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1.
Hypertension ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SSaSS (Salt Substitute and Stroke Study) recently reported definitive effects of a potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular outcomes and death. Quantifying the amount of potassium-enriched salt used by trial participants is important for understanding the magnitude of the effect of potassium-enriched salt on risk reduction and how population-wide scale-up might be achieved. METHODS: Baseline and annual 24-hour urine samples were collected from subgroups of participants in SSaSS throughout the 5-year follow-up. The mean difference in 24-hour potassium excretion between the 2 groups was used to estimate the quantity of potassium-enriched salt consumed in the intervention group. The corresponding projected difference in sodium intake between groups was calculated and compared with the observed difference. RESULTS: The potassium-enriched salt group, compared to the regular salt group, had a mean increase in 24-hour urinary potassium excretion of 0.80 g/d (95% CI, 0.71-0.90), which equates to consumption of 8.8 g/d (95% CI, 7.8-9.9) of potassium-enriched salt. Based on 8.8 g/d potassium-enriched salt consumption, the projected difference in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was -0.79 g/d. This compares to an observed difference of -0.35 g/d (95% CI, -0.55 to -0.15) and suggests that 72% of baseline regular salt intake was replaced by potassium-enriched salt. CONCLUSIONS: The smaller than anticipated between-group difference in sodium excretion likely results from the joint use of regular salt and potassium-enriched salt in the intervention group. Our findings suggest that even an incomplete replacement of regular salt with potassium-enriched salt can deliver significant health gains. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT02092090.

2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen plays an essential role in blood coagulation and inflammation. Circulating fibrinogen levels may be determined by inter-individual differences in DNA methylation at CpG sites, and vice versa. METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of circulating fibrinogen levels in 18,037 White, Black, American Indian, and Hispanic participants representing 14 studies from the CHARGE consortium. Circulating leukocyte DNA methylation was measured in 12,904 participants using the Illumina 450K array, and in 5,133 participants using the EPIC array. Each study performed an EWAS of fibrinogen using linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined using array-specific meta-analysis, followed by cross-replication of epigenome-wide significant associations. We compared models with and without C-reactive protein (CRP) adjustment to examine the role of inflammation. RESULTS: We identified 208 and 87 significant CpG sites associated with fibrinogen from the 450K (p-value<1.03×10-7) and EPIC arrays (p-value<5.78×10-8), respectively. There were 78 associations from the 450K array that replicated in the EPIC array and 26 vice versa. After accounting for the overlapping sites, there were 83 replicated CpG sites located in 61 loci, of which only 4 have been previously reported for fibrinogen. Examples of genes located near these CpG sites were SOCS3 and AIM2, which are involved in inflammatory pathways. The associations for all 83 replicated CpG sites were attenuated after CRP adjustment, although many remained significant. CONCLUSION: We identified 83 CpG sites associated with circulating fibrinogen levels. These associations are partially driven by inflammatory pathways shared by both fibrinogen and CRP.

