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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021560, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619991

RESUMO

Background Ramadan fasting is practiced by hundreds of millions every year. This ritual practice changes diet and lifestyle dramatically; thus, the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure must be determined. Methods and Results LORANS (London Ramadan Study) is an observational study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. In LORANS, we measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 85 participants before and right after Ramadan. In the systematic review, studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Scopus from inception to March 3, 2020. We meta-analyzed the effect from these studies and unpublished data from LORANS. We included observational studies that measured SBP and/or DBP before Ramadan and during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan or the first 2 weeks of the month after. Data appraisal and extraction were conducted by at least 2 reviewers in parallel. We pooled SBP and DBP using a random-effects model. The systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; CRD42019159477). In LORANS, 85 participants were recruited; mean age was 45.6±15.9 years, and 52.9% (n=45) of participants were men. SBP and DBP after Ramadan fasting were lower by 7.29 mm Hg (-4.74 to -9.84) and 3.42 mm Hg (-1.73 to -5.09), even after adjustment for potential confounders. We identified 2778 studies of which 33 with 3213 participants were included. SBP and DBP after/before Ramadan were lower by 3.19 mm Hg (-4.43 to -1.96, I2=48%) and 2.26 mm Hg (-3.19 to -1.34, I2=66%), respectively. In subgroup analyses, lower blood pressures were observed in the groups who are healthy or have hypertension or diabetes but not in patients with chronic kidney disease. Conclusions Our study suggests beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure independent of changes in weight, total body water, and fat mass and supports recommendations for some governmental guidelines that describe Ramadan fasting as a safe religious practice with respect to blood pressure.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612633

RESUMO

Diimine metal complexes have significant relevance in the development of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) applications. In particular, complexes of the TAP ligand (1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene) are known to lead to photoinduced oxidation of DNA, while TAP- and triazole-based complexes are also known to undergo photochemical ligand release processes relevant to PACT. The photophysical and photochemical properties of heteroleptic complexes [Ru(TAP)n(btz)3-n]2+ (btz = 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl, n = 1 (1), 2 (2)) have been explored. Upon irradiation in acetonitrile, 1 displays analogous photochemistry to that previously observed for [Ru(bpy)(btz)2]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) and generates trans-[Ru(TAP)(btz)(NCMe)2]2+ (5), which has been crystallographically characterized, with the observation of the ligand-loss intermediate trans-[Ru(TAP)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+ (4). Complex 2 displays more complicated photochemical behavior with not only preferential photorelease of btz to form cis-[Ru(TAP)2(NCMe)2]2+ (6) but also competitive photorelease of TAP to form 5. Free TAP is then taken up by 6 to form [Ru(TAP)3]2+ (3) with the proportion of 5 and 3 observed to progressively increase during prolonged photolysis. Data suggest a complex set of reversible photochemical ligand scrambling processes in which 2 and 3 are interconverted. Computational DFT calculations have enabled optimization of geometries of the pro-trans 3MCcis states with repelled btz or TAP ligands crucial for the formation of 5 from 1 and 2, respectively, lending weight to recent evidence that such 3MCcis states play an important mechanistic role in the rich photoreactivity of Ru(II) diimine complexes.

3.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109777, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610306

RESUMO

Non-degradative ubiquitin chains and phosphorylation events govern signaling responses by innate immune receptors. The deubiquitinase CYLD in complex with SPATA2 is recruited to receptor signaling complexes by the ubiquitin ligase LUBAC and regulates Met1- and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin and receptor signaling outcomes. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants of CYLD activity. We reveal that two CAP-Gly domains in CYLD are ubiquitin-binding domains and demonstrate a requirement of CAP-Gly3 for CYLD activity and regulation of immune receptor signaling. Moreover, we identify a phosphorylation switch outside of the catalytic USP domain, which activates CYLD toward Lys63-linked polyubiquitin. The phosphorylated residue Ser568 is a novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-regulated phosphorylation site in CYLD and works in concert with Ser418 to enable CYLD-mediated deubiquitination and immune receptor signaling. We propose that phosphorylated CYLD, together with SPATA2 and LUBAC, functions as a ubiquitin-editing complex that balances Lys63- and Met1-linked polyubiquitin at receptor signaling complexes to promote LUBAC signaling.

