law coverage at modal age 18 was associated with a lower probability of daily smoking initiation at modal ages 21/22 [-2.4 percentage points (p.p.); 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.9, -0.9] and 23/24 (-2.0 p.p.; 95% CI = -3.9, -0.2). Hospitality law coverage was associated with a lower probability of daily smoking initiation at modal ages 19/20 (-1.6 p.p.; 95% CI = -2.8, -0.4), 21/22 (-2.3 p.p.; 95% CI = -3.7, -0.9) and 23/24 (-1.8 p.p.; 95% CI = -3.6, -0.0). Findings were inconclusive with regard to associations with any past 30-day smoking initiation and with regard to effect modification, after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to smoke-free laws at age 18 appears to be prospectively associated with reduced daily smoking initiation 1-6 years later.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding long-term impacts of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and related disparities in the United States. METHODS: We examined longitudinal cohort data from Monitoring the Future (MTF) between 2000 and 2017 in modified Poisson regression models to understand the long-term impacts of televised Truth and state-sponsored ad campaign exposure at baseline (age 18) on first cigarette and daily smoking initiation 1 to 2 years later (at modal ages 19/20). We also used additive interactions to test for potential effect modification between campaign exposure and smoking outcomes by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment. RESULTS: We found no evidence for baseline media campaign exposure to be associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at modal age 19/20. Further, results showed no evidence for effect modification between campaign exposure and first cigarette or daily smoking initiation. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that baseline Truth and state-sponsored ad exposure was associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at follow up, nor did we find any evidence for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, or parental education. We hypothesize that anti-tobacco media campaigns might have had a short-term impact on smoking behaviors, though these effects were not sustained long term.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440839

RESUMO

Uncontrolled inflammation is associated with neurodegenerative conditions in central nervous system tissues, including the retina and brain. We previously found that the neural retina (NR) plays an important role in retinal immunity. Tumor necrosis factor Receptor-Associated Factor 3 (TRAF3) is a known immune regulator expressed in the retina; however, whether TRAF3 regulates retinal immunity is unknown. We have generated the first conditional NR-Traf3 knockout mouse model (Chx10-Cre/Traf3f/f) to enable studies of neuronal TRAF3 function. Here, we evaluated NR-Traf3 depletion effects on whole retinal TRAF3 protein expression, visual acuity, and retinal structure and function. Additionally, to determine if NR-Traf3 plays a role in retinal immune regulation, we used flow cytometry to assess immune cell infiltration following acute local lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Our results show that TRAF3 protein is highly expressed in the NR and establish that NR-Traf3 depletion does not affect basal retinal structure or function. Importantly, NR-Traf3 promoted LPS-stimulated retinal immune infiltration. Thus, our findings propose NR-Traf3 as a positive regulator of retinal immunity. Further, the NR-Traf3 mouse provides a tool for investigations of neuronal TRAF3 as a novel potential target for therapeutic interventions aimed at suppressing retinal inflammatory disease and may also inform treatment approaches for inflammatory neurodegenerative brain conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/imunologia , Receptores CCR2/genética , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Retina/fisiologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/deficiência , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Uveíte/etiologia , Uveíte/imunologia , Uveíte/metabolismo , Acuidade Visual
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(6): 841-851, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examines whether smoke-free laws are differentially associated with youth smoking outcomes by parental education, race/ethnicity, sex, and college plans in a U.S. METHODS: This study assessed the relationships between smoke-free laws in workplaces and hospitality venues (restaurants/bars) and past 30-day smoking participation, first cigarette initiation, and daily smoking initiation within a repeated cross-sectional sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from the Monitoring the Future study. Data were collected between 2001 and 2018 and were analyzed in 2020-2021. Grade-stratified Poisson models were used to calculate prevalence ratios and average marginal effects, incorporating interaction terms to examine differential associations across groups. RESULTS: Hospitality smoke-free laws were significantly associated with lower probabilities of smoking participation in all grades as well as with first cigarette and daily smoking initiation in 8th and 10th grade. Workplace smoke-free laws were associated with lower probabilities of smoking participation among 10th and 12th graders as well as with first cigarette and daily smoking initiation among 10th graders. Average marginal effects ranged from -0.4 percentage points (hospitality laws and daily smoking initiation in 8th and 10th grades) to -2.2 percentage points (workplace laws and smoking participation in 10th grade). Associations between smoke-free laws and a lower probability of smoking participation were most pronounced among students who definitely planned to attend college. Other instances of effect modification suggested more pronounced associations for students who were female and from high-SES households; however, relationships varied by grade. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke-free laws were associated with reduced smoking among youth; however, associations varied by grade, sex, parental education, and college plans.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Restaurantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
13.
Immunity ; 54(8): 1715-1727.e7, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283971