3.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280943, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long COVID is a patient-made term describing new or persistent symptoms experienced following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission-Long COVID (REACT-LC) study aims to understand variation in experiences following infection, and to identify biological, social, and environmental factors associated with Long COVID. We undertook a pilot interview study to inform the design, recruitment approach, and topic guide for the REACT-LC qualitative study. We sought to gain initial insights into the experience and attribution of new or persistent symptoms and the awareness or perceived applicability of the term Long COVID. METHODS: People were invited to REACT-LC assessment centres if they had taken part in REACT, a random community-based prevalence study, and had a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We invited people from REACT-LC assessment centres who had reported experiencing persistent symptoms for more than 12 weeks to take part in an interview. We conducted face to face and online semi-structured interviews which were transcribed and analysed using Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: We interviewed 13 participants (6 female, 7 male, median age 31). Participants reported a wide variation in both new and persistent symptoms which were often fluctuating or unpredictable in nature. Some participants were confident about the link between their persistent symptoms and COVID-19; however, others were unclear about the underlying cause of symptoms or felt that the impact of public health measures (such as lockdowns) played a role. We found differences in awareness and perceived applicability of the term Long COVID. CONCLUSION: This pilot has informed the design, recruitment approach and topic guide for our qualitative study. It offers preliminary insights into the varied experiences of people living with persistent symptoms including differences in symptom attribution and perceived applicability of the term Long COVID. This variation shows the value of recruiting from a nationally representative sample of participants who are experiencing persistent symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Environ Res ; 219: 115117, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links outdoor air pollution and declined renal function but the relationship between household air pollution and renal function is not well understood. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the multi-provincial INTERMAP-China Prospective Study, we collected blood samples and questionnaire information on stove use and socio-demographic factors. We calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from serum creatinine to assess renal function. Participants with eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 were defined as having chronic kidney disease (CKD) in this analysis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the association of household fuel with renal function and prevalent CKD in models adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Among the 646 enrolled adults (40-79y; 56% female), one-third exclusively used clean fuel (gas and electric) cookstoves and 11% of northern China participants (n = 49 of 434) used only clean fuel heaters, whereas the rest used solid fuel. In multivariable models, use of solid fuel cookstoves was associated with 0.17 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI: -0.30, 0.64) higher eGFR and 19% (0.86, 1.64) higher prevalence of CKD than exclusive clean fuel use. Greater intensity of solid fuel use was associated with 0.25 ml/min/1.73 m2 (-0.71, 0.21) lower eGFR per 5 stove-use years, though the confidence intervals included the null, while greater current intensity of indoor solid fuel use was associated with 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) higher prevalent CKD per 100 stove-use days per year. Larger associations between current solid fuel use and intensity of use with lower eGFR and prevalent CKD were observed among participants in southern China, those with hypertension or diabetes (eGFR only), and females (CKD only), through these groups had small sample sizes and some confidence intervals included the null. CONCLUSION: We found inconsistent evidence associating household solid fuel use and renal function in this cross-sectional study of peri-urban Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Combustíveis Fósseis , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Combustíveis Fósseis/efeitos adversos
5.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of fat intake is essential to examine relationships between diet and disease risk. However, estimating individual intakes of fat quantity by dietary assessment is difficult. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association of plasma phospholipid fatty acid levels with dietary intake of fatty acids in the INTERMAP/INTERLIPID study, conducted with a standardized protocol. METHODS: The study participants were 1339 men and women ages 40-59 years from five Japanese populations one from Hawaii; four from Japan. Fatty acid intake was estimated from four standardized 24-hour dietary recalls. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. We illustrated the relationship between intake and circulating fatty acid levels using Spearman's rank-correlation coefficients, mean, and median values. RESULTS: Spearman's rank-correlation coefficients between intake (g/d) and circulating fatty acid levels (µg/ml) were -0.03 to 0.21 for saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids and -0.04 to 0.32 for trans fatty acids. The coefficients for essential n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were moderate to high, especially for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 0.60; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 0.41; and EPA+DHA, 0.51. The circulating levels and intake of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids showed a linear association, at least for the intake of EPA+DHA up to 2.1 g/d. CONCLUSION: We observed high correlation between intake and circulating levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in participants from Japanese and Japanese-American populations with high and low fish intake. Plasma phospholipid marine-derived n-3 fatty acid measurements are a simple and reliable biomarker for assessing dietary intake.