4.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that household air pollution from cooking and heating with solid fuel (i.e., coal and biomass) stoves may contribute to the development of hypertension and vascular damage. METHODS: Using mixed-effects regression models, we investigated the associations of household air pollution with blood pressure (BP) and vascular function in 753 adults (ages 40-79y) from three diverse provinces in China. We conducted repeated measures of participants' household fuel use, personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5), BP, brachial-femoral pulse wave velocity (bfPWV), and augmentation index. Ultrasound images of the carotid arteries were obtained to assess intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaques. Covariate information on socio-demographics, health behaviors, 24-h urinary sodium, and blood lipids was also obtained. RESULTS: Average estimated yearly personal exposure to PM2.5 was 97.5 µg/m 3 (SD: 79.2; range: 3.5-1241), and 65% of participants cooked with solid fuel. In multivariable models, current solid fuel use was associated with higher systolic (2.4 mmHg, 95%CI: -0.4, 4.9) and diastolic BP (1.4 mmHg, 95%CI: -0.1, 3.0) and greater total area of plaques (1.7 mm 2, 95%CI: -6.5, 9.8) compared with exclusive use of electricity or gas stoves. A 1-ln(µg/m 3) increase in PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher systolic (1.5 mmHg, 95%CI: 0.2, 2.7) and diastolic BP (1.0 mmHg, 95%CI: 0.4, 1.7) and with greater CIMT (0.02 mm, 95%CI: 0.00, 0.04) and total area of plaques (4.7 mm 2, 95%CI: -2.0, 11.5). We did not find associations with arterial stiffness, except for a lower bfPWV (-1.5 m/s, 95%CI: -3.0, -0.0) among users of solid fuel heaters. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to limited evidence that household air pollution is associated with higher BP and with greater CIMT and total plaque area.

5.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/virologia , Anosmia/diagnóstico , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/virologia , Apetite , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/virologia , Calafrios/diagnóstico , Calafrios/etiologia , Calafrios/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/virologia , Inglaterra , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/virologia , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/etiologia , Faringite/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Medicina Estatal
6.
N Engl J Med ; 385(12): 1067-1077, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt substitutes with reduced sodium levels and increased potassium levels have been shown to lower blood pressure, but their effects on cardiovascular and safety outcomes are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, cluster-randomized trial involving persons from 600 villages in rural China. The participants had a history of stroke or were 60 years of age or older and had high blood pressure. The villages were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention group, in which the participants used a salt substitute (75% sodium chloride and 25% potassium chloride by mass), or to the control group, in which the participants continued to use regular salt (100% sodium chloride). The primary outcome was stroke, the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events and death from any cause, and the safety outcome was clinical hyperkalemia. RESULTS: A total of 20,995 persons were enrolled in the trial. The mean age of the participants was 65.4 years, and 49.5% were female, 72.6% had a history of stroke, and 88.4% a history of hypertension. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.74 years. The rate of stroke was lower with the salt substitute than with regular salt (29.14 events vs. 33.65 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.96; P = 0.006), as were the rates of major cardiovascular events (49.09 events vs. 56.29 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) and death (39.28 events vs. 44.61 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P<0.001). The rate of serious adverse events attributed to hyperkalemia was not significantly higher with the salt substitute than with regular salt (3.35 events vs. 3.30 events per 1000 person-years; rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.37; P = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Among persons who had a history of stroke or were 60 years of age or older and had high blood pressure, the rates of stroke, major cardiovascular events, and death from any cause were lower with the salt substitute than with regular salt. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; SSaSS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02092090.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China , Dieta Hipossódica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Potássio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
7.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of egg intake with blood pressure (BP) and the role of dietary variables and other macro- and micro-nutrients in the association. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for the USA as part of the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP). INTERMAP was surveyed between 1996 and 1999, including four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections and eight measurements of systolic BP and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP). Average egg intake (g/d) was calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between egg intake (per each 50 g/d or per quintile) and BP. The roles of dietary variables and other macro- and micro-nutrients in this association were also investigated. SETTING: In the USA. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 2195 US INTERMAP men and women aged 40-59 years. RESULTS: Participants were 50 % female, 54 % non-Hispanic White and 16 % non-Hispanic Black. Mean egg intake (sd) in men and women was 30·4(29·8) and 21·6(20·5) g/d, respectively. Adjusting for demographics, socio-economics, lifestyle and urinary Na:K excretion ratios, we found non-linear associations with BP in non-obese women (P-quadratic terms: 0·004 for SBP and 0·035 for DBP).The associations remained after adjusting for dietary variables, macro/micro nutrients or minerals. Dietary cholesterol was highly correlated with egg intake and may factor in the association. No association was found in obese women and in obese or non-obese men. CONCLUSION: Egg intake was non-linearly associated with SBP and DBP in non-obese women, but not in obese women or men. Underlying mechanisms require additional study regarding the role of obesity and sex.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0252989, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a novel mass media intervention in increasing media reports on salt and health by involving media reporters in a scientifically well designed salt reduction trial. METHODS: We recruited and trained 66 media reporters in Changzhi, Shanxi province, China to conduct a randomized controlled trial on blood pressure lowering effect of salt substitute in Dec, 2012 and Jan 2013 among their own relatives or friends (253 from 129 families in the salt substitute arm and 263 from 133 families in the control arm for two months). We shared trial results and other information on salt and health with the reporters within a month after the trial. We monitored all local newspapers for the number of relevant articles in 3 months before, 3 months during and 3 months after the intervention and at the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 48th months after the intervention. Additionally, we conducted two independent surveys on knowledge, belief and behaviours of salt and health among local citizens before and after the intervention. RESULTS: As expected, systolic blood pressure was reduced significantly more in the salt substitute than the control group (-4.7±11.0 mmHg vs -2.6±10.3 mmHg, p<0.001) in the randomized trial. The monthly mean number of relevant articles increased from 0.7 before to 1.7 during (p = 0.263), and further to 6.0 after the intervention (p<0.001), and varied from 2 (p = 0.170) to 4 (p = 0.008) from the 6th to 48th month; the awareness of knowledge on salt and health among local citizens improved significantly after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Media reporters' participation in a well-designed salt reduction trial significantly increased the number of relevant media reports, and the effect was sustained for a prolonged period. Future mass media public health education programs should consider this innovative strategy for better and sustained impacts.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045929, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285006

