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2.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies demonstrating decreased survival following minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for cervical cancer have generated concern regarding oncologic efficacy of MIS. Our objective was to evaluate the association between surgical approach and 5-year survival following resection of abdominopelvic malignancies. METHODS: Patients with stage I or II adenocarcinoma of the prostate, colon, rectum, and stage IA2 or IB1 cervical cancer from 2010-2015 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base. The association between surgical approach and 5-year survival was assessed using propensity-score-matched cohorts. Distributions were compared using logistic regression. Hazard ratio for death was estimated using Cox proportional-hazard models. RESULTS: The rate of deaths at 5 years was 3.4% following radical prostatectomy, 22.9% following colectomy, 18.6% following proctectomy, and 6.8% following radical hysterectomy. Open surgery was associated with worse survival following radical prostatectomy (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.33; P = .005), colectomy (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.39-1.51; P < .001), and proctectomy (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.50; P = .002); however, open surgery was associated with improved survival following radical hysterectomy (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44-0.82; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MIS is an acceptable approach in selected patients with prostate, colon, and rectal cancers, while concerns regarding MIS resection of cervical cancer appear warranted.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 214-221, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187369

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is an effective treatment option for selected patients with peritoneal metastases (PM), but national utilization patterns are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe population-based trends in national utilization of CRS/IPC; (2) define the most common indications for the procedure; and (3) characterize the types of hospitals performing the procedure. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify patients from 2006 to 2015 who underwent CRS/IPC, and to calculate national estimates of procedural frequency and oncologic indication. Hospitals performing CRS/IPC were classified based on size and teaching status. RESULTS: The estimated annual number of CRS/IPC cases increased significantly from 189 to 1540 (p < 0.001). Overall, appendiceal cancer was the most common indication (25.7%), followed by ovarian cancer (23.3%), colorectal cancer (22.5%), and unspecified PM (15.0%). Remaining cases (13.5%) were performed for other indications. Most cases were performed in large teaching hospitals (65.9%), compared with smaller teaching hospitals (25.1%), large non-teaching hospitals (5.3%), or small non-teaching hospitals (3.2%). Patients were more likely to undergo CRS/IPC without a diagnosis based on level I evidence (appendiceal, ovarian, or colorectal) at large non-academic hospitals (odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.38, p = 0.010) compared with large academic hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of CRS/IPC is increasing steadily in the US, is performed at many types of facilities, and often for a variety of indications that are not supported by high-level evidence. Given associated morbidity of CRS/IPC, a national registry dedicated to cases of IPC is necessary to further evaluate use and outcomes.

4.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(2): 103-112, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy quality measures consider hospitals compliant when chemotherapy is recommended, even if it is not received. This may mask shortcomings in cancer care delivery. Objectives of this study were to (1) identify patient factors associated with failure to receive recommended chemotherapy without a documented contraindication and (2) assess hospital variation in failure to administer recommended chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients from 2005 to 2015 with breast, colon and lung cancers who failed to receive recommended chemotherapy were identified using the National Cancer Database. Hospital-level rates of failure to administer recommended chemotherapy were calculated, and patient and hospital factors associated with failure to receive recommended chemotherapy were identified by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 183 148 patients at 1281 hospitals were analysed. Overall, 3.5% of patients with breast, 6.6% with colon and 10.7% with lung cancers failed to receive recommended chemotherapy. Patients were less likely to receive recommended chemotherapy in all cancers if uninsured or on Medicaid (p<0.05), as were non-Hispanic black patients with both breast and colon cancer (p<0.001). Significant hospital variation was observed, with hospital-level rates of failure to administer recommended chemotherapy as high as 21.8% in breast, 40.2% in colon and 40.0% in lung cancers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Though overall rates are low, failure to receive recommended chemotherapy is associated with sociodemographic factors. Hospital variation in failure to administer recommended chemotherapy is masked by current quality measure definitions and may define a significant and unmeasured difference in hospital quality.

5.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) for localized neoplasms has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe. However, national adoption of the technique is poorly understood. Objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with use of minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy for localized neoplasms and assess hospital variation in MIDP utilization. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pancreatic cysts, stage I pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and stage I pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors undergoing distal pancreatectomy from the ACS NSQIP Pancreas Targeted Dataset. Factors associated with use of MIDP were identified using multivariable logistic regression and hospital-level variation was assessed. RESULTS: Analysis included 3,059 patients at 139 hospitals. Overall, 64.5% of patients underwent minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy. Patients were more likely to undergo MIDP if they had lower ASA classification (P = 0.004) or BMI ≥ 30 (P < 0.001) and less likely if they had pancreatic adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001). There was notable hospital variability in utilization (range 0 to 100% of cases). Hospital-level utilization of minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy did not appear to be driven by patient selection, as hierarchical analysis demonstrated that only 1.8% of observed hospital variation was attributable to measured patient selection factors. CONCLUSION: Utilization of MIDP for localized pancreatic neoplasms is highly variable. While some patient-level factors are associated with MIDP use, hospital adoption of MIDP appears to be the primary driver of utilization. Monitoring hospital-level use of MIDP may be a useful quality measure to monitor uptake of emerging techniques in pancreatic surgery.