6.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36501061

RESUMO

Variation in vitamin B12 levels has been associated with a range of diseases across the life-course, the causal nature of which remains elusive. We aimed to interrogate genetically predicted vitamin B12 status in relation to a plethora of clinical outcomes available in the UK Biobank. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data obtained from a Danish and Icelandic cohort of 45,576 individuals were used to identify 8 genetic variants associated with vitamin B12 levels, serving as genetic instruments for vitamin B12 status in subsequent analyses. We conducted a Mendelian randomisation (MR)-phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of vitamin B12 status with 945 distinct phenotypes in 439,738 individuals from the UK Biobank using these 8 genetic instruments to proxy alterations in vitamin B12 status. We used external GWAS summary statistics for replication of significant findings. Correction for multiple testing was taken into consideration using a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) threshold. MR analysis identified an association between higher genetically predicted vitamin B12 status and lower risk of vitamin B deficiency (including all B vitamin deficiencies), serving as a positive control outcome. We further identified associations between higher genetically predicted vitamin B12 status and a reduced risk of megaloblastic anaemia (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20-0.50) and pernicious anaemia (0.29, 0.19-0.45), which was supported in replication analyses. Our study highlights that higher genetically predicted vitamin B12 status is potentially protective of risk of vitamin B12 deficiency associated with pernicious anaemia diagnosis, and reduces risk of megaloblastic anaemia. The potential use of genetically predicted vitamin B12 status in disease diagnosis, progression and management remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Anemia Megaloblástica , Anemia Perniciosa , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Humanos , Anemia Megaloblástica/complicações , Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Vitamina B 12 , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Vitaminas , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
7.
PLoS Med ; 19(12): e1004141, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids are important dietary factors that have been extensively studied for their implication in health and disease. Evidence from epidemiological studies and randomised controlled trials on their role in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and other diseases remains inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess whether genetically predicted fatty acid concentrations affect the risk of disease across a wide variety of clinical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The UK Biobank (UKB) is a large study involving over 500,000 participants aged 40 to 69 years at recruitment from 2006 to 2010. We used summary-level data for 117,143 UKB samples (base dataset), to extract genetic associations of fatty acids, and individual-level data for 322,232 UKB participants (target dataset) to conduct our discovery analysis. We studied potentially causal relationships of circulating fatty acids with 845 clinical diagnoses, using mendelian randomisation (MR) approach, within a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) framework. Regression models in PheWAS were adjusted for sex, age, and the first 10 genetic principal components. External summary statistics were used for replication. When several fatty acids were associated with a health outcome, multivariable MR and MR-Bayesian method averaging (MR-BMA) was applied to disentangle their causal role. Genetic predisposition to higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was associated with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (odds ratio per mmol/L: 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.87). This was supported in replication analysis (FinnGen study) and by the genetically predicted omega-3 fatty acids analyses. Genetically predicted linoleic acid (LA), omega-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and total fatty acids (total FAs) showed positive associations with cardiovascular outcomes with support from replication analysis. Finally, higher genetically predicted levels of DHA (0.83, 0.73 to 0.95) and omega-3 (0.83, 0.75 to 0.92) were found to have a protective effect on obesity, which was supported using body mass index (BMI) in the GIANT consortium as replication analysis. Multivariable MR analysis suggested a direct detrimental effect of LA (1.64, 1.07 to 2.50) and omega-6 fatty acids (1.81, 1.06 to 3.09) on coronary heart disease (CHD). MR-BMA prioritised LA and omega-6 fatty acids as the top risk factors for CHD. Although we present a range of sensitivity analyses to the address MR assumptions, horizontal pleiotropy may still bias the reported associations and further evaluation in clinical trials is needed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests potentially protective effects of circulating DHA and omega-3 concentrations on cholelithiasis and cholecystitis and on obesity, highlighting the need to further assess them as prevention treatments in clinical trials. Moreover, our findings do not support the supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular disease prevention.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Colelitíase/epidemiologia , Colelitíase/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Colecistite/epidemiologia , Colecistite/genética , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino
8.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328528

RESUMO

AIM: To identify the most differentiated serum lipids, especially concerning particle size and fractions, between Japanese living in Japan and Japanese-Americans in Hawaii, in the absence of possible genetic confounders, and cross-sectionally examine the associated modifiable lifestyle factors. METHODS: Overall, 1,241 (aged 40-59 years) Japanese living in Japan and Japanese-Americans in Hawaii were included. We quantified 130 serum lipid profiles (VLDL 1-5, IDL, LDL 1-6, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] 1-4, and their subfractions) using Bruker's 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer for the primary outcome. Modifiable lifestyle factors included body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol and smoking habits, and 70 nutrient parameters. We evaluated the different lipids between the groups using partial least squares-discriminant analysis and association between extracted lipids and lifestyle factors using multivariable linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Concentrations of HDL4, HDL with the smallest particle size, were lower in Japanese than in Japanese-Americans of both sexes. Higher fish-derived omega-3 fatty acid intake and lower alcohol intake were associated with lower HDL4 concentrations. A 1% higher kcal intake of total omega-3 fatty acids was associated with a 9.8- mg/dL lower HDL4. Fish-derived docosapentaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid intake were inversely associated with HDL4 concentration. There was no relationship between country, sex, age, or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese and Japanese-Americans can be differentiated based on HDL4 concentration. High fish intake among the Japanese may contribute to their lower HDL4 concentration. Thus, HDL particle size may be an important clinical marker for coronary artery diseases or a fish consumption biomarker.

