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J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(5): e014129, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114889


Background Dyslipidemia guidelines recommend non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) as additional targets of therapy and consider lipoprotein(a) a significant cardiovascular risk marker. The current analysis evaluates the effects of evolocumab on these parameters in various patient populations over time. Methods and Results Data from 7690 patients, 4943 of whom received at least 1 dose of evolocumab, in 15 phase 2 and phase 3 studies with a duration ranging from 12 weeks to 5 years were pooled based on study length, patient population, and ezetimibe or placebo comparator groups. Patients could receive intensive statin therapy but not in the statin intolerance and monotherapy studies. The effects of evolocumab on percent change from baseline for non-HDL-C, ApoB, and lipoprotein(a) and achievement of treatment goals for non-HDL-C and ApoB were examined. Compared with placebo, evolocumab at both approved dosing regimens substantially reduced mean non-HDL-C (Q2W dose: -49% to -56%, monthly dose: -48% to -52%), mean ApoB (Q2W dose: -46% to -52%, monthly dose: -40% to -48%), and median lipoprotein(a) (Q2W dose: -22% to -38%, monthly dose: -20% to -33%) at 12 weeks. Effects on all 3 parameters persisted over 5 years. Lipid-lowering effects were consistent among the patient populations examined (hypercholesterolemia/mixed dyslipidemia, statin intolerance, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus). Conclusions In this pooled analysis, evolocumab substantially reduced non-HDL-C, ApoB, and lipoprotein(a) compared with placebo. The effect was consistent and maintained in various patient populations over 5 years.

Am Heart J ; 219: 70-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726422


BACKGROUND: Guidelines for managing patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend statin therapy initially. Target levels/goals for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were initially included, subsequently de-emphasized in 2013, and then re-introduced as thresholds, leading to confusion in clinical practice. We designed a multicenter, observational registry of patients with ASCVD, to describe and track LDL-C treatment patterns in the United States over time. METHODS: Patients with ASCVD receiving any pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy were eligible for enrollment in one of three cohorts: 1) currently receiving a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i), or not receiving PCSK9i with 2) LDL-C 70-99 mg/dL, or 3) LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Patients undergo a 1-year retrospective chart review, followed by chart reviews and phone interviews every 6 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled at 119 centers. Mean age was 68 years, 40% of patients were female, 86% were white, 80% had coronary artery disease, and 33% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among those not on a PCSK9i, high-intensity statins and ezetimibe were utilized in only 44% and 9%, respectively. Among women vs men, only 36.6% vs 48.2% received high-intensity statins (P < .001). Among patients on a PCSK9i, only one-third were receiving a statin, suggesting statin intolerance is a driver of PCSK9i use at present. CONCLUSION: Our data on current practice in the US continue to illustrate that high-intensity statins and ezetimibe are underutilized in at-risk patients outside of clinical trials, particularly women. This study will track temporal changes in treatment patterns and identify opportunities for improvement in lipid management in patients with ASCVD.

Diabetologia ; 62(6): 948-958, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953107


AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The study aimed to examine the efficacy of 12 weeks of monthly evolocumab or placebo in lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in individuals with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia and on a maximum-tolerated statin of at least moderate intensity. METHODS: For this randomised, placebo-controlled outpatient study, eligible individuals were ≥18 years old with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c <10% (86 mmol/mol), had been on stable pharmacological therapy for diabetes for ≥6 months and were taking a maximum-tolerated statin dose of at least moderate intensity. Lipid eligibility criteria varied by history of clinical cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomised 2:1 to evolocumab 420 mg s.c. or placebo. Randomisation was performed centrally via an interactive web-based or voice recognition system. Allocation was concealed using the centralised randomisation process. Treatment assignment was blinded to the sponsor study team, investigators, site staff and patients throughout the study. Co-primary endpoints were mean percentage change in LDL-C from baseline to week 12 and to the mean of weeks 10 and 12. Additional endpoints included LDL-C <1.81 mmol/l, LDL-C reduction ≥50% and other lipids. Exploratory analyses included percentage changes in fasting and post mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) lipoproteins and lipids, glucose metabolism variables and inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: In total, 421 individuals were randomised and analysed, having received evolocumab (280 participants) or placebo (141 participants) (mean [SD] age 62 [8] years; 44% women; 77% white). Evolocumab decreased LDL-C by 54.3% (1.4%) at week 12 (vs 1.1% [1.9%] decrease with placebo; p < 0.0001) and by 65.0% (1.3%) at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 (vs 0.8% [1.8%] decrease with placebo; p < 0.0001); it also decreased non-HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) by 46.9% (1.3%) at week 12 (vs 0.6% [1.8%] decrease with placebo) and by 56.6% (1.2%) at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 (vs 0.1% [1.6%] decrease with placebo). Evolocumab significantly improved levels of other lipids and allowed more participants to reach LDL-C <1.81 mmol/l or a reduction in LDL-C levels ≥50%. After an MMTT (120 min), there were favourable changes (p < 0.05; nominal, post hoc, no multiplicity adjustment) in chylomicron triacylglycerol (triglycerides), chylomicron cholesterol, VLDL-C and LDL-C. Evolocumab had no effect on glycaemic variables and was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In statin-treated individuals with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia, evolocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Favourable changes (p < 0.05) were observed in postprandial levels of chylomicrons, VLDL-C and LDL-C. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02739984 FUNDING: This study was funded by Amgen Inc. DATA AVAILABILITY: Qualified researchers may request data from Amgen clinical studies. Complete details are available at .

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade