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1.
BMJ ; 367: l6055, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between age and troponin level and its prognostic implication. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five cardiovascular centres in the UK National Institute for Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative (UK-NIHR HIC). PARTICIPANTS: 257 948 consecutive patients undergoing troponin testing for any clinical reason between 2010 and 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 257 948 patients had troponin measured during the study period. Analyses on troponin were performed using the peak troponin level, which was the highest troponin level measured during the patient's hospital stay. Troponin levels were standardised as a multiple of each laboratory's 99th centile of the upper limit of normal (ULN). During a median follow-up of 1198 days (interquartile range 514-1866 days), 55 850 (21.7%) deaths occurred. A positive troponin result (that is, higher than the upper limit of normal) signified a 3.2 higher mortality hazard (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 3.2) over three years. Mortality varied noticeably with age, with a hazard ratio of 10.6 (8.5 to 13.3) in 18-29 year olds and 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) in those older than 90. A positive troponin result was associated with an approximately 15 percentage points higher absolute three year mortality across all age groups. The excess mortality with a positive troponin result was heavily concentrated in the first few weeks. Results were analysed using multivariable adjusted restricted cubic spline Cox regression. A direct relation was seen between troponin level and mortality in patients without acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=120 049), whereas an inverted U shaped relation was found in patients with ACS (n=14 468), with a paradoxical decline in mortality at peak troponin levels >70×ULN. In the group with ACS, the inverted U shaped relation persisted after multivariable adjustment in those who were managed invasively; however, a direct positive relation was found between troponin level and mortality in patients managed non-invasively. CONCLUSIONS: A positive troponin result was associated with a clinically important increased mortality, regardless of age, even if the level was only slightly above normal. The excess mortality with a raised troponin was heavily concentrated in the first few weeks. STUDY REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03507309.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4320, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541095

RESUMO

OTULIN (OTU Deubiquitinase With Linear Linkage Specificity) specifically hydrolyzes methionine1 (Met1)-linked ubiquitin chains conjugated by LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex). Here we report on the mass spectrometric identification of the OTULIN interactor SNX27 (sorting nexin 27), an adaptor of the endosomal retromer complex responsible for protein recycling to the cell surface. The C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZbm) in OTULIN associates with the cargo-binding site in the PDZ domain of SNX27. By solving the structure of the OTU domain in complex with the PDZ domain, we demonstrate that a second interface contributes to the selective, high affinity interaction of OTULIN and SNX27. SNX27 does not affect OTULIN catalytic activity, OTULIN-LUBAC binding or Met1-linked ubiquitin chain homeostasis. However, via association, OTULIN antagonizes SNX27-dependent cargo loading, binding of SNX27 to the VPS26A-retromer subunit and endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking. Thus, we define an additional, non-catalytic function of OTULIN in the regulation of SNX27-retromer assembly and recycling to the cell surface.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1911970, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539079

RESUMO

Importance: Chinese women have the highest rate of lung cancer among female never-smokers in the world, and the etiology is poorly understood. Objective: To assess the association between metabolomics and lung cancer risk among never-smoking women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study included 275 never-smoking female patients with lung cancer and 289 never-smoking cancer-free control participants from the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study recruited from December 28, 1996, to May 23, 2000. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used for the collection of dietary information. Metabolomic analysis was conducted from November 13, 2015, to January 6, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from January 6, 2016, to November 29, 2018. Exposures: Untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles were characterized using prediagnosis urine samples. A total of 39 416 metabolites were measured. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer. Results: Among the 564 women, those who developed lung cancer (275 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 61.0 [52-65] years) and those who did not develop lung cancer (289 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 62.0 [53-66] years) at follow-up (median [interquartile range] follow-up, 10.9 [9.0-11.7] years) were similar in terms of their secondhand smoke exposure, history of respiratory diseases, and body mass index. A peak metabolite, identified as 5-methyl-2-furoic acid, was significantly associated with lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.46-0.72]; P < .001; false discovery rate = 0.039). Furthermore, this peak was weakly correlated with self-reported dietary soy intake (ρ = 0.21; P < .001). Increasing tertiles of this metabolite were associated with lower lung cancer risk (in comparison with first tertile, odds ratio for second tertile, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.34-0.80]; and odds ratio for third tertile, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.30-0.70]), and the association was consistent across different histological subtypes and follow-up times. Additionally, metabolic pathway analysis found several systemic biological alterations that were associated with lung cancer risk, including 1-carbon metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Conclusions and Relevance: This prospective study of the untargeted urinary metabolome and lung cancer among never-smoking women in China provides support for the hypothesis that soy-based metabolites are associated with lower lung cancer risk in never-smoking women and suggests that biological processes linked to air pollution may be associated with higher lung cancer risk in this population.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398891

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between intakes of fibre from the main food sources of fibre in the UK diet with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Participants enrolled in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (2007-2012) with 7-day food records (n = 6898; 61% men) were included for cross-sectional analyses. General linear models evaluated associations across fifths of fibre intakes (total, vegetable, fruit, potato, whole grain and non-whole grain cereal) with BMI, %BF, WC and CRP. Fully adjusted analyses showed inverse linear trends across fifths of total fibre and fibre from fruit with all outcome measures (ptrend < 0.0001). Vegetable fibre intake showed an inverse association with WC (ptrend 0.0156) and CRP (ptrend 0.0005). Fibre from whole grain sources showed an inverse association with BMI (ptrend 0.0002), %BF (ptrend 0.0007) and WC (ptrend 0.0004). Non-whole grain cereal fibre showed an inverse association with BMI (Ptrend 0.0095). Direct associations observed between potato fibre intake and measures of body composition and inflammation were attenuated in fully adjusted analyses controlling for fried potato intake. Higher fibre intake has a beneficial association on body composition, however, there are differential associations based on the food source.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3653, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409800

RESUMO

Urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The exact biological link between these traits is yet to be elucidated. Here, we identify 50 loci for sodium and 13 for potassium excretion in a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) on urinary sodium and potassium excretion using data from 446,237 individuals of European descent from the UK Biobank study. We extensively interrogate the results using multiple analyses such as Mendelian randomization, functional assessment, co localization, genetic risk score, and pathway analyses. We identify a shared genetic component between urinary sodium and potassium expression and cardiovascular traits. Ingenuity pathway analysis shows that urinary sodium and potassium excretion loci are over-represented in behavioural response to stimuli. Our study highlights pathways that are shared between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and cardiovascular traits.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(10): 1858-1867, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318012

RESUMO

The Oxford WebQ is an online 24-hour dietary questionnaire that is appropriate for repeated administration in large-scale prospective studies, including the UK Biobank study and the Million Women Study. We compared the performance of the Oxford WebQ and a traditional interviewer-administered multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall against biomarkers for protein, potassium, and total sugar intake and total energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry. We recruited 160 participants in London, United Kingdom, between 2014 and 2016 and measured their biomarker levels at 3 nonconsecutive time points. The measurement error model simultaneously compared all 3 methods. Attenuation factors for protein, potassium, total sugar, and total energy intakes estimated as the mean of 2 applications of the Oxford WebQ were 0.37, 0.42, 0.45, and 0.31, respectively, with performance improving incrementally for the mean of more measures. Correlation between the mean value from 2 Oxford WebQs and estimated true intakes, reflecting attenuation when intake is categorized or ranked, was 0.47, 0.39, 0.40, and 0.38, respectively, also improving with repeated administration. These correlations were similar to those of the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based recall. Using objective biomarkers as the standard, the Oxford WebQ performs well across key nutrients in comparison with more administratively burdensome interviewer-based 24-hour recalls. Attenuation improves when the average value is taken over repeated administrations, reducing measurement error bias in assessment of diet-disease associations.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(5): 1567-1579, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phone use and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from it have been associated with symptoms in some studies, but the studies have shortcomings and their findings are inconsistent. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the association between amount of mobile phone use at baseline and frequency of headache, tinnitus or hearing loss at 4-year follow-up. METHODS: The participants had mobile phone subscriptions with major mobile phone network operators in Sweden (n = 21 049) and Finland (n = 3120), gave consent for obtaining their mobile phone call data from operator records at baseline, and filled in both baseline and follow-up questionnaires on symptoms, potential confounders and further characteristics of their mobile phone use. RESULTS: The participants with the highest decile of recorded call-time (average call-time >276 min per week) at baseline showed a weak, suggestive increased frequency of weekly headaches at 4-year follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.34). There was no obvious gradient of weekly headache with increasing call-time (P trend 0.06). The association of headache with call-time was stronger for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network than older Global System for Mobile Telecommunications (GSM) technology, despite the latter involving higher exposure to RF-EMF. Tinnitus and hearing loss showed no association with call-time. CONCLUSIONS: People using mobile phones most extensively for making or receiving calls at baseline reported weekly headaches slightly more frequently at follow-up than other users, but this finding largely disappeared after adjustment for confounders and was not related to call-time in GSM with higher RF-EMF exposure. Tinnitus and hearing loss were not associated with amount of call-time.