9.
Neurology ; 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whether chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases causally affect the risk of AD is controversial. We characterised the relationship between inflammatory diseases and the risk of AD and explore the role of circulating inflammatory biomarkers in the relationships between inflammatory diseases and AD. METHODS: We performed observational analyses for chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases and risk of AD using data from 2,047,513 participants identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Using data of a total of more than 1,100,000 individuals from 15 large scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets, we performed two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the relationships between chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases, circulating inflammatory biomarker levels, and risk of AD. RESULTS: Cox regression models using CPRD data showed that overall incidence of AD was higher among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (hazard ratio (HR)=1.17; 95%CI 1.15 to 1.19; P-value=2.1×10-4), other inflammatory polyarthropathies & systematic connective tissue disorders (OID) (HR=1.13; 95%CI 1.12 to 1.14; P-value=8.6×10-5), psoriasis (HR=1.13; 95%CI 1.10 to 1.16; P-value=2.6×10-4), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (HR=1.08; 95%CI 1.06 to 1.11; P-value=4.0×10-4), and multiple sclerosis (MS) (HR=1.06; 95%CI 1.04 to 1.07; P-value=2.8×10-4) compared to the age (± 5 years) and sex-matched comparison groups free from all inflammatory diseases under investigation. Bidirectional MR analysis identified relationships between chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases and circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Particularly, circulating monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) level was suggestively associated with a higher risk of AD (odds ratio from inverse variance weighted (ORIVW)=1.23; 95%CI 1.06 to 1.42; PIVW=0.007), and lower risk of Crohn's disease (ORIVW=0.73; 95%CI -0.62, 0.86; PIVW=1.3×10-4). Colocalisation supported a common causal SNP for MIG and Crohn's disease (posterior probability=0.74) but not AD (posterior probability=0.03). Using a two-sample MR approach, genetically predicted risks of inflammatory diseases were not associated with higher AD risk. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the association between inflammatory diseases and risk of AD is unlikely to be causal and may be a result of confounding. In support, while inflammatory biomarkers showed evidence for causal associations with inflammatory diseases, evidence was weak that they affected both inflammatory disease and AD.

10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6856, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369151

RESUMO

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus is associated with a wide range of symptoms. The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission -1 (REACT-1) study monitored the spread and clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 among random samples of the population in England from 1 May 2020 to 31 March 2022. We show changing symptom profiles associated with the different variants over that period, with lower reporting of loss of sense of smell or taste for Omicron compared to previous variants, and higher reporting of cold-like and influenza-like symptoms, controlling for vaccination status. Contrary to the perception that recent variants have become successively milder, Omicron BA.2 was associated with reporting more symptoms, with greater disruption to daily activities, than BA.1. With restrictions lifted and routine testing limited in many countries, monitoring the changing symptom profiles associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and effects on daily activities will become increasingly important.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inglaterra/epidemiologia
11.
Chemistry ; 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398697

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes are emerging targets in cancer research and understanding how diagnostic probes bind to DNA G-quadruplexes in solution is critical to the development of new molecular tools. In this study the binding of an enantiopure NIR emitting [Os(TAP)2(dppz)]2+ complex to different G-quadruplex structures formed by human telomer (hTel) and cMYC sequences in solution is reported. The combination of NMR and time-resolved infrared spectroscopic techniques reveals the sensitivity of the emission response to subtle changes in the binding environment of the complex.

12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(11): e1010724, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following rapidly rising COVID-19 case numbers, England entered a national lockdown on 6 January 2021, with staged relaxations of restrictions from 8 March 2021 onwards. AIM: We characterise how the lockdown and subsequent easing of restrictions affected trends in SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence. METHODS: On average, risk of infection is proportional to infection prevalence. The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study is a repeat cross-sectional study of over 98,000 people every round (rounds approximately monthly) that estimates infection prevalence in England. We used Bayesian P-splines to estimate prevalence and the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) nationally, regionally and by age group from round 8 (beginning 6 January 2021) to round 13 (ending 12 July 2021) of REACT-1. As a comparator, a separate segmented-exponential model was used to quantify the impact on Rt of each relaxation of restrictions. RESULTS: Following an initial plateau of 1.54% until mid-January, infection prevalence decreased until 13 May when it reached a minimum of 0.09%, before increasing until the end of the study to 0.76%. Following the first easing of restrictions, which included schools reopening, the reproduction number Rt increased by 82% (55%, 108%), but then decreased by 61% (82%, 53%) at the second easing of restrictions, which was timed to match the Easter school holidays. Following further relaxations of restrictions, the observed Rt increased steadily, though the increase due to these restrictions being relaxed was offset by the effects of vaccination and also affected by the rapid rise of Delta. There was a high degree of synchrony in the temporal patterns of prevalence between regions and age groups. CONCLUSION: High-resolution prevalence data fitted to P-splines allowed us to show that the lockdown was effective at reducing risk of infection with school holidays/closures playing a significant part.