6.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General surgery residencies continue to experience high levels of attrition. METHODS: Survey of general surgery residents administered with the 2018 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination. Outcomes were consideration of leaving residency, potential alternative career paths, and reasons for staying in residency. RESULTS: Among 7,409 residents, 930 (12.6%) reported considering leaving residency over the last year. Residents were more likely to consider other general surgery programs (46.2%) if PGY 2/3 (OR: 1.93, 95%CI 1.34-2.77) or reporting frequent duty hour violations (OR: 1.58, 95%CI 1.12-2.24). Consideration of other specialties (47.0%) was more likely if dissatisfied with being a surgeon (OR 2.86, 95%CI 1.92-4.26). Residents were more likely to consider leaving medicine (49.7%) if female (OR: 1.54, 95%CI 1.16-2.06) or dissatisfied with a surgical career (OR: 2.81, 95%CI 1.85-4.27). Common reasons for remaining in residency included a sense of too much invested to leave (65.3%) and career satisfaction (55.5%). CONCLUSION: Profiles of trainees considering leaving residency exist based on factors associated with alternative careers. This may be a target for future interventions to reduce attrition.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy is increasingly administered prior to resection in patients with early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but the national prevalence of this practice is poorly understood. Our objectives were to (1) describe the utilization of upfront chemotherapy management of stage I pancreatic cancer; (2) define factors associated with the use of upfront chemotherapy and subsequent resection; and (3) assess hospital-level variability in upfront chemotherapy and subsequent resection. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients treated for clinical stage I pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Outcomes were receipt of upfront chemotherapy and surgical resection after upfront chemotherapy. Associations between patient/hospital factors and both initial management and subsequent resection were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 17,495 patients were included, with 26.6% receiving upfront chemotherapy. Upfront chemotherapy was more likely in patients who were ≥ 80 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-1.93), had T2 tumors (OR 2.56, 95% CI 2.36-2.78), or were treated at a low-volume center (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.63-2.71). Among patients receiving upfront chemotherapy, only 33.5% underwent subsequent resection. Resection was more likely in patients with T1 tumors (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43) and in those treated at high-volume centers (OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.90-5.60). Only 20.4% of hospitals performed resection in > 50% of patients after upfront chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Rates of surgical resection after upfront chemotherapy are relatively low, and the proportion of patients who eventually undergo resection varies considerably between hospitals. The use of surgery after upfront chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer should be considered as an internal quality-of-cancer-care measure.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(18): 1741-1752, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians, particularly trainees and those in surgical subspecialties, are at risk for burnout. Mistreatment (i.e., discrimination, verbal or physical abuse, and sexual harassment) may contribute to burnout and suicidal thoughts. METHODS: A cross-sectional national survey of general surgery residents administered with the 2018 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination assessed mistreatment, burnout (evaluated with the use of the modified Maslach Burnout Inventory), and suicidal thoughts during the past year. We used multivariable logistic-regression models to assess the association of mistreatment with burnout and suicidal thoughts. The survey asked residents to report their gender. RESULTS: Among 7409 residents (99.3% of the eligible residents) from all 262 surgical residency programs, 31.9% reported discrimination based on their self-identified gender, 16.6% reported racial discrimination, 30.3% reported verbal or physical abuse (or both), and 10.3% reported sexual harassment. Rates of all mistreatment measures were higher among women; 65.1% of the women reported gender discrimination and 19.9% reported sexual harassment. Patients and patients' families were the most frequent sources of gender discrimination (as reported by 43.6% of residents) and racial discrimination (47.4%), whereas attending surgeons were the most frequent sources of sexual harassment (27.2%) and abuse (51.9%). Proportion of residents reporting mistreatment varied considerably among residency programs (e.g., ranging from 0 to 66.7% for verbal abuse). Weekly burnout symptoms were reported by 38.5% of residents, and 4.5% reported having had suicidal thoughts during the past year. Residents who reported exposure to discrimination, abuse, or harassment at least a few times per month were more likely than residents with no reported mistreatment exposures to have symptoms of burnout (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58 to 3.36) and suicidal thoughts (odds ratio, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.25 to 4.19). Although models that were not adjusted for mistreatment showed that women were more likely than men to report burnout symptoms (42.4% vs. 35.9%; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.48), the difference was no longer evident after the models were adjusted for mistreatment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Mistreatment occurs frequently among general surgery residents, especially women, and is associated with burnout and suicidal thoughts.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Relações Profissional-Família , Fatores Sexuais , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Ann Surg ; 270(4): 585-592, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To empirically describe surgical residency program culture and assess program characteristics associated with program culture. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Despite concerns about the impact of the learning environment on trainees, empirical data have not been available to examine and compare program-level differences in residency culture. METHODS: Following the 2018 American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination, a cross-sectional survey was administered to all US general surgery residents. Survey items were analyzed using principal component analysis to derive composite measures of program culture. Associations between program characteristics and composite measures of culture were assessed. RESULTS: Analysis included 7387 residents at 260 training programs (99.3% response rate). Principal component analysis suggested that program culture may be described by 2 components: Wellness and Negative Exposures. Twenty-six programs (10.0%) were in the worst quartile for both Wellness and Negative Exposure components. These programs had significantly higher rates of duty hour violations (23.3% vs 11.1%), verbal/physical abuse (41.6% vs 28.6%), gender discrimination (78.7% vs 64.5%), sexual harassment (30.8% vs 16.7%), burnout (54.9% vs 35.0%), and thoughts of attrition (21.6% vs 10.8%; all P < 0.001). Being in the worst quartile of both components was associated with percentage of female residents in the program (P = 0.011), but not program location, academic affiliation, size, or faculty demographics. CONCLUSIONS: Residency culture was characterized by poor resident wellness and frequent negative exposures and was generally not associated with structural program characteristics. Additional qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to explore unmeasured local social dynamics that may underlie measured differences in program culture.