8.
Circulation ; 140(4): 270-279, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug effects can be investigated through natural variation in the genes for their protein targets. The present study aimed to use this approach to explore the potential side effects and repurposing potential of antihypertensive drugs, which are among the most commonly used medications worldwide. METHODS: Genetic proxies for the effect of antihypertensive drug classes were identified as variants in the genes for the corresponding targets that associated with systolic blood pressure at genome-wide significance. Mendelian randomization estimates for drug effects on coronary heart disease and stroke risk were compared with randomized, controlled trial results. A phenome-wide association study in the UK Biobank was performed to identify potential side effects and repurposing opportunities, with findings investigated in the Vanderbilt University biobank (BioVU) and in observational analysis of the UK Biobank. RESULTS: Suitable genetic proxies for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ß-blockers, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were identified. Mendelian randomization estimates for their effect on coronary heart disease and stroke risk, respectively, were comparable to results from randomized, controlled trials against placebo. A phenome-wide association study in the UK Biobank identified an association of the CCB standardized genetic risk score with increased risk of diverticulosis (odds ratio, 1.02 per standard deviation increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), with a consistent estimate found in BioVU (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). Cox regression analysis of drug use in the UK Biobank suggested that this association was specific to nondihydropyridine CCBs (hazard ratio 1.49 considering thiazide diuretic agents as a comparator; 95% CI, 1.04-2.14) but not dihydropyridine CCBs (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants can be used to explore the efficacy and side effects of antihypertensive medications. The identified potential effect of nondihydropyridine CCBs on diverticulosis risk could have clinical implications and warrants further investigation.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 991-1012, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155658

RESUMO

The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS) was established in 2014 to facilitate large-scale collaborative research on the human metabolome and its relationship with disease etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. COMETS comprises 47 cohorts from Asia, Europe, North America, and South America that together include more than 136,000 participants with blood metabolomics data on samples collected from 1985 to 2017. Metabolomics data were provided by 17 different platforms, with the most frequently used labs being Metabolon, Inc. (14 cohorts), the Broad Institute (15 cohorts), and Nightingale Health (11 cohorts). Participants have been followed for a median of 23 years for health outcomes including death, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and others; many of the studies are ongoing. Available exposure-related data include common clinical measurements and behavioral factors, as well as genome-wide genotype data. Two feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate the comparability of metabolomics platforms used by COMETS cohorts. The first study showed that the overlap between any 2 different laboratories ranged from 6 to 121 metabolites at 5 leading laboratories. The second study showed that the median Spearman correlation comparing 111 overlapping metabolites captured by Metabolon and the Broad Institute was 0.79 (interquartile range, 0.56-0.89).

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002833, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron is integral to many physiological processes, and variations in its levels, even within the normal range, can have implications for health. The objective of this study was to explore the broad clinical effects of varying iron status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data obtained from 48,972 European individuals (55% female) across 19 cohorts in the Genetics of Iron Status Consortium were used to identify 3 genetic variants (rs1800562 and rs1799945 in the hemochromatosis gene [HFE] and rs855791 in the transmembrane protease serine 6 gene [TMPRSS6]) that associate with increased serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation and decreased transferrin levels, thus serving as instruments for systemic iron status. Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of these instruments was performed on 424,439 European individuals (54% female) in the UK Biobank who were aged 40-69 years when recruited from 2006 to 2010, with their genetic data linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) from April, 1995 to March, 2016. Two-sample summary data mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to investigate the effect of varying iron status on outcomes across the human phenome. MR-PheWAS analysis for the 3 iron status genetic instruments was performed separately and then pooled by meta-analysis. Correction was made for testing of multiple correlated phenotypes using a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) threshold. Heterogeneity between MR estimates for different instruments was used to indicate possible bias due to effects of the genetic variants through pathways unrelated to iron status. There were 904 distinct phenotypes included in the MR-PheWAS analyses. After correcting for multiple testing, the 3 genetic instruments for systemic iron status demonstrated consistent evidence of a causal effect of higher iron status on decreasing risk of traits related to anemia (iron deficiency anemia: odds ratio [OR] scaled to a standard deviation [SD] increase in genetically determined serum iron levels 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.81, P = 4 × 10-8) and hypercholesterolemia (hypercholesterolemia: OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, P = 2 × 10-5) and increasing risk of traits related to infection of the skin and related structures (cellulitis and abscess of the leg: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.42, P = 6 × 10-4). The main limitations of this study relate to possible bias from pleiotropic effects of the considered genetic variants and misclassification of diagnoses in the HES data. Furthermore, this work only investigated participants with European ancestry, and the findings may not be applicable to other ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer novel, to our knowledge, insight into previously unreported effects of iron status, highlighting a potential protective effect of higher iron status on hypercholesterolemia and a detrimental role on risk of skin and skin structure infections. Given the modifiable and variable nature of iron status, these findings warrant further investigation.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 58(13): 8607-8621, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180230