13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6939, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376304

RESUMO

C-reactive protein is involved in a plethora of pathophysiological conditions. Many genetic loci associated with C-reactive protein are annotated to lipid and glucose metabolism genes supporting common biological pathways between inflammation and metabolic traits. To identify novel pleiotropic loci, we perform multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association studies on C-reactive protein levels along with cardiometabolic traits, followed by a series of in silico analyses including colocalization, phenome-wide association studies and Mendelian randomization. We find 41 novel loci and 19 gene sets associated with C-reactive protein with various pleiotropic effects. Additionally, 41 variants colocalize between C-reactive protein and cardiometabolic risk factors and 12 of them display unexpected discordant effects between the shared traits which are translated into discordant associations with clinical outcomes in subsequent phenome-wide association studies. Our findings provide insights into shared mechanisms underlying inflammation and lipid metabolism, representing potential preventive and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pleiotropia Genética , Loci Gênicos , Inflamação/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
14.
Hypertens Res ; 45(12): 1850-1860, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344663

RESUMO

Growing epidemiological evidence has shown an association of the urinary sodium (Na) to potassium (K) ratio (Na/K ratio) with blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. However, no clear cutoff level has been defined. We investigated the cutoff level of the urinary Na/K ratio under different dietary guidelines for Japanese individuals, especially that endorsed by the 2020 revised Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). A population of 1145 Japanese men and women aged 40 to 59 years from the INTERMAP study was examined. Using high-quality standardized data, the averages of two 24 h urinary collections and four 24 h dietary recalls were used to calculate the 24 h urinary and dietary Na/K ratios, respectively. Associations between the urinary and dietary Na/K ratios were tested by sex- and age-adjusted partial correlation. The optimal urinary Na/K ratio cutoff level was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and sex-specific cross tables for recommended dietary K and salt. Overall, the average molar ratio of 24 h urinary Na/K was 4.3. We found moderate correlations (P < 0.001) of the 24 h urinary Na/K ratio with 24 h urinary Na and K excretion (r = 0.52, r = -0.49, respectively) and the dietary Na/K ratio (r = 0.53). ROC curves showed that a 24 h urinary Na/K ratio of approximately 2 predicted Na and K intake that meets the dietary goals of the Japanese DRIs. The range of urinary Na/K ratios meeting the dietary goals of the Japanese DRIs for both Na and K was 1.6‒2.2 for men and 1.7‒1.9 for women. Accomplishing a urinary Na/K ratio of 2 would be desirable to achieve the DRIs dietary goals for both Na and K simultaneously in middle-aged Japanese men and women accustomed to Japanese dietary habits. This observational study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Sódio na Dieta , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Japão , Sódio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/urina , Potássio/urina , Ingestão de Alimentos
15.
J Neurochem ; 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326588

RESUMO

Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Despite increasing evidence of the importance of metabolic dysregulation in AD, the underlying metabolic changes that may impact amyloid plaque formation are not understood, particularly for late onset AD. This study analyzed genome-wide association studies (GWAS), transcriptomics and proteomics data obtained from several data repositories to obtain differentially expressed (DE) multi-omics elements in mouse models of AD. We characterized the metabolic modulation in these datasets using gene ontology, transcription factor, pathway, and cell-type enrichment analyses. A predicted lipid signature was extracted from genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMN) and subsequently validated in a lipidomic dataset derived from cortical tissue of ABCA-7 null mice, a mouse model of one of the genes associated with late onset AD. Moreover, a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) was performed to further characterize the association between dysregulated lipid metabolism in human blood serum and genes associated with AD risk. We found 203 DE transcripts, 164 DE proteins and 58 DE GWAS-derived mouse orthologs associated with significantly enriched metabolic biological processes. Lipid and bioenergetics metabolic pathways were significantly over-represented across the AD multi-omics datasets. Microglia and astrocytes were significantly enriched in the lipid-predominant AD-metabolic transcriptome. We also extracted a predicted lipid signature that was validated and robustly modelled class separation in the ABCA7 mice cortical lipidome, with 11 of these lipid species exhibiting statistically significant modulations. MWAS revealed 298 AD single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-metabolite associations, of which 70% corresponded to lipid classes. These results support the importance of lipid metabolism dysregulation in AD and highlight the suitability of mapping AD multi-omics data into GSMNs to identify metabolic alterations.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450138