11.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has been considered an inpatient procedure. Advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques have led to a shift towards outpatient LNF procedures. However, differences in surgical outcomes between outpatient and inpatient LNF are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the frequency of outpatient LNF in a national cohort and (2) to identify any differences in complications or readmission rates between outpatient and inpatient LNF. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database was used to identify elective LNF cases from 2012 to 2016. Patients discharged on the day of surgery were compared to those discharged 24-48 h post-operatively. Outcomes included 30-day readmission and death or serious morbidity (DSM). Bivariate analyses were completed with Chi squared testing for categorical variables and two sided t tests for continuous variables. Associations between outpatient surgery and outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Differences in readmission were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier failure estimates and log-rank tests. RESULTS: Of 7734 patients who underwent elective LNF, 568 (7.3%) were discharged on the day of surgery. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 4.1% (n = 316) and the overall rate of DSM was 1.0% (n = 79). The most common 30-day readmission diagnoses overall were infectious complications (16.1%), dysphagia (12.9%), and abdominal pain (11.7%). On multivariable analysis, there was no association between outpatient surgery and 30-day readmission (3.9% vs. 4.1%; aOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.62-1.52, p = 0.908) or DSM (1.1% vs. 1.0%; aOR 0.91, 95%CI 0.36-2.29, p = 0.848). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no difference in rates of hospital readmission between groups at 30-days from discharge (3.9% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.325). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective LNF, there were no significant differences in post-operative complications and 30-day readmission when compared to traditional inpatient postoperative care. Further consideration should be given to transitioning LNF to an outpatient procedure.

12.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) are two techniques used for preoperative biliary drainage prior to hepatobiliary resection. The objectives of this study were to determine predictors of the drainage technique selection and to evaluate the association between drainage technique and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Using ACS NSQIP data (2014-2017), patients who underwent preoperative biliary drainage prior to hepatobiliary resection for malignancy were identified. Separate multivariable-adjusted, propensity score (PS) adjusted, and PS matched logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between drainage technique and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: Of 527 patients identified, 431 (81.8%) received EBS and 96 (18.2%) received PTBD. Patients who underwent PTBD had more preoperative co-morbidities, including higher ASA class, recent weight loss, and hypoalbuminemia (all p < 0.05). After multivariable adjustment, PTBD was significantly associated with 30-day DSM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24-2.97, p = 0.004), overall SSI (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.10-2.76, p = 0.019), and superficial SSI (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20-3.60, p = 0.010). These findings remained significant for both PS-adjusted and PS-matched models. CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing hepatobiliary resection selected for PTBD had significantly more preoperative co-morbidities and nutritional deficits. Compared to EBS, PTBD was associated with significantly higher odds of postoperative morbidity and mortality.