RESUMO

In a systematic survey of luminescent bis(terdentate) osmium(II) complexes, a tipping point involving a reversal in photophysical tuning is observed whereby increasing stabilization of the ligand-based lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) results in a blue shift in the optical absorption and emission bands. The complexes [Os(N^N'^N″)2]2+ [N^N'^N″ = 2,6-bis(1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (Os1), 2,6-bis(1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyrazine (Os2), 6-(1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2,2'-bipyridyl (Os3), 2-(pyrid-2-yl)-6-(1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyrazine (Os4), 2-(pyrazin-2-yl)-6-(1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (Os5), and 6-(1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2,2'-bipyrazinyl (Os6)] have been prepared and characterized, and all complexes display phosphorescence ranging from the orange to near-IR regions of the spectrum. Replacement of the central pyridine in the ligands of Os1 by the more π-accepting pyrazine in Os2 results in a 55 nm red shift in the triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer-based emission band, while a larger red shift of 107 nm is observed for the replacement of one of the triazole donors in the ligands of Os1 by a second pyridine ring in Os3 (λemmax = 702 nm). Interestingly, replacement of the central pyridine ring in the ligands of Os3 by pyrazine (Os4, λemmax = 702 nm) fails to result in a further red shift in the emission band. Reversal of the relative positions of the pyridine and pyrazine donors in Os5 (λemmax = 733 nm) compared to Os4 does indeed result in the expected red shift in the emission with respect to that for Os3 based on the increased π-acceptor character of the ligands present. However, an inversion in emission tuning is observed for Os6, in which the incorporation of a second pyrazine donor in the ligand architecture results in a blue shift in the optical absorption and emission maxima (λemmax = 710 nm). Electrochemical studies reveal that while incorporating pyrazine in the ligands indeed results in an expected anodic shift in the first reduction potential through stabilization of the ligand-based LUMO, there is also a concomitant anodic shift in the OsII/OsIII-based oxidation potential. This stabilization of the metal-based highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) thus nullifies the effect of stabilization of the LUMO in Os4 compared to Os3, resulting in these complexes having coincident emission maxima. For Os6, stabilization of the HOMO through the incorporation of two pyrazine donors in the ligand structure now exceeds stabilization of the LUMO, resulting in a larger HOMO-LUMO gap and a counterintuitive blue shift in the optical properties in comparison with those of Os5. While it is known that the replacement of ligands (e.g., replacing bipyridyl with bipyrazinyl) can result in a larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap through greater stabilization of the HOMO, these results importantly allow us to capture the tipping point at which this inversion in photophysical tuning occurs. This therefore enables us to explore the limits available in emission tuning with a relatively simple and minimalist ligand structure.

12.
Environ Int ; : 104845, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated congenital anomalies in relation to municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and results are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a national investigation into the risk of congenital anomalies in babies born to mothers living within 10 km of an MWI associated with: i) modelled concentrations of PM10 as a proxy for MWI emissions more generally and; ii) proximity of residential postcode to nearest MWI, in areas in England and Scotland that are covered by a congenital anomaly register. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study within 10 km of 10 MWIs in England and Scotland operating between 2003 and 2010. Exposure was proximity to MWI and log of daily mean modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm diameter (PM10) concentrations. RESULTS: Analysis included 219,486 births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly of which 5154 were cases of congenital anomalies. Fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) per doubling in PM10 was: 1·00 (95% CI 0·98-1·02) for all congenital anomalies; 0·99 (0·97-1·01) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies. For every 1 km closer to an MWI adjusted OR was: 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies combined; 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies; and, for specific anomaly groups, 1·04 (1·01-1·08) for congenital heart defect sand 1·07 (1·02-1·12) for genital anomalies. DISCUSSION: We found no increased risk of congenital anomalies in relation to modelled PM10 emissions, but there were small excess risks associated with congenital heart defects and genital anomalies in proximity to MWIs. These latter findings may well reflect incomplete control for confounding, but a possible causal effect cannot be excluded.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 40(34): 2883-2896, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102408