RESUMO

Ruthenium(II) complexes feature prominently in the development of agents for photoactivated chemotherapy; however, the excited-state mechanisms by which photochemical ligand release operates remain unclear. We report here a systematic experimental and computational study of a series of complexes [Ru(bpy)2(N∧N)]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl; N∧N = bpy (1), 6-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (2), 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (3), 1-benzyl-4-(pyrid-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (4), 1-benzyl-4-(6-methylpyrid-2-yl)-1,2,3-triazole (5), 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl (6)), in which we probe the contribution to the promotion of photochemical N∧N ligand release of the introduction of sterically encumbering methyl substituents and the electronic effect of replacement of pyridine by 1,2,3-triazole donors in the N∧N ligand. Complexes 2 to 6 all release the ligand N∧N on irradiation in acetonitrile solution to yield cis-[Ru(bpy)2(NCMe)2]2+, with resultant photorelease quantum yields that at first seem counter-intuitive and span a broad range. The data show that incorporation of a single sterically encumbering methyl substituent on the N∧N ligand (2 and 5) leads to a significantly enhanced rate of triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (3MLCT) state deactivation but with little promotion of photoreactivity, whereas replacement of pyridine by triazole donors (4 and 6) leads to a similar rate of 3MLCT deactivation but with much greater photochemical reactivity. The data reported here, discussed in conjunction with previously reported data on related complexes, suggest that monomethylation in 2 and 5 sterically inhibits the formation of a 3MCcis state but promotes the population of 3MCtrans states which rapidly deactivate 3MLCT states and are prone to mediating ground-state recovery. On the other hand, increased photochemical reactivity in 4 and 6 seems to stem from the accessibility of 3MCcis states. The data provide important insights into the excited-state mechanism of photochemical ligand release by Ru(II) tris-bidentate complexes.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2206083119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269859

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genetic loci associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular mechanisms by which they confer risk are largely unknown. We conducted a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) of AD-associated loci from GWASs using untargeted metabolic profiling (metabolomics) by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). We identified an association of lactosylceramides (LacCer) with AD-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA7 (P = 5.0 × 10-5 to 1.3 × 10-44). We showed that plasma LacCer concentrations are associated with cognitive performance and genetically modified levels of LacCer are associated with AD risk. We then showed that concentrations of sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosylceramides were altered in brain tissue from Abca7 knockout mice, compared with wild type (WT) (P = 0.049-1.4 × 10-5), but not in a mouse model of amyloidosis. Furthermore, activation of microglia increases intracellular concentrations of hexosylceramides in part through induction in the expression of sphingosine kinase, an enzyme with a high control coefficient for sphingolipid and ceramide synthesis. Our work suggests that the risk for AD arising from functional variations in ABCA7 is mediated at least in part through ceramides. Modulation of their metabolism or downstream signaling may offer new therapeutic opportunities for AD.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Doença de Alzheimer , Ceramidas , Animais , Camundongos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lactosilceramidas , Metaboloma , Camundongos Knockout , Esfingomielinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Inorg Chem ; 61(38): 14947-14961, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094851