RESUMO

Allergic airway inflammation is driven by type-2 CD4+ T cell inflammatory responses. We uncover an immunoregulatory role for the nucleotide release channel, Panx1, in T cell crosstalk during airway disease. Inverse correlations between Panx1 and asthmatics and our mouse models revealed the necessity, specificity, and sufficiency of Panx1 in T cells to restrict inflammation. Global Panx1-/- mice experienced exacerbated airway inflammation, and T-cell-specific deletion phenocopied Panx1-/- mice. A transgenic designed to re-express Panx1 in T cells reversed disease severity in global Panx1-/- mice. Panx1 activation occurred in pro-inflammatory T effector (Teff) and inhibitory T regulatory (Treg) cells and mediated the extracellular-nucleotide-based Treg-Teff crosstalk required for suppression of Teff cell proliferation. Mechanistic studies identified a Salt-inducible kinase-dependent phosphorylation of Panx1 serine 205 important for channel activation. A genetically targeted mouse expressing non-phosphorylatable Panx1S205A phenocopied the exacerbated inflammation in Panx1-/- mice. These data identify Panx1-dependent Treg:Teff cell communication in restricting airway disease.


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Conexinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Conexinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia
14.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(8): 894-906, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080230

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in immune regulation and peripheral tolerance. While different types of Tregs have been identified in both mice and humans, much of our understanding about how these cells maintain immune homeostasis is derived from animal models. In this study, we examined two distinct human lymphoid organs to understand how repeated exposure to infections at the mucosal surface influences the phenotype and tissue localization of Tregs. We show that while Tregs in both tonsils and spleen express a tissue-resident phenotype, they accumulate in greater numbers in tonsils. Tonsillar-resident Tregs exhibit a highly suppressive phenotype with significantly increased expression of CD39, ICOS and CTLA-4 compared with their counterparts in circulation or in the spleen. Functionally, resident Tregs are able effectively to suppress T cell proliferation. We further demonstrate that tonsillar-resident Tregs share key features of T follicular helper cells. Spatial analysis reveals that the vast majority of resident Tregs are localized at the border of the T-zone and B cell follicle, as well as within the lymphocyte pockets enriched with resident memory T cells. Together our findings suggest that resident Tregs are strategically co-localized to maintain immune homeostasis at sites of recurrent inflammation.


Assuntos
Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Animais , Linfócitos B , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo
16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 757, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145387

RESUMO

Although impaired keratinocyte migration is a recognized hallmark of chronic wounds, the molecular mechanisms underpinning impaired cell movement are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that both diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and venous leg ulcers (VLUs) exhibit global deregulation of cytoskeletal organization in genomic comparison to normal skin and acute wounds. Interestingly, we found that DFUs and VLUs exhibited downregulation of ArhGAP35, which serves both as an inactivator of RhoA and as a glucocorticoid repressor. Since chronic wounds exhibit elevated levels of cortisol and caveolin-1 (Cav1), we posited that observed elevation of Cav1 expression may contribute to impaired actin-cytoskeletal signaling, manifesting in aberrant keratinocyte migration. We showed that Cav1 indeed antagonizes ArhGAP35, resulting in increased activation of RhoA and diminished activation of Cdc42, which can be rescued by Cav1 disruption. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both inducible keratinocyte specific Cav1 knockout mice, and MßCD treated diabetic mice, exhibit accelerated wound closure. Taken together, our findings provide a previously unreported mechanism by which Cav1-mediated cytoskeletal organization prevents wound closure in patients with chronic wounds.