RESUMO

AIMS: To characterize serum metabolic signatures associated with atherosclerosis in the coronary or carotid arteries and subsequently their association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used untargeted one-dimensional (1D) serum metabolic profiling by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) among 3867 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), with replication among 3569 participants from the Rotterdam and LOLIPOP studies. Atherosclerosis was assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between NMR features and atherosclerosis accounting for multiplicity of comparisons. We then examined associations between metabolites associated with atherosclerosis and incident CVD available in MESA and Rotterdam and explored molecular networks through bioinformatics analyses. Overall, 30 1H NMR measured metabolites were associated with CAC and/or IMT, P = 1.3 × 10-14 to 1.0 × 10-6 (discovery) and P = 5.6 × 10-10 to 1.1 × 10-2 (replication). These associations were substantially attenuated after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis revealed disturbances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, branched chain, and aromatic amino acid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Analyses of incident CVD events showed inverse associations with creatine, creatinine, and phenylalanine, and direct associations with mannose, acetaminophen-glucuronide, and lactate as well as apolipoprotein B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Metabolites associated with atherosclerosis were largely consistent between the two vascular beds (coronary and carotid arteries) and predominantly tag pathways that overlap with the known cardiovascular risk factors. We present an integrated systems network that highlights a series of inter-connected pathways underlying atherosclerosis.

14.
Environ Res ; 175: 148-155, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is used for radiocommunications among the British police forces. OBJECTIVES: To investigate association of personal radio use and sickness absence among police officers and staff from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. METHODS: Participant-level sickness absence records for 26 forces were linked with personal radio use for 32,102 participants. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyse TETRA usage in year prior to enrolment and sickness absence (lasting more than 7 or 28 consecutive days) in the following year and a zero-inflated negative binomial model for analyses of number of sickness absence episodes of any duration ('spells') over the same period. In secondary analyses, we looked at an extended period of observation among a sub-cohort with linked data over time, using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Median personal radio use (year prior to enrolment) was 29.7 min per month (interquartile range 7.5, 64.7) among users. In the year following enrolment there were 25,655 sickness absence spells among 15,248 participants. There were similar risks of sickness absence lasting more than seven days among users and non-users, although among users risk was higher with greater use, odds ratio = 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.06) per doubling of radio use. There was no association for sickness absence of more than 28 days. For sickness absence spells, risk was lower among users than non-users (incidence rate ratio = 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11), again with higher risk among users for greater radio use. There was no association between radio use and sickness absence in secondary analyses. DISCUSSION: There were similar or lower risks of sickness absence in TETRA radio users compared with non-users. Among users, the higher risk of sickness absence with greater radio use may reflect working pattern differences among police personnel rather than effects of radiofrequency exposure.

15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that dietary salt intake may be an independent risk factor for overweight/obesity, but results from previous studies are controversial, reflecting study limitations such as use of a single spot urine or dietary recall to estimate daily salt intake rather than 24-h urine collections, and population samples from only a single country or center. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use data from the International Study of Macro-/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP Study) to explore the relation between dietary salt intake estimated from 2 timed 24-h urine collections and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) as well as prevalence of overweight/obesity in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 y in Japan (n = 1145), China (n = 839), the United Kingdom (n = 501), and the United States (n = 2195). General linear models were used to obtain the regression coefficients (ß) of salt intake associated with BMI. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the ORs and 95% CIs of overweight/obesity associated with a 1-g/d higher dietary salt intake. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors including energy intake, salt intake 1 g/d higher was associated with BMI higher by 0.28 in Japan, 0.10 in China, 0.42 in the United Kingdom, and 0.52 in the United States, all P values < 0.001. Salt intake 1 g/d higher was associated with odds of overweight/obesity 21% higher in Japan, 4% higher in China, 29% higher in the United Kingdom, and 24% higher in the United States, all P values < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Salt intake is positively associated with BMI and the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This association needs to be further confirmed in well-designed prospective studies with repeated dietary and BMI measurements.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271.