RESUMO

The synthesis and photophysical characterization of two osmium(II) polypyridyl complexes, [Os(TAP)2dppz]2+ (1) and [Os(TAP)2dppp2]2+ (2) containing dppz (dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) and dppp2 (pyrido[2',3':5,6]pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanthroline) intercalating ligands and TAP (1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene) ancillary ligands, are reported. The complexes exhibit complex electrochemistry with five distinct reductive redox couples, the first of which is assigned to a TAP-based process. The complexes emit in the near-IR (1 at 761 nm and 2 at 740 nm) with lifetimes of >35 ns with a low quantum yield of luminescence in aqueous solution (∼0.25%). The Δ and Λ enantiomers of 1 and 2 are found to bind to natural DNA and with AT and GC oligodeoxynucleotides with high affinities. In the presence of natural DNA, the visible absorption spectra are found to display significant hypochromic shifts, which is strongly evident for the ligand-centered π-π* dppp2 transition at 355 nm, which undergoes 46% hypochromism. The emission of both complexes increases upon DNA binding, which is observed to be sensitive to the Δ or Λ enantiomer and the DNA composition. A striking result is the sensitivity of Λ-2 to the presence of AT DNA, where a 6-fold enhancement of luminescence is observed and reflects the nature of the binding for the enantiomer and the protection from solution. Thermal denaturation studies show that both complexes are found to stabilize natural DNA. Finally, cellular studies show that the complexes are internalized by cultured mammalian cells and localize in the nucleus.


Assuntos
Substâncias Intercalantes , Rutênio , Animais , DNA/química , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , Ligantes , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos , Osmio , Fenantrolinas/química , Fenazinas/química , Rutênio/química
19.
Dalton Trans ; 51(36): 13692-13702, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001010

RESUMO

The tris(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methane framework offers a highly versatile architecture for ligand design, yet the coordination chemistry of this class of ligand remains largely unexplored. We report here the synthesis and characterisation of the homoleptic complexes [M(ttzm)2](PF6)2 (ttzm = tris(1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-p-anisolylmethane; M = Fe (Fe), Ru (Ru), Os (Os)). Initial attempts to prepare Ru by reaction of [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2 and ttzm also led to the isolation of the heteroleptic complex [Ru(p-cymene)(ttzm)](PF6)2. The structures of [Ru(p-cymene)(ttzm)](PF6)2, [Fe(ttzm)2]2+ (as its BPh4- salt) and Os were solved by X-ray diffraction. The homoleptic Fe(II) and Os(II) containing cations adopt distorted octahedral geometries due to the steric interactions between the ansiole and triazole rings of the ttzm ligands. The homoleptic complexes all adopt a low-spin d6 configuration and exhibit reversible M(II)/M(III) processes (+0.35 to +0.72 V vs. Fc/Fc+). These oxidation processes are cathodically shifted relative to those of related hexatriazole donor based complexes with density functional theory (DFT) calculations showing the metal d-orbitals are destabilised through a π-donor contribution from the triazole rings. The complexes all show prominent UV-visible absorption bands between 350 and 450 nm assigned to transitions of 1MLCT character. Whilst none of the homoleptic complexes are emissive in room temperature fluid solutions, Os is emissive at 77 K in an EtOH/MeOH glass (λmax 472 nm).

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We explore SARS-CoV-2 antibody lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) performance under field conditions compared to laboratory-based electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and live virus neutralisation. METHODS: In July 2021, 3758 participants performed, at home, a self-administered Fortress LFIA on finger-prick blood, reported and submitted a photograph of the result, and provided a self-collected capillary blood sample for assessment of IgG antibodies using the Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ECLIA. We compared the self-reported LFIA result to the quantitative ECLIA and checked the reading of the LFIA result with an automated image analysis (ALFA). In a subsample of 250 participants, we compared the results to live virus neutralisation. RESULTS: Almost all participants (3593/3758, 95.6%) had been vaccinated or reported prior infection. Overall, 2777/3758 (73.9%) were positive on self-reported LFIA, 2811/3457 (81.3%) positive by LFIA when ALFA-reported, and 3622/3758 (96.4%) positive on ECLIA (using the manufacturer reference standard threshold for positivity of 0.8 U ml-1). Live virus neutralisation was detected in 169 of 250 randomly selected samples (67.6%); 133/169 were positive with self-reported LFIA (sensitivity 78.7%; 95% CI 71.8, 84.6), 142/155 (91.6%; 86.1, 95.5) with ALFA, and 169 (100%; 97.8, 100.0) with ECLIA. There were 81 samples with no detectable virus neutralisation; 47/81 were negative with self-reported LFIA (specificity 58.0%; 95% CI 46.5, 68.9), 34/75 (45.3%; 33.8, 57.3) with ALFA, and 0/81 (0%; 0.0, 4.5) with ECLIA. CONCLUSIONS: Self-administered LFIA is less sensitive than a quantitative antibody test, but the positivity in LFIA correlates better than the quantitative ECLIA with virus neutralisation.

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