Assuntos
Caveolina 1/genética , Úlcera do Pé/patologia , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Úlcera Varicosa/patologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/genética , Citoesqueleto/patologia , Pé Diabético/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Cicatrização/genética , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
17.
Head Neck ; 43(9): 2705-2711, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional metastasis of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNcSCC) can be seen in either parotid and/or cervical lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether there was a difference in prognosis between parotid and cervical nodal metastases. METHODS: Patients with regional metastasis from HNcSCC were identified from an institutional database. Disease-specific (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty-five patients were identified with median follow-up of 26.4 months (3-255 months). Two hundred and thirty-five patients had parotid metastasis, 96 patients had neck metastasis, and 204 patients had both. On multivariable analysis, any regional metastasis to the neck when compared to parotid alone conferred worse DSS (HR 1.8, p = 0.007) and OS (HR 1.3, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Regional metastasis of HNcSCC to the neck confers worse outcomes compared to metastasis to the parotid alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126057, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004578

RESUMO

Due to their ubiquitous presence, size and characteristics as ability to adsorb pollutants, microplastics are hypothesized as causing a major impact on smaller organisms, such as plankton. Despite this, there is a need to determine whether these impacts just relate to the environmental presence of the materials or their effects on biological processes. Therefore, we aimed to 1) review current research on plankton and microplastics; 2) compare field and laboratory experimental findings, and 3) identify knowledge gaps. The systematic review showed that 70% of the 147 relevant scientific publications were from laboratory studies and microplastics interactions with plankton were recorded in 88 taxa. Field study publications were relatively scarce and the characteristics of microplastics collected in the field were very different from those used in laboratory experiments thereby limiting the comparison between studies. Our systematic review highlighted knowledge gaps in: 1) the number of field studies; 2) the non-comparability between laboratory and field conditions, and 3) the low diversity of plankton species studied. Furthermore, this review indicated that while there are many studies on contamination by microplastics, the effects of this contamination (i.e., pollution per se) have been less well-studied, especially in the field at population, community, and ecosystem levels.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Laboratórios , Plâncton , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests many people have persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 illness. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). METHODS: We employed a population-based probability survey of adults with COVID-19 in Michigan. Living non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ in the Michigan Disease Surveillance System with COVID-19 onset through mid-April 2020 were eligible for selection (n=28,000). Among 2,000 selected, 629 completed the survey between June - December 2020. We estimated PASC prevalence, defined as persistent symptoms 30+ (30-day COVID-19) or 60+ days (60-day COVID-19) post COVID-19 onset, overall and by sociodemographic and clinical factors, including self-reported symptom severity and hospitalization status. We used modified Poisson regression to produce adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for potential risk factors. RESULTS: The analytic sample (n=593) was predominantly female (56.1%), aged 45 and older (68.2%), and Non-Hispanic White (46.3%) or Black (34.8%). 30- and 60-day COVID-19 were highly prevalent (52.5% and 35.0%), even among non-hospitalized respondents (43.7% and 26.9%) and respondents reporting mild symptoms (29.2% and 24.5%). Respondents reporting very severe (vs. mild) symptoms had 2.25 times higher prevalence of 30-day COVID-19 ([aPR] 2.25, 95% CI 1.46-3.46) and 1.71 times higher prevalence of 60-day COVID-19 (aPR 1.71, 95% 1.02-2.88). Hospitalized (vs. non-hospitalized) respondents had about 40% higher prevalence of both 30-day (aPR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.69) and 60-day COVID-19 (aPR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93). CONCLUSIONS: PASC is highly prevalent among cases reporting severe initial symptoms, and, to a lesser extent, cases reporting mild and moderate symptoms.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2931, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006841

RESUMO

Indigenous people worldwide are at high risk of developing severe influenza disease. HLA-A*24:02 allele, highly prevalent in Indigenous populations, is associated with influenza-induced mortality, although the basis for this association is unclear. Here, we define CD8+ T-cell immune landscapes against influenza A (IAV) and B (IBV) viruses in HLA-A*24:02-expressing Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals, human tissues, influenza-infected patients and HLA-A*24:02-transgenic mice. We identify immunodominant protective CD8+ T-cell epitopes, one towards IAV and six towards IBV, with A24/PB2550-558-specific CD8+ T cells being cross-reactive between IAV and IBV. Memory CD8+ T cells towards these specificities are present in blood (CD27+CD45RA- phenotype) and tissues (CD103+CD69+ phenotype) of healthy individuals, and effector CD27-CD45RA-PD-1+CD38+CD8+ T cells in IAV/IBV patients. Our data show influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in Indigenous Australians, and advocate for T-cell-mediated vaccines that target and boost the breadth of IAV/IBV-specific CD8+ T cells to protect high-risk HLA-A*24:02-expressing Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations from severe influenza disease.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Antígeno HLA-A24/genética , Povos Indígenas/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Austrália , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Antígeno HLA-A24/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...