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce blood pressure and the burden of CVD. To date, economic evidence has focused on sodium reduction in food industry or processed food with blood pressure as the primary outcome. This study protocol describes the planned within-trial economic evaluation of a low-sodium salt substitute intervention designed to reduce the risk of stroke in China. METHODS AND ANALYSES: The economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the Salt Substitute and Stroke Study: a 5-year large scale, cluster randomised controlled trial. The outcomes of interest are quality of life measured using the EuroQol-5-Dimensions and major adverse cardiovascular events. Costs will be estimated from a healthcare system perspective and will be sought from the routinely collected data available within the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be conducted, resulting in the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per cardiovascular event averted and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial received ethics approval from the University of Sydney Ethics Committee (2013/888) and Peking University Institutional Review Board (IRB00001052-13069). Informed consent was obtained from each study participant. Findings of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT02092090).


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
10.
Elife ; 102021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059199

RESUMO

Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with damage to various organs, but its multi-organ effects have not been characterised across the usual range of alcohol drinking in a large general population sample. Methods: We assessed global effect sizes of alcohol consumption on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging phenotypic measures of the brain, heart, aorta, and liver of UK Biobank participants who reported drinking alcohol. Results: We found a monotonic association of higher alcohol consumption with lower normalised brain volume across the range of alcohol intakes (-1.7 × 10-3 ± 0.76 × 10-3 per doubling of alcohol consumption, p=3.0 × 10-14). Alcohol consumption was also associated directly with measures of left ventricular mass index and left ventricular and atrial volume indices. Liver fat increased by a mean of 0.15% per doubling of alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Our results imply that there is not a 'safe threshold' below which there are no toxic effects of alcohol. Current public health guidelines concerning alcohol consumption may need to be revisited. Funding: See acknowledgements.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3755, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145260