16.
Hypertens Res ; 42(10): 1590-1598, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996260

RESUMO

The Na/K ratio may be more strongly related to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease than sodium or potassium. The casual urine Na/K ratio can provide prompt on-site feedback, and with repeated measurements, may provide useful individual estimates of the 24-h ratio. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for sodium and potassium intake, but no generally accepted guideline prevails for the Na/K ratio. We used standardized data on 24 h and casual urinary electrolyte excretion obtained from the INTERSALT Study for 10,065 individuals aged 20-59 years from 32 countries (52 populations). Associations between the casual urinary Na/K ratio and the 24-h sodium and potassium excretion of individuals were assessed by correlation and stratification analyses. The mean 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 156.0 mmol/24 h and 55.2 mmol/24 h, respectively; the mean 24-h urinary Na/K molar ratio was 3.24. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) for the casual urinary Na/K ratio with 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 0.42 and -0.34, respectively, and these were 0.57 and -0.48 for the 24-h ratio. The urinary Na/K ratio predicted a 24-h urine Na excretion of <85 mmol/day (the WHO recommended guidelines) with a sensitivity of 99.7% and 94.0%, specificity of 39.5% and 48.0%, and positive predictive value of 96.3% and 61.1% at the cutoff point of 1 in 24 h and casual urine Na/K ratios, respectively. A urinary Na/K molar ratio <1 may be a useful indicator for adherence to the WHO recommended levels of sodium and, to a lesser extent, the potassium intake across different populations; however, cutoff points for Na/K ratio may be tuned for localization.

17.
J Hypertens ; 37(4): 814-819, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). METHODS: Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level. RESULTS: The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK, and USA were -54.0 (-59.8, -48.3), 3.9 (0.6, 7.2), 2.9 (-1.8, 7.6), and -3.5 (-5.8, -1.1) mmol/day, respectively. The proportions of individual relative differences beyond ±40% were 34.3% for China, 16.9% for Japan, 24.2% for UK, and 21.3% for USA; the proportions of individual absolute differences greater than 51.3 mmol/day (3 g salt) were 58.6% for China, 32.8% for Japan, 25.4% for UK, and 31.9% for USA. The rate for misclassification of salt intake groups at individual level for China, Japan, UK, and USA were 71.4, 60.9, 58.7, and 60.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 24-h dietary recalls demonstrate greater agreement with the 24-h urine collections in estimating population sodium intake for Japan, UK, and USA, compared with China. The 24-h dietary recall has poor performance in assessing individual sodium intake in these four countries.

18.
Cereb Cortex ; 29(4): 1736-1751, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721969

RESUMO

Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. In this report, we analyse how the gene "TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator" (TANK) affects alcohol drinking behavior. Based on our recent discovery in a large GWAS dataset that suggested an association of TANK, SNP rs197273, with alcohol drinking, we report that SNP rs197273 in TANK is associated both with gene expression (P = 1.16 × 10-19) and regional methylation (P = 5.90 × 10-25). A tank knock out mouse model suggests a role of TANK in alcohol drinking, anxiety-related behavior, as well as alcohol exposure induced activation of insular cortex NF-κB. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies among up to 1896 adolescents reveal that TANK is involved in the control of brain activity in areas of aversive interoceptive processing, including the insular cortex, but not in areas related to reinforcement, reward processing or impulsiveness. Our findings suggest that the cortical neuroimmune regulator TANK is associated with enhanced aversive emotional processing that better protects from the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior.

19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804083

RESUMO

The deubiquitinase OTULIN removes methionine-1 (M1)-linked polyubiquitin signals conjugated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and is critical for preventing TNF-driven inflammation in OTULIN-related autoinflammatory syndrome (ORAS). Five ORAS patients have been reported, but how dysregulated M1-linked polyubiquitin signalling causes their symptoms is unclear. Here, we report a new case of ORAS in which an OTULIN-Gly281Arg mutation leads to reduced activity and stability in vitro and in cells. In contrast to OTULIN-deficient monocytes, in which TNF signalling and NF-κB activation are increased, loss of OTULIN in patient-derived fibroblasts leads to a reduction in LUBAC levels and an impaired response to TNF Interestingly, both patient-derived fibroblasts and OTULIN-deficient monocytes are sensitised to certain types of TNF-induced death, and apoptotic cells are evident in ORAS patient skin lesions. Remarkably, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation leads to complete resolution of inflammatory symptoms, including fevers, panniculitis and diarrhoea. Therefore, haematopoietic cells are necessary for clinical manifestation of ORAS Together, our data suggest that ORAS pathogenesis involves hyper-inflammatory immune cells and TNF-induced death of both leukocytes and non-haematopoietic cells.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

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