13.
J Surg Oncol ; 119(8): 1128-1134, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fistula remains common, with limited ability to risk stratify patients preoperatively. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for clinically-relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) that are routinely available in the preoperative setting. METHODS: Preoperatively available variables for all pancreaticoduodenectomies from 2014-2017 were examined using a national clinical registry. The cohort was separated into risk factor identification and internal validation subgroups. RESULTS: Among 15 033 pancreaticoduodenectomies, the CR-POPF rate was 16.7%. CR-POPF was more likely in patients that were male (odds ratio [OR], 1.51), obese (body mass index [BMI] > 30, OR, 1.97), had minimal preoperative weight loss (OR, 1.25), had a nondilated pancreatic duct (OR, 1.81), did not have diabetes, (OR, 1.80), did not receive neoadjuvant therapy (OR, 1.78), had no evidence of biliary obstruction (OR, 1.18), or had nonadenocarcinoma pathology (OR, 1.96; all P < 0.01). Patients with three or fewer risk factors had a CR-POPF rate of 7.1%, while those with six or more risk factors had a CR-POPF rate of 26.3% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preoperative CR-POPF risk evaluation could be a useful tool in patient counseling and surgical planning, and risk may allow for more well-informed decisions regarding perioperative management, including enhanced recovery protocols and use of somatostatin analogs.


Assuntos
Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 119(7): 925-931, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) occurs commonly following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), but the rate of DGE in the absence of other intra-abdominal complications is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to define the incidence of DGE and identify risk factors for DGE in patients without pancreatic fistula or other intra-abdominal infections. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study utilizing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program pancreatectomy variables to identify patients with DGE following PD without evidence of fistula or intra-abdominal infection. Multivariable models were developed to assess preoperative, intraoperative, and technical factors associated with DGE. RESULTS: The rate of DGE was 11.7% in 10502 cases without pancreatic fistula or intra-abdominal infection. Patients were more likely to develop DGE if age ≥75 (odds ratio [OR], 1.22; P = 0.003), male (OR, 1.29; P < 0.001), underwent pylorus-sparing PD (OR, 1.27; P = 0.004), or had a prolonged operative time (OR, 1.38 if greater than seven vs less than 5 hours; P = 0.005). Factors not associated with DGE included BMI, pathologic indication, and surgical approach. CONCLUSION: The incidence of DGE after PD is notable even in patients without other abdominal complications. Identification of patients at increased risk for DGE may aid patient counseling as well as decisions regarding surgical technique, enteral feeding access, and enhanced-recovery pathways.


Assuntos
Gastroparesia/epidemiologia , Gastroparesia/etiologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Gastroparesia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fístula Pancreática/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Zootaxa ; 4457(1): 197-200, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314189

RESUMO

Ludwig Glauert (1952, p. 168) established the name Amphibolurus barbatus microlepidotus (= Pogona microlepidota) for a new agamid species (family Agamidae) from the type locality of "Drysdale River Mission, North Kimberley", Western Australia and listed two specimens of the Western Australian Museum (WAM) collected by "Rev. Father [Raymundus] Salinas" in July 1922 as "types". The two registrations forming the type series presented by Glauert were WAM R591 and WAM R592, which in accordance with Article 72.1.1. of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (the Code; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999) are considered syntypes. The two registrations presented by Glauert in the original publication (WAM R591-592) are in error, both registrations are associated with specimens of other species not matching the description or collection data presented by Glauert in the original description of A. b. microlepidotus. The specimen associated with WAM R591 is a Pseudonaja affinis Günther, 1872 (Serpentes: Elapidae), collected by M. Sweeting from the suburb of Leederville in Perth, Western Australia and WAM R592 a specimen of Neelaps calonotus (Duméril, Bibron, Duméril, 1854) (Serpentes: Elapidae) collected by C. Thomas from the Perth suburb of West Guildford (now Bassendean), Western Australia (Fig. 1). The P. affinis specimen (WAM R591) is purportedly a whole specimen stored in a 75% ethanol solution; however, extensive searches failed to locate the specimen in the WAM collection and it is presumed lost or disposed of. In the early half of the 20th century, large and easily identifiable specimens were sometimes disposed following identification, registration and collection of morphological data due to their preservation and storage difficulty (see Smith 1981). The N. calonotus specimen (WAM R592) is now an alizarin-stained body in a glycol solution with skin stored separately in 75% ethanol (Fig. 1). The erroneous registration numbers provided by Glauert technically placed the name A. b. microlepidotus into synonymy with either N. calonotus or P. affinis depending on lectotype selection.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Lagartos , Animais , Austrália , Austrália Ocidental
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