RESUMO

Risk factors for increased risk of death from COVID-19 have been identified, but less is known on characteristics that make communities resilient or vulnerable to the mortality impacts of the pandemic. We applied a two-stage Bayesian spatial model to quantify inequalities in excess mortality in people aged 40 years and older at the community level during the first wave of the pandemic in England, March-May 2020 compared with 2015-2019. Here we show that communities with an increased risk of excess mortality had a high density of care homes, and/or high proportion of residents on income support, living in overcrowded homes and/or with a non-white ethnicity. We found no association between population density or air pollution and excess mortality. Effective and timely public health and healthcare measures that target the communities at greatest risk are urgently needed to avoid further widening of inequalities in mortality patterns as the pandemic progresses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 893-906, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient; however, the associations of choline and its related metabolites with cardiometabolic risk remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating choline, betaine, carnitine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) with cardiometabolic biomarkers and their potential dietary and nondietary determinants. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses included 32,853 participants from 17 studies, who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. In each study, metabolites and biomarkers were log-transformed and standardized by means and SDs, and linear regression coefficients (ß) and 95% CIs were estimated with adjustments for potential confounders. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analyses. A false discovery rate <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We observed moderate positive associations of circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG with creatinine [ß (95% CI): 0.136 (0.084, 0.188), 0.106 (0.045, 0.168), and 0.128 (0.087, 0.169), respectively, for each SD increase in biomarkers on the log scale], carnitine with triglycerides (ß = 0.076; 95% CI: 0.042, 0.109), homocysteine (ß = 0.064; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.095), and LDL cholesterol (ß = 0.055; 95% CI: 0.013, 0.096), DMG with homocysteine (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.023, 0.114), insulin (ß = 0.068; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.093), and IL-6 (ß = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.027, 0.094), but moderate inverse associations of betaine with triglycerides (ß = -0.146; 95% CI: -0.188, -0.104), insulin (ß = -0.106; 95% CI: -0.130, -0.082), homocysteine (ß = -0.097; 95% CI: -0.149, -0.045), and total cholesterol (ß = -0.074; 95% CI: -0.102, -0.047). In the whole pooled population, no dietary factor was associated with circulating choline; red meat intake was associated with circulating carnitine [ß = 0.092 (0.042, 0.142) for a 1 serving/d increase], whereas plant protein was associated with circulating betaine [ß = 0.249 (0.110, 0.388) for a 5% energy increase]. Demographics, lifestyle, and metabolic disease history showed differential associations with these metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating choline, carnitine, and DMG were associated with unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profiles, whereas circulating betaine was associated with a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. Future prospective studies are needed to examine the associations of these metabolites with incident cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Carnitina/sangue , Colina/sangue , Sarcosina/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Sarcosina/sangue
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2579, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972514

RESUMO

Serum concentration of hepatic enzymes are linked to liver dysfunction, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We perform genetic analysis on serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using data on 437,438 UK Biobank participants. Replication in 315,572 individuals from European descent from the Million Veteran Program, Rotterdam Study and Lifeline study confirms 517 liver enzyme SNPs. Genetic risk score analysis using the identified SNPs is strongly associated with serum activity of liver enzymes in two independent European descent studies (The Airwave Health Monitoring study and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966). Gene-set enrichment analysis using the identified SNPs highlights involvement in liver development and function, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular formation. Mendelian randomization analysis shows association of liver enzyme variants with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Genetic risk score for elevated serum activity of liver enzymes is associated with higher fat percentage of body, trunk, and liver and body mass index. Our study highlights the role of molecular pathways regulated by the liver in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
14.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(7): 1428-1438, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but the extent to which this is mediated by blood pressure, diabetes, lipid traits, and smoking is not fully understood. METHODS: Using consortia and UK Biobank genetic association summary data from 140,595 to 898,130 participants predominantly of European ancestry, Mendelian randomization mediation analysis was performed to investigate the degree to which systolic blood pressure (SBP), diabetes, lipid traits, and smoking mediated an effect of BMI and WHR on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and stroke. RESULTS: The odds ratio of CAD per 1-standard deviation increase in genetically predicted BMI was 1.49 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.60). This attenuated to 1.34 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.45) after adjusting for genetically predicted SBP (proportion mediated 27%, 95% CI 3% to 50%), to 1.27 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) after adjusting for genetically predicted diabetes (41% mediated, 95% CI 18% to 63%), to 1.47 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.59) after adjusting for genetically predicted lipids (3% mediated, 95% -23% to 29%), and to 1.46 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.58) after adjusting for genetically predicted smoking (6% mediated, 95% CI -20% to 32%). Adjusting for all the mediators together, the estimate attenuated to 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.26; 66% mediated, 95% CI 42% to 91%). A similar pattern was observed when considering genetically predicted WHR as the exposure, and PAD or stroke as the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Measures to reduce obesity will lower the risk of cardiovascular disease primarily by impacting downstream metabolic risk factors, particularly diabetes and hypertension. Reduction of obesity prevalence alongside control and management of its mediators is likely to be most effective for minimizing the burden of obesity.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2830, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990564

RESUMO

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10-7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10-6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1145-1156, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Metilaminas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saúde Global , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue
17.
Science ; 372(6545): 990-995, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893241

RESUMO

Surveillance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has mainly relied on case reporting, which is biased by health service performance, test availability, and test-seeking behaviors. We report a community-wide national representative surveillance program in England based on self-administered swab results from ~594,000 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of symptoms, between May and the beginning of September 2020. The epidemic declined between May and July 2020 but then increased gradually from mid-August, accelerating into early September 2020 at the start of the second wave. When compared with cases detected through routine surveillance, we report here a longer period of decline and a younger age distribution. Representative community sampling for SARS-CoV-2 can substantially improve situational awareness and feed into the public health response even at low prevalence.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Número Básico de Reprodução , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 67(1): 28-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642462

RESUMO

Several studies have reported a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the mechanisms of this relationship remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships of alcohol consumption with established CHD risk factors and with macro-/micro-nutrient intake among Japanese people. Participants were 1,090 Japanese men and women aged 40-59 y enrolled in the INTERLIPID study, excluding former drinkers. Based on two 7-d alcohol records, participants were classified as non-drinkers (0 g/wk), light-drinkers (<100 g/wk), moderate-drinkers (100-299 g/wk), or heavy-drinkers (≥300 g/wk). Detailed macro-/micro-nutrient intake was evaluated using four in-depth 24-h dietary recalls and adjusted for total energy intake excluding alcohol. We analyzed the associations of CHD risk factors and nutrient intake with alcohol consumption. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure were higher and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower among those with higher alcohol consumption. J-shaped relationships with alcohol consumption were observed for the proportion of current smokers, number of cigarettes smoked, and prevalence of hypertension; these risk factors were lowest among light-drinkers. Carbohydrate and total fiber intakes were lower and protein and dietary cholesterol intakes were higher among those with higher alcohol consumption. These associations were similar for men and women. Alcohol consumption was related to nutrient intake as well as established CHD risk factors. Non-drinkers were higher on some CHD risk factors than were light-drinkers. These findings may influence the J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CHD risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ ; 372: n423, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of new lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) suitable for use in a national coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) seroprevalence programme (real time assessment of community transmission 2-React 2). DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study. SETTING: Laboratory analyses were performed in the United Kingdom at Imperial College, London and university facilities in London. Research clinics for finger prick sampling were run in two affiliated NHS trusts. PARTICIPANTS: Sensitivity analyses were performed on sera stored from 320 previous participants in the React 2 programme with confirmed previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Specificity analyses were performed on 1000 prepandemic serum samples. 100 new participants with confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection attended study clinics for finger prick testing. INTERVENTIONS: Laboratory sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed for seven LFIAs on a minimum of 200 serum samples from participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 500 prepandemic serum samples, respectively. Three LFIAs were found to have a laboratory sensitivity superior to the finger prick sensitivity of the LFIA currently used in React 2 seroprevalence studies (84%). These LFIAs were then further evaluated through finger prick testing on participants with confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection: two LFIAs (Surescreen, Panbio) were evaluated in clinics in June-July 2020 and the third LFIA (AbC-19) in September 2020. A spike protein enzyme linked immunoassay and hybrid double antigen binding assay were used as laboratory reference standards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The accuracy of LFIAs in detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 compared with two reference standards. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of seven new LFIAs that were analysed using sera varied from 69% to 100%, and from 98.6% to 100%, respectively (compared with the two reference standards). Sensitivity on finger prick testing was 77% (95% confidence interval 61.4% to 88.2%) for Panbio, 86% (72.7% to 94.8%) for Surescreen, and 69% (53.8% to 81.3%) for AbC-19 compared with the reference standards. Sensitivity for sera from matched clinical samples performed on AbC-19 was significantly higher with serum than finger prick at 92% (80.0% to 97.7%, P=0.01). Antibody titres varied considerably among cohorts. The numbers of positive samples identified by finger prick in the lowest antibody titre quarter varied among LFIAs. CONCLUSIONS: One new LFIA was identified with clinical performance suitable for potential inclusion in seroprevalence studies. However, none of the LFIAs tested had clearly superior performance to the LFIA currently used in React 2 seroprevalence surveys, and none showed sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be considered for routine clinical use.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Reino Unido
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